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has been delayed by the difficulty in getting the necessary photographs.
Eleven fine plates are the i-esult of the delay. A plan and three sections
are inserted in the text. The church was erected not earlier than the
eighth and not later than the tenth century. It has a double narthex, with
gallery for the women over the inner narthex. The dome is raised on a
drum supported by pendentives. The eastern end of the building is now



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338 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [Vol. U, 1808

square, but had originally an apse. The interior retains, in a measure, its
original marble decoration, though there is no trace of the decoration of the
dome, which was undoubtedly mosaic. The walls which divide the hieroii
from the prothesis on the north and the diaconicon on the south are en-
tirely covered with marble. The remains of the iconostasis or picture-
screen are still in situ. The screen was richly adorned with marble and
carving. It undoubtedly resembled other Byzantine screens, one of which,
from the church of St. Luke at Stiri, is published for comparison. The
original name of the church is unknown. Paspati suggested that it may
have been the church of the monastery of Valens.

"EireipXPt •PA|it|i.— In the R, Arch. XXXI, 1897, pp. 109-114, E. Cuq
discusses certain weights of Byzantine origin with the legend *£irapx*^
"FwfiTf^, The name Rome was applied to Constantinople under the later
•emperors, the form New Rome being used only when it was necessary to
•distinguish Constantinople from Old Rome. The '^ETrapxK ''P^fiTfi was then
an officer at Constantinople. That his title is found on weights discovered
in Egypt is due to special rules adopted to insure correctness in that prov-
ince, where the weights were sometimes tampered with. That these weights
are of glass is probably a sur\'ival of an old Egyptian habit.

Byzantine Ivory Reliefs. — As evidence that the Byzantines endeavored
to revive their waning art from the ninth to the twelfth century by a closer
study of antique models, a number of Byzantine ivories are described by-
Hans Graeveii, representing subjects from Greek mythology or hunting^
scenes, for which direct prototypes may be found in miniature painting,
mosaics, reliefs, or coins of the classic period. (Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 1897,
pp. 3-23.)

Oilding on Olaaa beneath tbe Olase. — The technique of glazing over
gilded decorations on glass, known to the early Christians and Byzantines,
became a lost art in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It was revived in
the seventeenth century, and found a distinguished representative in Joseph
Mildner, in Southern Austria, at the end of the last century. (Mitth. K. K.
Vest. Mus. 1897, pp. 511-526.)

The Holy Lance. — In the R. Art Chret. 1897, pp. 287-302, F. de M^ly
completes his series of articles upon the holy lance, by giving the history
of the lance, now in the possession of the Emperor of Austria at Vienna.

Acoustic Vases in the Middle Ages. — The use of vases for acoustic
purposes by the Greeks and Romans in their theatres and public buildings,
though described by Vitruvius, has been discredited by modem writers.
M. Donnet, however, is a firm believer in the statements of Vitruvius, and
cites a number of examples, showing that the practice survived through the
Middle Ages and the Renaissance in France, Denmark, Sweden, and Russia.
He has recently found them in a fifteenth-century church in Belgium. His
volume is entitled Les poteries acoustiques du cour>ent des Recollets a Anvers.
De Backer, Anvers, 1897. (R. Art Chret. 1897, pp. 518-519.)



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Mediaeval Am] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1897-98 339



ITALT

The Chnroh of San Domenloo at Bologna. — San Domenico died
August 6, 1227, and was canonized July 11, 1233. The church of San
Domenico, at Bologna, is mentioned in the archives as early as 1240, from
which may he inferred its foundation between 1234 and 1240. It was not a
new church, but an enlargement of a preexisting church of S. Nicolo delle
Vigne. (F. M. Valeri in Repertf. Kunstwiss, 1897, pp. 173-193.)

Santa Maria at Civita Castellana. — The church of Santa Maria at
Civita Castellana is one of the most interesting examples of Cosmati
architecture and decoration.

An inscription over the principal doorway reads thus :

LAVRENTIVS • CVM • lACOBO ■ FILIO • SVO •
MAGISTRI • DOCTISSIMI • ROMANI • HOC • OPVS •
FECERVNT •

Laurentius was the grandfather, and Jacobus, the father of Cosmatus,
whose name appears upon the architrave of the portico, with the date
MCCX.

