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papers. Again the Association press-
book proved its worth. In many states
stories were lifted from the pressbook
and syndicated over state services. The
Missouri column, Building A Better
State, and Texas and South Dakota
news columns are outstanding examples.
Twenty-one governors responded to the
national publicity with proclamations
and press statements endorsing the

The Metropolitan Life Insurance
Company is the leader in Social Hy-
giene Day advertising. Their February
ad, Syphilis, with an impressive quote
from Surgeon General Parran, reached
a combined circulation of 26,716,557
through 13 popular magazines of large
general circulation. The Metropoli-
tan's new gonorrhea pamphlet is also
a popular number with social hygiene

Pharmacy Brings Venereal Disease

Information to the People
Pharmacists came into the picture
as promoters of Social Hygiene Day
with window displays, posters, and
literature. The Ohio Valley Druggists
Association arranged a series of broad-
casts. The Onondaga Health Associa-
tion in Syracuse, in cooperation with
local pharmaceutical groups, had dis-
plays in many drug stores. Leaving
Social Hygiene Day we can look proudly
upon the pharmacist who is doing
such an excellent job in venereal dis-
ease education. The special leaflet,
a Tip from Your Pharmacist, prepared
by the Joint Committee of the Ameri-
can Pharmaceutical Association Amer-
ican Social Hygiene Association, is
being distributed to drug stores by
State Pharmaceutical Associations
throughout the country. Over 100,000
copies have gone out.


On the Industrial Front vented and cured more simply and

The January issue of National Safety surely than any other serious malady.

News contains an article on Syphilis in This curable and preventable disease

Industry. The Machinists' Monthly is syphilis." . . . Prostitution and the

Journal, the Southwestern Eailway War, the Public Affairs Pamphlet by

Journal, the Brotherhood of Locomo- Philip S. Broughton is a best seller

tive Firemen and Enginemen's Mag- with 60,000 copies already sold, neces-

asine, Factory, Anthracite News, and sitating a second printing. ... In.

Organised Labor are but a few of Albany recently with Mr. Thomas

the many labor and industrial pub- Stowell, play and radio master of the

lications which have devoted space to N. Y. State Department of Health, the

the fight against syphilis among in- writer witnessed the recording of a new

dustrial workers. Health Hunters Radio Play. With

humor, character, and timeliness The

Jottings Health Hunters series is now in its
David Piper of the Oregon State De- ninth year, on the air continuously
partment of Health volunteers the week by week over a group of New
headline, Syphilis is the Pal of War. York State stations. . . . The Fitness
. . . From the Monticello Evening News, for Freedom issue of Survey Graphic
. . . "Among Ripley's More Fearsome contains twenty articles on Health in
Believe It or Nots, it should be re- Wartime. No War Boom in Venereal
corded that four million men and women Disease is Dr. William F. Snow 'a con-
in the United States suffer from a tribution an urgent message from a
devastating disease which can be pre- vital sector of the fight for fitness.


PROSTITUTION AND THE WAR. By Philip Broughton. New York,
Public Affairs Committee, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 1941. 10 cents.

Few pamphlet publications have attracted so much attention.
According to recent reports, state departments of health, church
organizations, and other health, educational and welfare agencies have
requested nearly 200,000 copies of Prostitution and the War since
its publication three months ago. Numerous reviews appearing in
newspapers and magazines have helped to stimulate interest in what
Mr. Broughton has to say. The American City gave an entire page
to quotation from the pamphlet and reproduction of the chart showing
public agencies working to control the venereal diseases. Woman
published a condensed version. Other comments included the
following :

"A pamphlet which will be useful to every minister or social worker interested
in the problems of prostitution or venereal disease, especially in communities
near training camps and defense industries." 'Federal Council Bulletin

"... a hard-headed approach to a menace which cost the American army
7,000,000' man-days of service in World War I . . . " M inneapolis Daily Timet

"The biggest problem now before the country is to bring the attitude of local
communities into line with this demonstrably sound national policy. Behind the
widespread toleration of vice of which the surgeon-general spoke there is a great
deal of plain ignorance. That ignorance can be dispelled through pamphlets
like the new publication, 'Prostitution and the War' . . ." Christian Century

"a straight-forward hard-hitting pamphlet . . . demonstrates once again
that sound ethical opposition to vice has yet to be found in opposition to tke
findings of medical or social science." New Haven Journal-Courier

Social hygiene societies and members are urged to make full use
of this concise and sound discussion of the prostitution problem today.



