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was graduated from the Academical Department of Yale University with
the class of '99, afterwards, for a year, pursued a special course in biology
at Johns Hopkins University, and later entered the School of Forestry
at Yale from which he obtained the degree of Master of Forestry with high
honors in 1907. Shortly afterward he received an appointment as State
Forester of New York, which post he filled with great ability up to the
time of his death.

Much of Mr. Woodruff's early life was spent at his country home in
Litchfield, Conn., and here while wandering in woods and fields he devel-
oped a taste for natural history in several of its branches, and cultivated
that love of prying into Nature's secrets which is the greatest asset of
every true naturalist. He was always deeply interested in ornithology,
and leaves behind him a fine collection of birds as a monument of industry
and devotion to this science; whUe the excellent notes and papers which
he published gave promise of still more valuable ones to follow. Among
them may be cited, as of exceptional value, the carefully prepared list
published in 'The Auk' for April, 1908, with title 'A Preliminary List of
the Birds of Shannon and Carter Counties, Missouri,' and "The Ruffed
Grouse — A Study of the Causes of its Scarcity in 1907,' published by the
Forest, Fish and Game Commission of New York, in 1908. Both are
models of their kind, the former dealing with the scientific side of sys-
tematic ornithology, the latter covering one of its economic aspects.



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^"'iw^T ^o*** <"»^ ^««'«- 219

For the profession of forestry, Mr. Woodruff was admirably fitted by
education and by temperament, and he had already made his mark in a
career that promised much for the country at large. He was the right
man in the ri^t place, and forestry can ill afford to lose men of his Stirling
qualities and mental calibre.

Those of us who have been fortunate in knowing Mr. Woodruff as a
friend cannot soon forget a personality that never failed to attract even
strangers through a naturalness of manner that bespoke a warm heart and
a sincerity of purpose beyond the ordinary. We feel that ornithology,
too, has suffered a loss, for ornithologists will miss from their ranks a com-
panion who was filled with enthusiasm and energy. — J. D., Jr.

The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Audubon Society of the State
of New York was held at the American Museum of Natural History,
March 18, 1909. The President of the Society, Henry Fairfield Osbom,
presided. The report of Miss Emma H. Lockwood, Secretary-Treasurer,
showed that the Society had been active in protecting the birds of the
State, and in supplying literature relating to bird protection and bird
study for the use of teachers and others, so far as its available funds per-
mitted. Mr. William Dutcher, the President of the National Association
of Audubon Societies, and Chairman of the New York Society's Commit-
tee on Legislation, presented a report on current legislative matters with
particular reference to a bill now before the New York Legislature, the
passage of which would practically prohibit the sale of the plumage of all
New York State birds for millinery purposes. Mr. Dutcher asked all the
members of the Society to urge their representatives at Albany to support
this biU.

Following Mr. Butcher's report, Mr. Louis Agassiz Fuertes, the well-
known bird-artist, made an address on birds and their music, which he
illustrated with chalk sketches in color of the birds and imitations of
their songs. Iliere was also an exhibition in the Bird Hall of the Museum
of a large series of paintings of birds by Mr. Fuertes.

The Darwin Memorial Celebration held at the American Museiun of
Natural History, February 12, 1909, by the New York Academy of
Sciences, was made the occasion of the presentation by the Academy to
the Museimi of a bronze bust of Darwin, with appropriate ceremonies.
It was permanently installed at the entrance to the Synoptic Hall, which
was renamed and dedicated as "The Darwin Hall of Invertebrate Zool-
ogy"; bronze tablets thus inscribed have been placed at the entrance
to the hall. The presentation address was made by Charles Finney Cox,
President of the Academy, and the address of acceptance by Henry Fair-
field Osbom, President of the Museum. Other addresses were by Prof.
John James Stevenson on * Darwin and Geology'; by Dr. Nathaniel Lord
Britton on 'Darwin and Botany'; by Dr. Hermon Carey Bumpus on
'Darwin and ZoGlogy.'



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220 NoUb and News. [^^

The celebration was accompanied by an exhibition of Darwiniana
(published works, portraits, and letters of Darwin), and specimens illus-
trating various aspects of the evolution of animals and plants, living and
extinct, arranged in fifteen categories, with reference to as many special
features of evolution. The exhibition remained on view from February
12 to March 12, and formed an attractive as well as instructive display.