Cosmatus had four sons — Lucas, lacobus, Deodatus, and Joannes — who
continued this charming decoration, which is still known by their father's
name. (G. Clausse in Rev. Art ChreL 1897, pp. 271-279.)

Mediaeval Arohiteoture. — Jn the Architectural Record, IVofessor
Goodyear continues his important chapters on certain peculiaidties of
mediaeval architecture. Jn Vol. VII, No. 1, is an article entitled * A Dis-
covery of Entasis in Mediaeval Italian Architecture.* Here he shows that
in mediaeval Italian churches, columns and piera exhibited the peculiarity
of entasis, hitherto supposed to be confined to classic and Renaissance
architecture. £ntasis is especially to be observed in centres where Byzan-
tine influence was strong.

In Vol. VII, No. 2, under the title * An Echo from Evelyn's Diai7,' he
treats of leaning walls. From this diary, under the date of July 27, 1665,
it appears that the old St. Paul's, L>oudon, was built with walls which had
an outward lean. Some architects of the day, amongst whom may be men-
tioned Mr. Chichley and Mr. Prat, held that the walls had been so built
designedly for an effect in pers}>ective, whereas John Evelyn and Sir Chris-
topher Wren insisted that the foundations of the walls had settled. In lofty
cathedrals, walls of the nave, if perfectly vertical, would appear to the
spectator from below to be narrower at the top than at the base. To correct
this optical effect, the mediaeval architects frequently gave an outward lean
to the walls, so that the nave was wider at the summit than at the base.
Mr. McKecknie's photographs make this especially evident for the nave of
St. Mark's at Venice, for the cathedrals at Arezzo, Cremona, Trani, and S.
Ambrogio, Milan. The outward leaii affects also the piers and columns
of the nave. This outward spread of the walls and piei-s, near the summit.



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840 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [Vol. II, 1896

could not have been produced by the thrust of the vault without disturbing
the masonry, or, in the case of St. Mark's, the mosaic decoration. At
Arezzo and Trani, moreover, the cathedrals have wooden roofs. The out-
ward spread would therefore seem to have been designed for the sake of
perspective effect.

In Vol. VII, No. 3, under the title * The Leaning Tower of Pisa,* Professor
Goodyear shows that not merely ara leaning towers more common than is
generally supposed, but that the facades of many cathedrals, especially
those of Pisa, FeiTara, and St. Mark's, in Venice, have the outward lean.
This, again, is a peculiarity of classic architecture observed by Penrose in
connection with the Parthenon, and specifically mentioned by Vitruvius.
But it is interesting to find the peculiarity lingering in the mediaeval
period.

In instances whei*e Byzantine influence is strongest, as at Pisa and in
Venice, the leaning tower and the facades have not merely the outward tilt,
but a sort of entasis, the outward tilt at the base being corrected by a
reversal of the lean towai'd the summit.

Castel del Monte in Apulia. — The C. R. Acad. Insc, 1897, pp. 432-
449, contains an aHicle by £. Bertaux on Castel del Monte and the French
architects of Emperor Fi*ederick II. The castle, begun in 1240, has the
characteristics of the architecture of Burgundy and Champagne. It may
not be certain that the French officer and architect, Philippe Chinard, who
had been in Cyprus and Corfu, and was at that time in Italy, was the archi*
tect of Castel del Monte ; but it is certain that the Emperor Frederick em-
ployed Fi-ench architects in Apulia, not only for that castle, but also for
other buildings.

FRANCE

Mounted Warrior carved from a Whalers Jawbone. — A. Maignan
(R. Arch. XXXI, July-August, 1897, pp. 115-124; 2 cute) publishes and
discusses a mounted warrior, cai*ved from a whale's jaw, found in 1895 at
Amiens. The work is somewhat rude, the horse being more life-like than
the rider. The horse's legs, part of his head, and his croupe are wanting.
Details of armor and trappings are carefully given. The nearly rectangular
shield is adorned with large rosettes. Similar figures in various materials
are cited in comparison. Some of these are as early as the fourth century,
others much later. This figure probably belongs to the eleventh century,
and Molinier's opinion that it was a chessman may well be correct; for,
although its size (originally some 0.16 m. in height and length) is unusual,
large chessmen were not unknown.