Under this head the JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE lists publications received and
not reviewed. Those which fall sufficiently within its field and are of sufficient
importance to its readers to warrant comment will be reviewed in later issues.

A* evaluation of the massive dose therapy of early syphilis. By D. C.
Elliott, M.D. and others, p. 1160.

Chicago, October 4, 1941. Massive dose arsenotherapy of early syphilis

by intravenous drip method: recapitulation of the data (193341). By Wil-
liam Leifer, M.D., Louis Chargin, M.D. and H. T. Hyman, M.D. p. 1154.

Chicago, October 4, 1941. Serodiagnostic tests for syphilis in state

laboratories: the 1941 evaluation of their performance. By Thomas Parran,

M.D. and others, p. 1167.
MEDICAL WOMAN'S JOUENAL. Cincinnati. September, 1941. Action: A plan

for community organisation in health education. By Mary Steichen, M.D.

p. 279.
MODERN HOSPITAL. Chicago, June, 1941. How to organize and manage a venereal

disease clinic. By M. H. Levine, M.D. p. 69.
NATION. New York. August 23, 1941. Disease and punishment. The campaign

against prostitutes around army camps. By Jonathan Daniels, p. 162.
NATIONAL HEALTH REVIEW. Ottawa, July, 1941. Health for all. By Julian

Huxley, p. 171.
NEW YOEK STATE JOUENAL OP MEDICINE. New York, June 1, 1941. Symposium

on medical problems in national defense. By C. M. Walson, M.D. ; A. E.

Eussell, M.D.; V. A. Van Volkenburgh, MJ)., D.P.H.; and J. D. Naples,

MJX p. 1147.
NEWS BULLETIN. Public Administration Clearing House, Chicago, October 6-8,

1941. Eesults of premarital examination laws and prenatal examination laws.

Council of state governments.

December, 1940. Social hygiene in relation to education. An outline. By

Mabel Grier Lesher, M.D. p. 20.

December, 1940. Social hygiene in relation to recreation. An outline.

By H. F. Kilander. p. 23.

NOETHWEST MEDICINE. Seattle, Wash., June, 1941. Treatment of gonorrhea in
the male with sulfathiazole. By J. G. Strohm, M.D. and others, p. 202.

Seattle, September, 1941. False positive serologic tests for syphilis

in children. By M. L. Bridgeman, M.D. and L. D. Jaeobson, M.D. p. 325.

ORGANIZED LABOR. San Francisco, Calif. September 1, 1941. To be read by

men only. An editorial.
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING. New York, June, 1941. Syphilis in industry. By A.

E. Eussell, MJ}. p. 364.
PENNSYLVANIA'S HEALTH. State Dept. of Health, Harrisburg, June, 1941.

Education faces the sex problem. Sex education in college. By Henry

Pleasants, Jr., M.D. p. 602.

State Dept. of Health, Harrisburg, June, 1941. Syphilis in industry

as a defense measure. By A. E. Russell, M.D.

State Dept. of Health, Harrisburg, June, 1941. Venereal disease among

domestic employees: its detection and what to do about it. By N. R.

Ingraham, Jr., M.D. p. 15.
State Dept. of Health, Harrisburg, July, 1941. Congenital syphilis.