As everybody knows, or has had the opportunity of knowing, the
Roosevelt Expedition to Africa is not merely a hunting trip for the grati-
fication of the big-game aspirations of an ex-President of the United
States, but a thorou^ly organised expedition in the interest of the
United States National Museum and of science. The money for its
equipment and maintenance, beyond the personal expenses of its chief,
has been raised by subscription through the efforts of the Secretary of the
Smithsonian Institution, and the personnel has been chosen from the
leading experts in field work. The personal interest of Theordore Roose-
velt in natural history research is well known, and in Major Edgar A.
Meams, a Fellow and one of the Foimders of the American Ornithologists'
Union, and an ornithologist and mammalogist of demonstrated ability,
he has a medical adviser and a scientific assistant that ensures energetic
and intelligent work. Eklmund Heller and J. Alden Loring are collectors
of yride experience and exceptional ability. Under such conditions,
barring accident or illness, the results of a year's work in British East
Africa by such a staff should be of the greatest scientific importance
and bring to this country a greatly needed collection of the leading forms
of the vertebrate life of a region at present poorly represented in American
Museimis. We are sure the expedition will have the hearty good-speed
of every reader of this journal.

The Avicultiu*al Society of California has begun the publication of a
bimonthly official magazine, caUed 'Bird News,* " devoted to the interests
of the bird fancier." Volume I, No. 1, for January-February, 1909,
consists of ei^t octavo pages of well printed and well edited matter
pertinent to the interests it represents. Editor, Frederick W. D'Eveljni;
Business Manager, W. W. Cooley, 717 Maricet St., San Francisco, Cal.

The Spring announcement of new books by Henry Holt and Company
contains 'Birds of the World,* by F. H. Knowlton and Robert Ridgway,
with illustrations in color. $7 net. — The Houghton, Mifflin Company
announce * Birds of the Boston Public Garden, a Study in Migration,'
by Horace Winslow Wright, with an introduction by Bradford Torrey.



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FOR SALE AT THE FOLLOWING PRICES:



The Auk

Complete set, Volumes I-XXV (1884-1908), in original covers, $87.00.
Volumes I-VI are sold only with complete sets, other volumes,
$3.00 each; 75 cents for single numbers.



Check-List of North American Birds and
Code of Nomenclature

Original edition, 1886, cloth, 8vo, pp. viii+392. (Out of print.)

Abridged Gheck-List of North American Birds. Paper, 8vo,
pp. 71, printed on one side of the page, 25 cents.

Ofaeck-List of North American Birds. Second and revised edition,
1895, cloth, 8vo, pp. xi+372. $1.15.

Code of Nomenclature. 1892. Paper, 8vo,pp. iv-h72. 25 cents.

Code i>f Nomenclature. Revised edition, 1908. Paper, 8vo,
pp. Ixxxv. 50 cents.



Index to The Auk (Vols. I-XVII, 1884-1900) and BoUetin NnttaU
Ornithological Club (Vols. I-VIII, 1876-1883). 8vo, pp. vii +426,
1908. Cloth, $3.75; paper, $3.25.



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, . - ;v. _ .t

JUL \ 1909

Old > CONTINUATION OF THE f New

Vol*XXXIV' BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB tvoSvi



The Auk

H ©uartcrli? 3ournaI of ©rnitbolofii?



Vol. XXVI -JULY, 1909— No. 3



PUBLISHED BY

The American Ornithologists' Union



CAMBRIDGE, MASS.



Entered aa second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass.

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CONTENTS.

PAGE

Thb Geological and Geographical Relations of the Land-Blrd Fauna of

Northeastern AMtmiCA. By Spencer Trotter 221

The Use'of Wings and Feet by Diving Birds. By CharUt W, Totmisend, M. D, . 234

A Reprint of the Ornithological Writings of C. 8. Rafinesqqb. By Charles

W, Richmond 948

A Carolina Wren Invasion of Nb^ England. By Charles W, Townsend, M. D, . 263

Some Original Manuscript Relating to the History of Townsend's Bunting

By RtUhven Deane 269

Annotated List of the Water Birds of Weld, Morgan and Adams Counties,
Colorado, South to the First Sectional Line below the Fortieth Paral-
lel. By A. H. Felger 272