BELQIUM

FreBcoea of the Leugemete Chapel at Ghent. — The ancient chapel
(now a breweiy) in the Rue de la Poi-te Bruges once contained frescoes
assumed by various art historians to date from the thirteenth or early



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Mbdiaetal Akt] archaeological DISCUSSIONS, 1897-98 341

foui-teenth century. These frescoes have been considered especially valu-
able for the history of costumes, vreapous, and military organization.
Dr. D. Joseph, in the Rep.f. K,, 1897, pp. 293-297, shows that so early a
date for these frescoes is impossible, and that their authenticity may at
least be called in question.

ENGLAND

Prebendal Stalls and Misericords in Wells Cathedral. — In Archae-
oioffioy LV, 1897, pp. 319-342, is a paper, by C. M. Church, on the preben-
dal stalls and misericords in the cathedral church of WeUs. This paper,
which is illustrated by four plates and two figures in the text, was read
before the Society of Antiquaries March 12, 1896. The history of the
stalls is traced, their number and original arrangement in choir and chapter
determined, and the carved " misericords " or " misereres " still remaining
in the stalls are described. These seats are the sole sui'vivals in the
church of the woodwork furniture of the foui*teenth century, and they rival
those of Winchester in richness and variety of design and depth of carving.
Twenty-two are carvings of the forms of men, women, and angels, natural
or grotesque. Forty-two are carvings of birds and beasts, natural, conven-
tional, monstrous, or grotesque.

Slamlnated Psalter. — At the meeting of the Academy of Inscriptions,
July 23, 1897, L. Delisle commented on a magnificent psalter (French work
of the thirteenth century) belonging to the Earl of Crawford. It beara the
signature Jahanne Reyne. This is Jeanne of Navarre, daughter of Charles
the Bad, wife of Jean de Montfort and afterwards of Henry IV of England.
The Bible in three volumes, now divided among the Bihliotheque Nationale,
the British Museum, and the Bodleian Library, has the signature La R.
Jahanne in a similar handwriting. This Bible is known to have belonged
to Jeanne de Navarre. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1897, p. 373; Bibl. j£cole CkarteSy
1897, pp. 381-393).

ALGERIA

Kalaa of Benl Hammed. — Professor Blanchet, of the lyc^e of Constan-
tine, has investigated some of the monuments of the Kalaa of Beni Hammed,
founded in 1007 in the mountains of Hodna (province of Constantine).
The mosque was divided into a court and a sanctuary. It was richly
adorned with columns, mosaics, and a cornice of turquoise-blue enamel.
In the castle of Fanal, enamelled fragments were found sufficient for the
reconstruction of the mural decoration, the geometrical fancies of which are
found also in the cathedral of Amiens and the campanile at Florence. In
the palace of the emirs are numerous traces of cloisonne ornamentation,
enamel set into stone. These discoveries may throw light upon the origin
of some peculiarities of Sicilian art. They also prove that oriental faiences
existed in the eleventh century. (C. R. Acad, Insc. 1897, pp. 467-469).



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342 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOOT [Vol. II, 1898

RENAISSANCE ART
ITALT

TuBoan and North Italian Artists in the Etorvioe of the House
of Aragon in Naples. — Three times during the fifteenth century was
there an influx of foreign artists at Naples. The last of these took place
during the reign of Alfonso II, and forms the subject of a careful study by
C. von Fabriczy in Rep.f, K. 1897, pp. 85-120. The city archives of Naples
contain many hundred volumes, recording the receipts and expenditures of
the Court, entitled Cedole di tesoreria. One hundred and sixty-seven of
these volumes are examined for this period, and valuable documentary evi-
dence secured in reference to the work of Giuliano da Majano, Benedetto
da Majano, Ippolito Donzello, Giuliano da San Gallo, Francesco di Giorgio
Martini, Fra Giocondo da Verona, Guido Mazzoni, Calvano da Padova,
Giacomo della Fila, Aristotile Fioravante, Francesco da Laurana, Mattia
Fortimany, and Antonio Marchissi.