By N. R. Ingraham, Jr., M.D. p. 3.
QUARTERLY BULLETIN. N. Y. C. Dept. of Health, New York, May, lsJ41. Syphilis

in men 21 to 35 years of age. Statistics for 99,005 selectees in New York

City. p. 25.
READER'S DIGEST. Pleasantville, N. Y. November, 1941. A sabbatical year

for marriage. By Samuel Hopkins Adams. (Condensed from Harpers')


Vol. 28 March, 1942 No. 3



Social Hygiene

Twenty-ninth Anniversary Number


The Federal Fight Against Venereal Disease Paul V. McNutt 117

The Navy Social Hygiene Program in Action Ross T. Mclntire 127

Presentation of the Snow Award to Frederick Fuller Russell 135

Honorary Life Memberships 144

The Regional Conference Programs 155

Social Hygiene Day Greetings 164

The Annual Business Meeting 165

Program and Budget for 1942 168

Committee Reports 170

A Year of National Defense Activities.. ..Walter Clarke.. 178

Seventh National Social Hygiene Day
February 3, 1943

The American Social Hygiene Association presents the articles printed in the
JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE upon the authority of their writers. It does not
necessarily endorse or assume responsibility for opinions expressed or statements
made. The reviewing of a book in the JOURNAL or SOCIAL HYGIENE does not
imply its recommendation by the Association.


C.-E. A. WINSLOW, Chairman





The JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE is supplied to active members of the American
Social Hygiene Association, Inc. Membership dues are two dollars a year. The
magazine will be sent to persons not members of the Association at three dollars
a year; single copies are sold at thirty-five cents each. Postage outside the United
States and its possessions, 50 cents a year.

Entered as second-class matter at post-office at Albany, N. Y., March 23, 1922.

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103,
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized March 23, 1922.

Published monthly (nine issues a year) for the Association by the Boyd Printing
Company, Inc., 372-374 Broadway, Albany, N. Y.

Copyright, 1942, by The American Social Hygiene Association, Inc.
Title Registered, U. S. Patent Office.





CENTRAL STATES DIVISION: 9 East Huron Street, Chicago, 111.
BERTHA M. SHAFER, M.D., Field Consultant

WESTERN STATES DIVISION: 45 Second Street, San Francisco, Cal.
W. FORD HIGBY, Field Consultant

WASHINGTON, D. C., LIAISON OFFICE: 927 15th Street, N.W., Room 609
Miss JEAN B. PINNEY, Associate Director in C7:
MRS. GERTRUDE R. LUCE, Office Secret art/



Presented to



(See pages 135-1 14}

SERVICE TO HUMANITY was established in 1937 by a group of
Dr. Snow's friends, signalizing the rounding out of the first forty years
of his service in social hygiene and public health. At that time a bronze
portrait plaque was presented to Dr. Snow and a Committee on Award
appointed, with the suggestion that from time to time medal replicas of
the plaque might be struck off and presented in recognition of out-
standing service in the field of social hygiene.

Previous recipients of the medal have been, in 1938, DR. EIAVARD
L. KEYES, who is Chairman of the 1942 Committee on Award; SURGEON
GENERAL THOMAS PARRAN of the United States Public Health Service in
ROLFE, Secretary-General of The British Social Hygiene Council, in 1941.



Social Hygiene

VOL. 28

MARCH, 1942

NO. 3

Twenty-ninth Anniversary Number


Federal Security Administrator, Director Defense Health and Welfare Services

There is no need for me today to talk
to you of the medical strategy of the
attack on venereal disease. Your learned
chairman, Dr. Hazen, and other officers
and members of the District Society at
this table, could tell you far more than
I about that aspect of venereal disease

There is no need for me to dwell upon
the public health progress of the last
five years. You have stood, shoulder to
shoulder, to win that progress. Your National Association
began the good fight nearly 30 years ago when the world
believed that vice was inevitable and venereal disease the
just (but very secret) punishment for sin. Victory is to the
persistent. And this is, indeed, a crowning campaign in the
career of that irrepressible warrior, Colonel William F. Snow.

* The Address at the Luncheon Meeting, District of Columbia Social Hygiene
Society 's celebration of the Sixth National Social Hygiene Day, February 3rd, 1942.




These things you know. You, who have fought through the
decades for venereal disease control, have reason to feel a
glow of triumph at the medical, the legislative, and the popu-
lar progress of these last five years.

Let us list the things these five years have seen things
you could not have felt safe in predicting a decade ago.