An Instance of Hybridization in Hummingbirds, with Remarks on the Wipight

OF Generic Characters IN the TRocHiLiDiE. By Walter P. Taylor, . . . 291

Fifteenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of

North American^irds . - 294

General Notes. — Additional Record of the European Wldgebn (Mareca penelops), 304;
Capture of the European Widgeon In New Hampshire, 304; The Lesser Snow Goose
(Chen hyperborea nivalis) in Gorham, Maine. 304; A Second Record for the Fulvous
Tree-Duck taken in Missouri, 304; Tliird Record of the Parple Gallinule (lonomis
martinica) in Illinois, 305; Wilson's Snipe wintering in Pennsylvania, 305: The Lesser
Yellow-legs in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 305; Early Nesting of the Barn Owl in
Delaware, 306; Northern Breeding Limit of the Chuck-wills-widow, 306; The Starling
near Springfield, Mass., 306; The Capture of the Red-eyed Cowbird in Arizona, 307;
The Present Status of the Meadowlark (StumeUa moffna) ne^r Portland, Maine, 307;
Another Hoary Redpoll (Acanthis homemanni exHepes) at Westbrook, Maine, 308;
Late Records for Siskins In Chester County, Pa., 308: The third Specimen of the Sum-
mer Tanager for Canada, 308: Prothonotary Warbler taken on the Coast of Maine,
309; The Races of the Parula Warbler, 309; Breeding of the Louisiana Water-Thrush
{Seiurus motadXla) in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, 310; Concerning Thryomanes
bewicki cryptus in Colorado, 311; A Correction, 312; Bicknell's Thrush (Hylocichla
aliciw bicknelli) In Cumberland County. Maine, 312; The Rank of Certain Groups of
Birds. 313; Three Records for British Columbia, 313; Some New Birds for Colorado,
314; Notes concerning Certain Birds of Long Island, New York, 314.

Recent Literature. — Jubilee Meeting of the British Ornithologists* Union, 317; Thayer
and Bangs on the Birds of Guadaloupe Islands, 319; Bangs on Birds from Western
Colombia. 320; Bangs on Costa RicAn Birds. 320; Ridgway on New Genera, Species,
and Subspecies of Tropical American Birds, 321; New North American Birds, 321;
Widmann on 'The Summer Birds of Shaw's Garden,' 322: Cole on *The Crow as a
Menace to Poultry Raising, 322; Swarth on the Distribution and Moult of Mearns's
Quail, 323; Godman's 'Monograph of the Petrels,' 323; Howard's 'The British War-
blers,' Part III, 323; ^-^— "•- •* «'^" ^- -• ^~'" — *- ^ - ^^^^-^ • ««-

Mearnson Phlilp "^

bom on Birds r

Washington.' 328; Shufeldt's 'Osteology of Birds,' 329; Publications Received, 330.

Notes and News.— Obituary: Charles' K. Worthen, 332. ' British Birds ' plan for Marking
Birds. 332; Teinperature Map of Mexico and Central America, 333; N^w Publications
on Birds, 333; 'The Condor' Index, 334; The Victoria Museum of Natural History, 334;
•Wild-Life Preservation' number of New York Zoological Society*8 * Bulletin,' 336.

THE AUK,' published quarterly as the Organ of the American Orni-
THOLoai8Ts' Union, is edited by Dr. J. A. Allen, with the assistance of Mr.
Frank M. Chapman.

Terms: — $3.00 a year, including postage, strictly in advance. Single num-
bers, 76 cents. Free to Honorary Fellows, and to Fellows, MemTOrs, and
Associates of the A. O. U. not in arrears for dues.

Subscriptions should be addressed to DR. JONATHAN DWIGHT, Jr.,
Biisiness Manager, 134 West TIst St., New York, N. Y. Foreign Subscrib-
ers may obtain * The Auk ' through R. H. PORTER, 7 Princes Street,
Cavendish Square, W., London.

All articles and commufiications intended for publication and all
books and publications for notice, should be sent to Dr. J. A. ALLEN,
American Museum op Natural History, 77th St. and Central- Park,
West, New York City. -

Manuscripts for general articles should reach the editor at least six wedcs
before the date of the number for which they are intended, and manuiscripts
for * General Notes ' and ' Recent Literature ' not later than the first of the
month preceding the date of the number in which it is desired they shall appear.



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)UL X 1909

THE AUK:

A QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF
ORNITHOLOGY.

Vol. XXVI. July, 1909. No. 3

THE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL RELATIONS

OF THE LAND-BIRD FAUNA OF NORTHEASTERN

AMERICA.