Bronze Oates of St. Peter% at Rome. — In the Rep. /. K. 1897, pp.
1-22, Bruno Sauer describes in detail the subjects of the borders of the
bronze gates of St. Peter's. Although the sculptor, Filai*ete, in his treatise
on architecture, sets forth an orderly composition of similar decorative
work, in this instance he «eems to have selected his subjects at random.
They evince the spirit of an ardent classicist, who has omitted all Biblical
subjects. The scenes represented are chiefly Greek, though some are Roman ;
and his sources appear to have been Aesop, Ovid, Livy, Valerius Maximos,
and Virgil, but he also borrowed from ancient sculpture in some of the
portraits and in the composition of some of the reliefs.

The Marble Altarpiece in the Abbey Church of 8. Maria di
Campomorto. — In // Focolare, 1896, Nos. 7 and 8, Diego Saut' Ambrogio
describes in detail the marble altarpiece in the abbey church of S. Maria
di Campomorto. The chief subject of the altarpiece is the Assumption of
the Virgin. It was made at some time during the period from 1490 to 1518,
and resembles the altarpiece of the Adoration in the Chapter House of the
Padri of the Certosa at Pavia, and the Descent from the Cross in the
Chapter House of the Conversi in the same church. These altarpieces are
attributed to the brothers Mantegazza. (C. v. F. in Rep, /. A'. 1897, pp.
169-170.)

The Sculptor of the 8. Abondio Altar in the Cathedral of Como.
— Kecent documents have shown that the altarpiece in the church of B. V.
Assunta (S. Lorenzo), at Morbegno, was painted by Gaudenzio Ferrari
between the years 1520-1526. The strange resemblance to this altarpiece
exhibited by the sculptured altar of S. Abondio in the cathedral at Como
indicates that the latter is by the same author. (A. G. Meyer, in Rep, /*.
K. 1897, pp. 147-150.)

Oiotto^B Birthplace. — A short time ago it was proposed to set up a
monument to Giotto at Vicchio in the Mugello. This gave rise to a dispute



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Re.vawsance Art] ARCHAEOLOGICAL VISCUSSIONSy 1897-98 343

as to the birthplace of Giotto. Jodoco del Badia presented a document
from which he made a somewhat hazardous inference that Giotto was born
in the district of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, but the notary records
(Protoe, d. Not. Francesco di Pagno, Vol. I, under the date April 7, 1329,
and March 31, 1331) render it certain that the famous painter was born at
Colle, near Yespignano. (R. Davidsohn, in Hep. /. K. 1897, pp. 374-377.)
Bottioelli'^B PrimaTera. — A new attempt at interpreting Botticelli's
famous painting, formerly known as The Allegory of Spring, is made by
Eniil Jacobsen in Arch. Stor. d. Art 1897, pp. 321-340.

Following the suggestions of Warburg and Ulmann, Jacobsen interprets
the painting through the assistance of Poliziano's poem La Giostra.

The central figure, he supposes, commemorates Simonetta Cattaneo, the
beautiful wife of Marco Vespucci, beloved by Lorenzo and Giuliano de'
Medici. She is entering upon the Elysian fields, where in the foreground
the nymph Simonetta is exhibited as making her escape from Zephyr, as
distributing flowers, and as one of the Graces. He accoixiingly suggests as
a title for the painting. The Awakening of a Soul to a New Life.

AntoneUo da MeBsina. — In the Rep. /. K. 1897, pp. 347-361, G.
Gronau indicates the sources for a biography of Antonello da Messina.
These consist of directly related documents, of dates inscribed on his
pictures, and of statements of fifteenth and sixteenth century writers. It
results that Vasari is altogether untrustworthy in his biography of Antonello.
Evidence is given to show that Antonello probably became acquainted with
Flemish methods in Naples through his master Colantonio.

