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with mfid anxiety. But throu^out my stay near her she did not move
ten feet from the spot where I first saw her.

On July 18, 1909, about a quarter of a mile below the timber line, I
found a female Spruce Partridge lying in the same path. When I had
approached within a distance of about twenty feet, she raised herself
slightly and four young, looking like average domestic chicks on the day
of their hatching, ran out into the path. To my surprise they soon took
flight, and with very rapid wing strokes and with dangling legs they quickly
disappeared amongst the trees. The mother bird was more agitated than
the one I had seen the year before, but showed none of the excitement so
familiar in the mother Ruffed Grouse. I repeatedly stroked her back with
my umbrella, and she seemed absolutely indifferent to this treatment.

Since the Crawford bridle path is one of the most frequented of the White
Mountain trails and is travelled every season by hundreds of tourists
many of whom camp and too many of whom are ruthless destroyers of
wild life, it is remarkable that the Spruce Partridge retains its racial
tameness in this region and, indeed, that it survives near the path at all.
— Nathan Clifford Brown, Portland^ Maine.

The Passenirer Pif eon — Only One Pair Left.— Still clinging to my
belief that the Passenger Pigeon will never again be seen in its wild state,
I have felt a special interest in the remaining birds belonging to the Mil-
waukee and Cincinnati flocks which have been in confinement for many
years. In my last remarks on this species (Auk, Vol. XXV, 1908, p. 18)
I stated that the remnants of these flocks then numbered but seven birds
(6 d^, 1 $ ) , with little or no chance of further reproduction. This niunber
is now reduced to a single pair, and doubtless the months are numbered
when this noble bird must be recorded as extinct.

Under date of August 9, 1909, Mr. A. E. Wiedring, who has had charge
of the Milwaukee birds, writes that the remaining four males, which I
saw in 1907, died between November, 1908, and February, 1909, and that
he attributed the cause to tuberculosis. The specimens were not pre-
served, they being in very poor plumage and apparently going through a
belated moult.

On July 29, 1909, Mr. S. A. Stephen, General Manager of the Cincinnati
Zoological Company, wrote me that one of the two old males in the Gardens
died in April, 1909, leaving one male, about twenty-four years old, and the
female which came from Prof. Charles O. Whitman's flock in 1902, and now
about thirteen years old, and unquestionably infertile. Mr. Stephen
thought that the bird died simply of old age, there being no apparent signs
of disease. The specimen was moulting and in too poor a condition to be
saved. — Ruthven Deane, Chicago, lU.

The Black Oyrfalcon in Connecticut.— A fine female Falco rusticolus
obsoletus was shot at Durham, Conn., Jan. 27, 1907, and sent to me and is

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430 General Notes, ^ [^^^

now in my collection. This specimen appears to be the only one k^iown to
have occurred in Connecticut. — Jno. H. Sage, Portland, Conn.


The Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario. — The discovery of this bird (Em-
puionax virescens) in Ontario has long been expected by bird students
and reports have at times been made of its occurrence only to be dis-
proved when investigated. It is therefore perhaps a little strange that it
should turn out to be probably a not uncommon resident of certain parts
of the western peninsula of Ontario.

About fifty miles southeast of Detroit and only a few miles from Lake
Erie there was formerly an immense black ash swamp, portions of which
are still in existence, and it was in these, where the mosquitoes were of
suflScient quantity to feed a large number of Flycatchers, that I found the
Acadians on June 8 and 9 of this year. There was an undergrowth of
saplings in the swamps and the birds apparently spent their time near the
ground. Their conspicuous note attracted my attention at once and it
was quite easy to secure specimens for identification.

I was walking through the country from west to east and as my plans
included the covering of about fifteen miles a day, I had not much time for
explorations on the side, but after finding these birds in two places about
ten miles apart, I am convinced that there must be many other localities
in that district where they nest. One of the specimens taken was a female
with an egg ahnost ready for extrusion. — W. E. Saunders, London, Ont.