BY SPENCER TROTTER.^

The antiquity of existing faunas is a problem beset with diffi-
culties and involved in obscurity. One who fares forth in this
quest will find few landmarks to serve him as a guide. No evi-
dence from fossil remains Ls forthcoming, for the deposits in
which recent animals have been buried are as yet incoherent muds
and silt, often beneath the waters of lakes and swamps and tidal
inlets. The remains of mammals and reptiles may thus have been
accumulating in many places over long periods of time, since the
beginning, at least, of post-glacial conditions. Undoubtedly the
soils of old forest floors and peat bogs and the mud of lake bottoms
contain a vast number of such remains, but it is altogether unlikely
that among these is any large proportion of the more fragile skele-
tons of birds. Even if they were preserved these remains, like
those of other creatures, would still be in inaccessible situations.
The dew to this history of faunas is to be looked for rather in the
dbtribution of living forms as we find them to-day; to facts re-
lating to the alteration of habitats, the invasion of new territory by
certain species, the recession from territory once occupied, and the
dominance and variety of forms of particular genera in various
localities.

> Read before the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, Philadelphia, March 4, 1909.

221



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222 Trotter, Land-Bird Fauna of X. E, America, [j^J}^

The present paper is the outcome of an article previously pub-
lished by the writer in *The Popular Science Monthly'^ which
dealt with the effect of the settlement of the country upon the dis-
tribution of bird life, what we might term the bird life under abo-
riginal conditions as compared with its present aspects. The
problem as stated in that article was this: If eastern North
America was in the main a forest-covered land, as both historical
narrative and existing physical conditions indicate, what was the
status of the bird life that now inhabits our open fields and grass
country ? Have certain birds altered their habits or their habitats ?
Facts seem to point to the last named of the two alternatives as
offering the mostly likely solution to the problem since most of our
grass-frequenting species are of wide distribution toward the west,
throughout the prairie region, and many of them are represented
by geographical races on the Great Plains. Such species as the
Vesper Sparrow or Grass Finch, the Savannah and Grasshopper
Sparrows, the Meadowlark, Bobolink, and Red-winged Black-
bird, the Killdeer and Grass Plover were cited in illustration, and
I stated my belief that these birds had found their way into the
newly opened lands from the western prairie region. An exception
might be made in certain species — that of the Bobolink which
may have frequented the river marshes, and also in the case of the
Savannah Sparrow which appears to be a coastwise bird, dwelling
along the edge of the maritime marshes, though its present habitat
may be a comparatively recent occupancy. The Black- throated
Bunting or Dickcissel was cited as a remarkable case of recession
from its one time habitat in certain eastern localities during the
latter half of the nineteenth century, and there is good evidence for
believing that this bird was originally an invader from the prairie
region. Its great abundance in the grass country of the Middle
West and its rather limited distribution in the East, coupled with
its somewhat abrupt disappearance from the last named region,
certainly point to this conclusion. Audubon speaks of its abun-
dance in the prairie lands of Texas, Missouri and Illinois as com-
pared with the middle Atlantic districts and that it was "rarer in
Ohio, and scarce in Kentucky," which' is good evidence, for at the

1* Birds of the Grasslands.' The Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XLII. p. 453,
February, 1893.



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^^\^^T Trotter, Land-Bird Fauna of N, E, America, 223

time of which he writes Ohio and Kentucky were still covered with
much woodland. He further adds, "they are rarely observed to
pass over South Carolina," a statement that would indicate that
thb species did not migrate along the coastal plain from the south,
but spread eastward from its main prairie center of distribution.

So much for this aspect of the problem which is here briefly re-
viewed. There is abundant room for further research into the
past and present relations of our eastern bird fauna, and it is the
purpose of this paper to point out certain facts that seem to indicate
changes in the status of the bird population of various districts.
It b hazardous to attempt to draw conclusions as to the past history
of a fauna from such slight evidence as the present distribution of
species, but some irregularities in the distribution of certain species
of birds seem to have been remotely the result of certain* geological
processes, at least within the post-glacial period. What evidence I
have to offer in support of this statement is as follows: For a
number of years I resided during the summer months (from mid-
June to September) at Harrington, Nova Scotia. Harrington lies
just back of Cape Sable Island at the extreme southern end of the
peninsula. The general aspect of the surrounding region is that
of a typical boreal country — a coniferous forest, composed
mainly of spruces and balsam fir, interspersed with tamarack
swamps, sphagnum moors with their associate flora, notably
Labrador tea (Ledum), Rhodora, and several species of Vaccinium,
thickets of the northern alder, and aspens and birches. The bird
fauna is decidedly Canadian in its character, such forms as the
Olive-backed and Hermit Thrushes, the Hudsonian Chickadee,
the Golden-crowned Kinglet, the Red-bellied Nuthatch, the Nash-
ville, Yellow Redpoll, Magnolia, and Myrtle Warblers, the Junco,
the White-throated Sparrow, the Solitary Vireo, the Rusty Black-
bird, the Canada Jay, the Alder and Olive sided Flycatchers, and
the Black-billed Cuckoo being more or less abundant throughout
the breeding season, while the Pine Grosbeak, the Pine Siskin, and
both species of Crossbills were abundant during certain years in
the breeding time, but conspicuously absent in other summers.
With this assemblage of Canadian birds were many other widely
spread species as the Robin, the Song Sparrow, the Black and
White, Chestnut-sided, and Yellow Warblers, the Savannah