OeUi's TAvw of Artists. — In the Arch. Stor. Ital. 1896, No. 1, pp. 32-
60, appeal's the first instalment of G«lli's Vite d* Artisti. The manuscript
of this sixteenth-century work, giving twenty biographies of artists, has
remained unedited in the l^trozzi library. Now that it is being published,
it appears to be a literary compilation without much independent value.
The author seems to have utilized the works of Ghiberti, Billi, Anonimo X,
and Vasari. (G. Gronau, in Rep.f. K. 1897, pp. 23-31.)

Italian Paintings at Munioh. — The appearance of the sixth edition of
the Catalogue of the Gallery of Ancient Paintings in Munich has led £. Jacob-
sen to criticise many of the new attributions, and to defend others in the Rep.
f. K. 1897, pp. 425-442.

FRANCE

Bcce Homo at Dijon. — In the Palais de Justice, there is a minutely
painted panel, representing an Ecce Homo. This work has been connected
with the names of Van Eyck and of Roger van der Weyden. In the R. Art
Chrtt. 1897, pp. 496-498, H. Chabeuf attributes the painting to a local artist.

aERMAmr

The Finest German Printer's Signet of the Fifteenth Century. —

Attention has been called by Professor G. Bauch of Breslau to the fine



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344 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [Vol. II, 1898

printar's signet of Conrad Kachelofen, at the end of M. Lochmeier*8 Paro-
chiale curatorum, published by him at I^ipzig, 1497. This is shown by Max
l>ehrs in Rep. /. K. 1897, pp. 151-153, to have been copied with slight
variations from one of Schonganer's Wappenbilder.

HirBfoseFB Relation to Herberstaln's Works . — The celebrated Aus-
trian diplomat, Freiherr Sigmund von Herberstain, late in life wrote sev-
eral books which were interesting also for their copper plates and woodcuts.
The first Latin edition of his work on Russia, published in Vienna, 1549, is
now exceedingly rare. This edition contains twelve colored engravings by
Hirsfogel, dating from 1546-1647. Uncolored copies of some of these engrav-
ings exist in museums of Berlin and Dresden. Seven of them were after-
wards published as medallions, both in copper plate and woodcut, in some
of Herberstain's later works. (A. Nehrino in Rep.f. K. 1897, pp. 121-129.)

MeiBter Hans of Sohwas. — In the Rep.f. K. of 1895, Max J. Fried-
lander enumerates twenty paintings, which he attributes to Meister Hans
of Schwaz, a portrait painter of the sixteenth century. Six additional por-
traits are now added to this list. (Rep.f. K. 1897, pp. 362-365.)

Albrecht Dttrer. — In the Rep,/, K, 1897, pp. 443-463, Paul Kalkoff
makes a special study of Diii*er's visit to the Netherlands, and his relation
to the thinkers of the Reformed Church.

aeorg PentB and the Master J. B. — In the Rep.f. K. 1897, pp. 130-
132, A[ax J. Friedlander calls attention to tbe fact that the engi'avings
signed J. B., and dating from the years 1523, 1525, and many from 1528 to
1530, bear a close similarity in style to those signed G. P., dating from 15.'M:
and later. Friedliinder assigns various reasons which make it probable that
the Master J. B. was Georg Pentz, the earlier signature representing
another form of the same name, Jdrg Bentz. This interesting identifica-
tion is called in question by Gustavo Pauli in Rep. f. K. 1897, pp. 298-300,
who holds that the works of J. B. and Georg Pentz, though i*esembling each
other in certain respects, differ sufficiently in style to be the work of differ-
ent artists.

Hans Sebald Beham. — Rosenberg and Seibt, who have written about
the painter and engraver Sebald Beham, exhibit considerable uncertainty as
to his whereabouts during the period from 1525-1534. In the Rep.f. K.
1897, pp. 194-205, Dr. Alfred Bauch proves that during this period Beham
still lived in Nuremberg.

Hans Morlnck. — Although mentioned in some of the older books, this
artist was almost completely lost to sight until made known by Kraus in
the Kunstdenknidler Badens, 1887. Born in the Netherlands, and having
studied in Italy, this sculptor spent thirty-eight years of his life at Con-
stance, where most of his works are found, and where he died in 1616.
Twenty-four of his sculptured works are described by Fritz Hirsch in Rep.
/. K. 1897, pp. 257-292.