European Starling Nesting at Princeton, New Jenej.— A pair of Euro-
pean Starlings (Sturnus vtdgaris) nested in a large willow by the side of a
tiny stream where the latter crosses Moore Street in Princeton. The young
are now (July 7, 1909) out of the nest. I have not been able to get any
further data concerning them but as I believe this to be the first record
from this locality the fact is worth noting. My attention was first called
to them by the peculiar purring sounds from the youngsters when a parent
bird was near; having raised several broods by hand the sound was a
familiar one to me. The old birds are very shy. — Bruce Horsfall,
Princeton, N, J,

The Meadowlark in Maine, and Other Notes.— The Meadowlark (Stumr
eUa magna) has arrived here and is breeding (June 15, 1909) on this side of
the Penobscot. It is one of the group of Alleghanian birds which are
steadily pushing their way eastward across what was formerly a forest
portion of the State. The advance of these birds is curious and should
have been studied much more closely than it has been so far. The im-
portant point b the determination of how long one of our north-and-south
flowing rivers like the Kennebec and the Penobscot holds a species in
check. They seem very reluctant to cross a stream like the Penobscot,

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here about a quarter of a mile wide. From five to fifteen years is required
before species, well established in Bangor, come over here, just across the
river, to breed. There have been Meadowlarks in Bangor for many years.
Mr. Ora Knight states in his ^ Birds of Maine' that he has known of their
breeding in one place there as early as 1894. They have been expeedingly
local, and Mr. Knight, in his book, which was published in 1908, speaks of
knoi^ing of only a few within a radius of forty miles — I speak from mem-
ory, but I think he says, five pairs. I have known of their breeding at the
Hersey Farm, back of the city; at the Waterworks, two miles above the
center; and this year in Hampden, five miles below the center. Last year
my brother and father saw one on the Brewer side of the river, the first
I had ever heard of being here. It was not seen again. If it bred at all,
it was in a range of meadows so extensive that it was out of hearing from
any travelled road.

This spring about the middle of May reports came to me from three
quite separate localities of their being seen in Brewer. Also a fourth at
SeboOis Lake, which tarried a day on an island and then departed, prob-
ably to Nova Scotia or northward. May 14, 15, 16, 17 1 heard of Meadow-
larics being seen. Just about a week later a small boy told me of finding
a nest containing two eggs. He seemed to know the bird and gave a
clear description of the nest and eggs. These eggs were taken by some-
thing, probably a boy, as no shells were left, and the child told me to-day
that he had not seen the larks since. Last Saturday, however, June 12, my
son discovered a nest with five eggs. Monday morning I went with him to
photograph the nest. While we did not flush the old bird, there could be
no doubt about the eggs being Meadowlark's. Both old birds, very shy
indeed, were seen in the vicinity but would not come within a quarter of a
mile of the nest. When we were a long way off, one of them took a flight of
three fourths of a circle and dropped just behind the crest of the hill where
the nest was, imdoubtedly planning to run up to it stealthily. As we did
not disturb the eggs and shall not visit the place again, there is a good
chance for the young to hatch. (The nest reported from Hampden had
well grown young on Sunday.) These young birds stand a good chance of
growing up. Though in a field which will be mowed by machine after the
Fourth, the nest is only two rods from the edge of a cow pasture where
they would be perfectly safe. We are anxious to see the birds well estab-
lished here and would regret having their attempt to breed defeated.

May 15, some thirteen miles' east of Brewer, I saw a Red-headed Wood-
pecker {Mdanerpes erythrocephalus). The only other instance I ever
heard of in this region was in 1878, when my father killed an immature bird
on Machias waters far east of here.

About the same time a young man wrote me to identify for him a bird
which he had seen on a fence near the Brewer line, in a thickly settled
farming district, miles from any heavy woods. He described it as about
the size of a small crow with a tuft of scarlet feathers '* which stuck out like
a boy's scalp lock that will not lie down." I had no hesitation in calling

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432 OenerdL NoUa. [^

it a Pileated Woodpecker, though the locality was extraordinary and the
bird is rare, in our near vicinity, even in our densest and oldest woods. —
Fannie Hardy Eckstorm, Brevoer, Maine.

Hote on the Red Croiabill and the Pine Finch in 8<mth Carolina.—

Having passed many winters in the Southern States without seeing either
species, I was interested to find both the Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirosira
minor) and the Pine Finch (Spinus pinua) common in South Carolina in
the winter of 1908-1909. At Camden, Kershaw County, between Decem-
ber 12 and January 4, no bird note was to be heard so often as that of the
Pine Finch except the Blue Jay's; and the bird occurred abundantly in
and near the town, in parties of from three or four to about a dozen indi-
viduals. The Crossbill was not abundant, but I heard it nearly every day.
Sometimes I heard it only, as it flew over head; sometimes I saw single
individuals, again two or three. On January 1, at half-past seven in the
morning, I saw five together at close range.