The dam of taboo, which kept facts from the public, broke.
When dams break, that is news. Things happen. Syphilis
and gonorrhea suddenly cut a swath in the public prints, that
even the old familiar, freely discussed diseases could not
have hoped to cut. From a purely publicity point of view,
the sudden character of that change was an extraordinary

The breaking of taboo coincided with the development of
new facts. New studies of syphilis treatment gave patients
new hope. The sulfonamid drugs revolutionized gonorrhea
treatment. Blood tests gained new precision. And though
statisticians may haggle as statisticians always do new
estimates of the prevalence of venereal disease in the com-
munity, brought home to the American people the funda-
mental fact that the rates were far higher than they needed
to be.

In 1941, there were 3,245 clinics in operation, as contrasted
with 1,122 in 1938. In 1941, there were 8,161,491 doses of
arsphenamine given, as contrasted with 2,799,110 in 1938.

There are thousands of doctors knowing today the funda-
mental things they need to know about syphilis who only
half a dozen years ago ignored this dangerous disease wher-
ever possible. The venereal disease divisions of the United
States Public Health Service, the State health departments,
and the local health departments are not the financially puny
stepchildren of public health administration they were then.
New staffs but even more important, new vision and under-
standing as to future needs, and as to the tactics of using
those staffs, have come into being.

"There is a tide in the affairs of men
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune."


Certainly, the mobilized forces of public health and social
hygiene took such a tide at its flood in these last few years.
You have a right to be proud of that record.

But if you read that record clearly, you have no time to
point with pride. The battle is not won. You have merely
created new sinews for victory.

This has not been the war you have fought. It has been
that thing we called, in 1916, "preparedness," and that we
called, up to December 7, 1941, "defense." This was the
training period not the war. This "has been the period in
which we mobilized for victory!

Think of that record! We built a program. A diagnostic
program, a treatment program, a plan of public health action.
We obtained public recognition of the issue. We persuaded
the American people, who acted with legislation and with
funds. And then, we created an organization, equipped and
staffed clinics, hospitals and health departments.

We fought, yes. When the enemy is the spirochete or the
gonococcus, one can practice on the enemy. One does not
have to lend-lease to Britain or to Sweden, or to anybody
else, in order to build up striking capacity.

But the fact remains that we have so far only skirmished.
Now comes a world-wide war. And we begin to fight.

It is too bad that it takes a war to drive home to people
the vital importance of things that ought to have been done
all along. We learn that recreation has a place in life. We
learn that boys need job training not merely for themselves
but for the strength of the nation. When the cry goes up
for hospital facilities, we do not ask, "Can we afford it?"
We know that we can not afford to let it go.

War wakes us up to the vital importance of community
services. But we must not speculate on that. We must act.

On the social hygiene front we find ourselves far better
prepared for action than did those who had this problem to
deal with in 1917. Medicine and public health, and all the


resources of press, and radio, and education are mobilized
as they were not, and could not have been, in 1917.

We did well then. No major army in history was freer
from venereal disease than ours. Yet the American army
in the First World War lost seven million days to venereal
disease 338,746 officers and men, the equivalent of 23 divi-
sions, under treatment for syphilis and gonorrhea.

Now we are in total war. We can multiply those army
figures by the men in America's production lines. We know
that in this conflict a day lost anywhere is a score for the

When syphilis and gonorrhea are attacked, we are attack-
ing the ills which lost the American army in the last war more
man-days than any other cause. In reducing venereal disease
to a minimum among the industrial workers of America, we
are contributing more man-days to American victory than we
could contribute by any other means.

Now, let us get down to the rather definite business of what
the Federal Government is doing to meet the special war
time threat of venereal disease.

Federal authorities faced this problem in September, 1939,
the same month the Germans marched into Poland. They
drafted at that time an Eight-Point Joint Agreement which
serves still as the basis for policy and for action. That agree-
ment was signed by the War and Navy departments, and
the Federal Security Agency. At that time, only the United
States Public Health Service in our Agency was active. Since
its signing, the Social Protection Section has been created
and became a party to that agreement. The State and Terri-
torial health officers endorsed it, evidencing the support of
public health personnel throughout the nation. Last Novem-
ber, that agreement was endorsed by the Executive Board
of the International Association of Chief s of Police, a develop-
ment which, I believe, is of great importance and to which
I will refer a little later.