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224 Trotter, Land-Bird Fauna of N. E, America. \^^

Sparrow, the Purple Finch, the Bam, ClifT, and Tree Swallows,
the Nighthawk, Flicker, and others, but such wide-ranging forms
as the Bluebird, the Vesper Sparrow, the Chipping Sparrow, the
Goldfinch, and the Meadowlark were never observed during the
six summers spent in this region, while the Kingbird only appeared
at the latter end of the summer, about the last of August or early in
September, though breeding in more or less abundance in districts
farther to the north and west, and the Bobolink, which was quite
common in the dike lands about Canning and the Basin of Minas,
was only occasional in this southern Barrington district.

The past summer, 1908, I spent at Chester, Nova Scotia, a small
village at the head of Mahone Bay, an inlet of the Atlantic, fifty
miles south of Halifax and about one hundred and fifty miles north
along the coast from Barrington. The region was in every way
similar to that about Barrington, but here at Chester I found the
Chipping Sparrow and the Goldfinch relatively abundant, yet at
no time was either of these birds ever seen at Barrington, though
habitat conditions there were equally favorable for both. How
far southward these species extend beyond Chester I am unable to
say, but the fact remains that they do not appear in the fauna of
the lower part of the peninsula, at least so far as my six summers of
observation and collecting about the Barrington region are con-
cerned.

The solution of this rather curious local distribution of two such
widely spread species as the Chipping Sparrow and the Goldfinch
appears to me to be involved in a geological change, and to date
back to a time when Nova Scotia was severed from the mainland,
where what is now a low- lying and partly marshy tract of country
which forms the present neck or isthmus that separates the waters
of Northumberland Strait on the north from those of Chignecto
Bay, at the head of the Bay of Fundy, on the south. This region,
which we may call the Amherst district, from the principal tovnx
situated there, is evidently an uplift of comparatively recent geolog-
ical date. Nova Scotia was unquestionably at one time an island,
severed from the rest of the continent by a strait, probably of some
width, which connected the two bodies of water mentioned above.
How wide a stretch of water this strait miay have embraced it is
difficult to say. Prince Edward Island is now separated from the



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^^^900^^] Trotter, Land-Bird Fauna of N. E. America, 225

mainland by Northumberland Strait of a varying width of from
nine to thirty miles. There is evidence of considerable submergence
in the region about Amherst as Sir J. W. Dawson has shown in his
'Acadian Geology' (4th ed., 1891, pp. 29-31). Submerged forests,
mainly of pine and beech, have been found in several localities
about Cumberland Basin and Cobequid Bay, and the great 'dikes'
about the Basin of Mmas, which are reclaimed maritime marshes,
Dawson regards as undergoing slow submergence. All these
facts indicate at least, an unstable condition, and taken together
with the low relief of the region as a whole and the present general
relations of land and water we are justified, I think, m believing
that this strait once existed, and that at a not very remote period.
Furthermore, there is much evidence to show that considerable
areas along the northeastern coast of the continent have suffered
submergence under the enormous weight of the ice mass that was
pushed seaward from the Laurentide Glacier.

The relative distribution of land and water areas unquestionably
exerts an important influence in determining the range of various
species of land birds. Many land birds migrate over wide stretches
of sea, but, as Wallace has pointed out, such routes possibly indi-
cate a former land surface that has become gradually submerged.
The observations of Mr. Wells W. Cooke would seem to disprove
this, as the evidence he has gathered regarding the Gulf and Carib-
bean routes indicate that migrating birds fretjuently follow courses
that lead over the deeper parts of these waters. In the problem
before us, however, we are dealing with more than the purely
migratory impulse. This migratory impulse per se, I take it, is
the primitive instinct of certain species of birds to reach a northerly
region where food of a suitable kind for the young is abundant
and where the summer day is long, giving the maximum light
conditions under which to forage.^ After a bird has reached this
summer home it will constantly tend to widen its breeding area,
spreading out over a larger territory, limited of course by various
ecological factors, as suitable habitat conditions, by the pressure of



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