I went to Aiken, in the southwestern part of the State, on January 5.
There I found the Pine Finch common but decidedly less so than it had
been at Camden. From this time its numbers gradually diminished, and,
when I left for the North, late in February, it had become uncommon.
The Crossbill was also less in evidence at Aiken than at Camden. I first
saw it at the more southern town on January 8, when I met with two.
The largest number seen together was five, at 7.45 a. m., January 16. On
January 23 two tarried for a short time in a pine distant but a few feet
from my window; and this was the last of the Crossbill at Aiken for the
season, so far as I could discover. — Nathan Clifford Brown, Portland^

The Orasshopper Sparrow at Ottawa, Ontario.— On June 30, while
prowling around in one comer of the Experimental Farm here, I heard a
here unknown but to me familiar song. Its author allowed me to ap-
proach closely and to inspect him carefully with the glass. It was, as I
knew immediately upon first hearing his song, a Grasshopper Sparrow
(Ammodramua savannarum australia)^ an old acquaintance of mine in the
south. There were two birds there, both singing from the wire fence
around a large timothy field. Next day I went there again to secure it,
but could find it no more. But there is no mistake possible; I know the
bird too well, having taken and prepared many when living in Maryland.
This is quite an extension of the range of this species, comparatively un-
known in Canada. As stated on authority of W. E. Saunders in Macoun's
* Catalogue,* it is fairly common only in the two southwestern counties of
Ontario, is rare at London, and has only twice been taken at Toronto
(J. H. Fleming).— G. Eifrig, Ottawa, Ont.

The Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor) in Horthem Ontario. — On

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May 11 of this year, the writer, while paddling along the shore of Lake
Dor^, near EganviUe, Renfrew County, Ontario, noticed in the alder
bushes, which then showed no sign of leafing out, a warbler that seemed
somewhat out of place there. On taking it, it proved to be a female D.
discolor, with which I am very familiar from Maryland. This is quite an
extension of the hitherto known range of this southern warbler. In the
* Catalogue of Canadian Birds* by Macoun, there are only two records
given for Canada as a whole, both from Toronto, Ontario, both of May 11,
1900. Beside thb, it has once been taken at Mt. Forest, Wellington
County, Ontario. The capture of this more southerly species at this place
and date was all the more remarkable, since the weather had so far been
highly unfavorable to migration, especially warbler migration. It had
been cold nearly every day in May. Of warblers I saw during the whole
day only one Myrtle (Dendroica coronata) and one Black and White War-
bler {MnioixUa varia). The specimen is now in my collection. — G. Eifrig,
Ottawa, Ont.

Breeding of the Mockingbird near Boston.— A pair of Mockingbirds
(Mimus polyglottos) nested near my house in the West Roxbury district
of Boston this year (1909) and successfully raised a brood of four young,
which when I last saw them were fully fledged and taking full care of
themselves. One of the birds made its appearance near my house Nov. 22,
1908, and it (presumably the same one) was seen occasionally all through
the winter. Up to April 2, 1909, only one bird was seen, and that one
had advertised itself as a male by beginning to sing on March 21. On
April 2 or earlier it was joined by a female, and from that time on the
pair were often seen together, and the male sang assiduously. The nest,
which when first discovered. May 20, contained four eggs, was placed
about fifteen feet from the ground near the top of a Japanese conifer
within about a hundred feet of my house. The young left the nest June 12,
and I caught and banded two of them with the aluminum bands furnished
by Dr. Leon J. Cole of the Peabody Museum, New Haven. The numbers
of the bands are 1453 and 1460. I sincerely hope that neither of these
birds will be shot by any ornithologist for the purpose of ascertaining the
number on the band, and if any banded Mockingbird is seen in Massachu-
setts this fall or next year, I shall be grateful if the observer will communi-
cate the fact to me (as well as to Dr. Cole) and will spare the bird's life.