The Eight-Point Joint Agreement called for mutually sup-
porting programs of diagnosis and treatment military


authorities for their own personnel, health departments for
the civilians. It called for a clearance of facts and figures
which would lead to the discovery of cases and their prompt
medical handling. It stipulated quarantine of infected per-
sons where necessary. And for an aggressive program of
public education.

None of the ordinary volunteer activities, of the Civilian
Defense program, center around this work. The agreement
contemplated professional collaboration. It requested only
the assistance of established health and welfare agencies,
and, I quote: ''representatives of the American Social
Hygiene Association, or affiliated social hygiene societies."

All those provisions of the Agreement may be set down
as noncontroversial. Everyone is against syphilis and gon-
orrhea. Everyone seems to agree that sound public educa-
tion, as to the hazards of venereal disease, is a good thing.
The professional techniques of diagnosis and treatment, and
follow-up, as recommended by the various medical services,
are publicly accepted.

Point 6, of the Agreement, meets with similar general
approval but not such ready administrative acceptance.
That is the point which calls for the repression of prostitu-
tion, both commercial and clandestine. The reasons for that
point are clearly stated in the point, itself. It is recommended
to decrease the opportunity for contact with infected persons,
clearly as a measure for venereal disease control.

Prostitution still seems to benefit by partial concealment
under that cloak of taboo which once prevented the honest
discussion of syphilis and gonorrhea. Plausible arguments
persist in its defense. Those arguments can be met only with
facts cold, clear, unemotional facts facts as concise and
persuasive as those found in Accident Facts, the annual pub-
lication of the National Safety Council. The factual informa-
tion on prostitution which is today in the hands of not only
the ordinary layman, but the teacher, the editor, and the
writer, is not satisfactory.

This is no time to review the statistical data and the factual
evidence upon which public policy is based. There is time


only to state what that public policy is. All the agencies
which have adhered to the Eight-Point Joint Agreement are
united in opposing the segregated district as a disease hazard
to troops and industrial workers, alike.

Their policy is based on medical and public health evidence
developed over many years.

The evidence for that position was clearly stated to the
House Committee on Military Affairs, and the testimony
given to that committee led to the passage of the May Act
which authorizes the repression of prostitution " within a
reasonable distance" of military establishments. That Act
provides all the legal power necessary for the Federal Depart-
ment of Justice to take over at any time the policing of areas
designated as hazards by the Secretary of War or the Sec-
retary of the Navy.

Army and Navy figures show that a large percentage of
the men infected received their infections at considerable
distance from the camp. In this mechanized age, 100, or 200,
or 500 miles is not the distance that it was in 1917 and 1918.
It is assumed that the phrase, " within a reasonable distance,"
would cover any community which military records clearly
showed was a venereal disease hazard to troops. "A reason-
able distance" is to be measured by the fact of infection.

This is a serious and a very fundamental statement of
policy. Short of martial law, there is hardly another field
of local police power which can be forfeited to the Federal

Those facts emphasize, it seems to me, that the Federal
Services, military and civilian, mean business. Congress
has clearly and emphatically written a law which it intends
shall be effective. Congress, moreover, passed such a law
in 1917, and it was then invoked about a dozen times.

Nevertheless, these things should be clear. "Taking over"
local policing, is not a pleasant business. If prohibition
experience is to be a guide, it is not an undertaking which
augurs much for long run, local community action.


So we have set up, in the Office of Defense Health and
Welfare Services, a Section on Social Protection. It is
headed by the distinguished Safety Director of Cleveland,
Ohio, an official whose police work has won acclaim and wide
acceptance in his profession. Last November, I invited the
Association of Chiefs of Police to appoint a committee to
cooperate with the Agency and with the other parties to the
Joint Agreement, in considering the sound professional police
relationship to this problem.

That committee was appointed. The Executive Board of
the International Association of Chiefs of Police endorsed
our program. ' They are today as much a part of this mobiliza-
tion against venereal disease as the original signers or your
Association. They are now working with us to put police
understanding of this problem and police techniques for
handling it, on the same professional plane as our public

Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 16 of 71)