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Renaimancb Abt] ABCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1897-98 345



BBLQIITM

Painting by Peeter Brueghel. — A remarkable discovery has been
made in the Brussels Mus^e de Peinture. In the year 1845 the state
bought for 500 francs a picture attributed to Peeter Brueghel, the so-called
"HoUen-Brueghel" (1564-1638), representing the fall of the rebel angels
from heaven. At the new ordering of the pictures in 1882 the painting
was ascribed to the Flemish artist Hieronymus Bosch (1462-1516). Dur-
ing the present year a fresh arrangement of the collection was undertaken,
and when the picture was taken out of the frame on which the name of
Boflch was inscribed, Professor Wauters detected at the very bottom of the
painting in small and scarcely legible characters, the inscription, Brvegel.
MDLXn (1562). It is thus evident that it is a work of the old Peeter
Brueghel, the so-called " Bauem-Brueghel ** (1520-1569), whose pictures are
extremely rare. {Athen. October 2, 1897 ; cf. Rev, Art Chret. 1397, p. 545.)

ENGIiAND

The Malcolm Collections of Italian Drawings. — The Malcolm col-
lection of Italian drawings, consisting of several hundred examples, is now
possessed by the British Museum and forms the subject of an article by
Carlo Loesser in the Archiu. Stor. Arte, 1897, pp. 341-359.



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ABBREVIATIONS

Acad. = Academy (of London). Am, J, Arch, = American Journal of
Archaeology. Ami d. Mon. = Ami des Monuments. Ann, d, 1st. = Annali
deir Istituto. Arch.'Ep. Mitth. = Archftol. -epigraph. Mittheil. (Vienna).
Arch. ^n«. = Archaologischer Anzeiger. Arch. ^ec. = Architectural Kecord.
Arch. d. Miss, = Archives de Missions Sclentifiques et Litt^raires. Arch. Star.
d. Art. = Archivio Storico delP Arte. Arch, Stor. Nap. = Archivio Storico Pro-
viiicie Napolitane. Athen. = Athenaeum (of Londonl

Berl. Phil. W. = Berliner Philologlsche Wochenschrift. Berl. Stud. = Ber-
liner Studien. B, Arch, d. M. = Bulletin Archil, du Minist^re. B. Arch,
C. T. = Bulletin Arch^ologique du Comity des Travaux hist/et scient. B. C. H,
= Bulletin de Correspondance Hell^nique. B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. = Bulletin et
M^moires de la Soci^t^ des Antiquaires de France. B. Com. Boma = Bullettino
d. Commissioue Archeologica Comunale di Roma. Bull. d. 1st. = Bullettino deir
Istituto. B. Arch. Crist. = Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana. B, Paletn. It.
= Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana. Byz. Z. = Byzantinische Zeitschrift.

Chron. d. Arts = Chronique des Arts. CI. B. = Classical Review. C. H,
Acad. Insc. = Comptes Rendus de TAcad^mie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.
C. I. A. = Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum. C. I. G. = Corpus Inscriptionuni
Graecarum. C. I. G. S. = Corpus Inscriptionum Graeciae Septentrionalis.
C. I. L. = Corpus Inscriptionum Latlnarum. C. I. S. = Corpus Inscriptionum
Semiticarum.

AeXr. *Apx« = AcXt/oi' *Apxo.^o\oyiK6v.

*E4>. *Apx- = "EtpTifuplt *Apxaio\oyiK^. Eph. Epig. = Ephemeris Epigraphica.

Gaz. B. A, = Gazette des Beaux- Arts.

I. G. A. = Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae, ed. Roehl. /. G, Ins. = In-
scriptiones Graecarum Insularum. /. G. Sic. It. = Inscriptiones Graecae Siciliae
et Italiae.

Jh. Arch. I. = Jahrbuch d. k. d. Archftol. Institute. Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. =
Jahrbuch d. k. Preuss. Kunstsammlungen. Jb. V, Alt, Bh, = JahrbUcher des
Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande. J. Asiat, = Journal Asiatiqiie.
J. Am. Or. 8. = Journal of American Oriental Society. J, H, S. = Journal of



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