I have been unable to find any more recent Massachusetts breeding-
records for this species than those cited by Messrs. Howe and Allen in
'The Birds of MassachusetU ' (1901), though Dr. A. L. Reagh tells me that
he is credibly informed that a pair of Mockingbirds built a nest and laid
eggs in Roslindale, Boston, in 1902, the male being probably the bird
observed by me near there March 23 of that year and reported in 'The
Auk' (XIX, July, 1902, p. 292), but that the nest was broken up. The
records include two sets of eggs taken, one in Springfield by Dr. J. A. Allen

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434 General Notes. [^^

and one in Groton by Mr. C. F. Batchelder. The only cases where young
birds have been found with their parents in Massachusetts, thus giving
satisfactory evidence of a successful nesting within the State, are of two
nearly full-grown young taken by Mr. W. S. Townsend at Arlington,
Aug. 15, 1883 (C. W. Townsend, Auk, I, AprU, 1884, p. 192), and of one
young female with speckled under parts shot by Mr. H. A. Torrey at
Marshfield, Aug. 15, 1889 (O. and O., XIV, Sept., 1889, p. 144). The
present instance seems to be the first to be recorded where the entire
nesting has been under observation in Massachusetts. — Francis H. Allen,
West Roxburyy Mass.

The Carolizub Wren in Waihtonaw County, Mchigan.— The Carolina
Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus) has not been recorded from Washtenaw
County since May 18, 1891, when a female was taken at Ann Arbor. But
on June 6, 1909, the writer was fortunate enough to discover a male in full
song in a bit of swampy woodland to the south of Ann Arbor. The clear,
penetrating notes of the wren's fine song first drew my attention but the
wren was not located until some time later when he was found on the lowest
limb of a small sapling, preening his feathers. He was remarkably free
from timidity and permitted of considerable familiarity. On June 13,
this same locality was again visited but without results as far as the Caro-
lina Wren was concerned. However, on June 20 the nest with five well
developed young and one runt egg was discovered by following up the old
bird. She was, by the merest chance, noted gathering moths and other
insects from the decaying logs that lay about on the ground and by patient
watching was seen to approach a small stump and disappear underneath
it. Soon she returned with a bit of the excrement of the young in her bill.
This she dropped at a short distance from the nest and resumed the hunt
for more bugs, etc. Investigation showed the nest — a rough structure of
moss, leaves, etc., lined with dried grasses, horse-hair and a few feathers —
underneath a bit of decayed wood among the roots of the stump. Only one
bird, presumably the female, was present in the vicinity of the nest-site,
and she was far from showing any anxiety at my presence so near her home.
On June 30 I revisited the nest in company with Mr. N. A. Wood of the
University Museum and Mr. F. Novy. At that time the nest was deserted
and the young flown. Mr. Wood collected the nest and runt egg for the
Museum. One thing in particular regarding the find struck me as rather
interesting and that was the fact that after the date of first discovery of
the presence of the \^Tens not a snatch of song was heard on any of the
subsequent visits. — A. D. Tinker, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Brown Creepers Nesting near 8t. Louis.— About twenty miles northwest
of St. Louis, in the bottom-land of the Missouri River, there is a swampy
formation called Duck Pond. It consists of a horse-shoe-shaped body of
more or less stagnant water extending for perhaps a mile and a quarter.

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^°'im ^T (^'^<^ ^<"«»- 435

The water is studded with trees that have been dead long enough to lose
their branches and part of their bark. Bushes and cat-tail flags border the
inside of the horseshoe, while beyond the dead trees is a fringe of mixed
growth of willows, ash and elm. The adjoining fields are not at present in
cultivation. While wading through this swamp on the 6th of June, 1909,
I observed two Brown Creepers (Certhia famUiaria americana) making trips
to one of the dead elms with something in their beaks. As they were not
very timid, the spot they were visiting was easily located. A strip of
bark about eight inches wide had drawn away from the tree and a nest
was placed behind this and about twelve feet from the water. It did not
contain yoimg, as I expected, but the surface was covered with small pieces
of bark, evidently the objects that the birds were carrying. I left the nest
undisturbed and returned the following week. During an hour's wait no
creepers visited the tree, though I thought I heard one's note. The nest
was still empty, possibly deserted, and, as it was very doubtful whether
I would have another opportunity to visit the nest, I collected it. The
nest was placed between the bark and the trunk, filling the crescent-shaped
opening. Some coarse material, sticks and pieces of bark, formed a frame-
work for the support of the nest proper which was composed almost entirely
of downy material, packed rather closely. The downy material appeared
to be a mixture of fine shreds of bark and a cotton-like substance. The
width of the nest was four and a half inches at the top and the depth was
about three and a half. Mr. Widmann, after examining the nest, felt sure
that it was of last year's make. Its condition indicated that young birds
had been raised in it at some time. Perhaps the pieces of bark that were
being added were in the nature of repairs. On the 20th of June the tree
was again visited for a short time but no creepers were heard. On the
27th of June, I entered the swamp at a point about a half mile from the
* Creeper tree' and was fortunate enough to find a pair of Creepers feeding
in the live growth of willows and ash. They did not act as though feeding
young, the only thing in any way peculiar in their actions being the fact
that one bird, on two occasions, flattened itself out on a horizontal limb,
with wings and tail extended, and remained in that position for several
seconds. Other birds frequenting the swamp were Flickers, Hairy, Red-
headed, and Red-bellied Woodpeckers, Yellow-billed Cuckoos, White-eyed
Vireos, Yellow-breasted Chats, Redstarts, Yellow-throats, Prothonotary
Warblers, Crested Flycatchers, Bronzed Crackles, Redwing Blackbirds,
Green Herons, Chickadees, and Titmice. One Black-billed Cuckoo and a
Song Sparrow were also seen, both rather rare breeders in this part of
Missouri. — Norman deW. Beits, Pittsburgh, Pa.

A Cdonj of Hermit Thrashes at Taphank, Long Island, N. T.— ^ On

the afternoon of the 25th of July,' 1908, I heard an unfamiliar bird song
in the woods at the easterly end of the village of Yaphank, not far from
the middle of Long Island. Upon investigation I found several of the

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436 Qenerdl Notes. [^^

birds, but as they sang from the tops of the pines or other trees, it was
difficult for me to secure a good view with my glass. Early the next morn-
ing I was more fortunate, and secured a much better view of a rather tame
bird, and was convinced that I had to do with Hermit Thrushes {Hylocichla
guttata pallast) resident on Long Island in mid-summer. This idea, how-
ever, was not strengthened by an examination of the literatiu^, and it
seemed from the records quite improbable that a colony of Hermit
Thrushes should reside so far south as Yaphank, Long Island, and only
40 feet above the level of the sea.

Later I read with interest the article by Mr. Francis Harper in 'The Auk'
for October, 1908, wherein he records a Hermit Thrush singing in the woods
between Holbrook and Patchogue, Long Island. He also mentions the
two previous Long Island records for immature birds and quotes from Dr.
Braislin that, "Further investigation will probably show that the Hermit
Thrush is, though rare, a regular summer resident on Long Island."

From observations made during July, 1909, 1 may state that the Hermit
Thrush is one of the most common birds at Yaphank, and that I have
heard as many as four singing at one time. On one occasion on the 31st of
the month, one sang for over an hour with only momentary intermissions
caused by its cjianging its position among the trees, or by my approaching
too near. It, however, was a tame bird, and very acconunodating. I
found that the thrushes were not only abundant in the pitch pine and oak
woods at the easterly end of the village, but that they were to be met with
in the woods several miles to the north, in the vicinity of Longwood manor
house. This district appears then to be the chief summer home of the
Hermit Thrush on Long Island, and the ornithologist may with certainty
expect to hear this fine songster if he but repair to Yaphank at the proper
season. — Wm. T. Davis, New Brighton, Staten Idand, N, Y.

P Horth' Carolizub Hotes. — Dovekie (AUe alle). This bird appeared in
numbers on the North Carolina coast last winter, tn January, 1909,
reports came in of a small black and white ** duck, with a bill like a chicken,"
hitherto unknown, these reports covering the coast line from Roanoke
Island to Beaufort. A man living on the point of Cape Lookout told me
that he had seen not less than fifteen or twenty dead ones washed up along
shore, and that flocks of them "used" in Lookout Cove during the winter.
The game warden at Cape Ha tt eras said that they were on Pamlico Sound
in flocks of hundreds. Flocks were also reported from Core Soimd. Sev-
eral were taken at Beaufort and forwarded to northern ornithologists.
The Museum received three specimens in the flesh, all from Beaufort, and
two skins from the coast a little south of Roanoke Island. . From what
I can learn there was a flight of Dovekies on this coast about twenty years
ago, with only a very few stragglers recorded since. All those foimd dead
were reported as much emaciated, as was certainly the case with the three
received by me.

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