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Journal of social hygiene (Volume 28) online

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ble for the League of Nations to undertake this project, and followed
closely its progress and the world-wide influence of the reports.

Then came renewed Federal assistance through the Social Security
Board, followed by continuing appropriations under the Venereal
Disease Control Act of May 24, 1938, the leadership of Thomas
Parran, and the rallying of the American public to a finish fight
against syphilis. In all these resurgent activities of official and vol-
untary agencies in a united campaign for health, social protection and
moral welfare, Mr. Rockefeller took great satisfaction.

Necessarily these are but highlights of Mr. Rockefeller's many per-
sonal services in behalf of the social hygiene movement. While they
constitute but a small fraction of all his distinguished services to
humanity, they have been epochal in this field, and we join him in
anticipating that the next quarter of a century will surely see the
full fruition of his cooperative efforts with those men and women who
have devoted themselves to this cause. \V\ F. S.

ORGANIZATIONS, like individuals, are inclined to give special
emphasis to the accomplishments of a man in their own fields of
interest. So it is with the American Social Hygiene Association
today in its desire to honor Charles S. Stephenson, M.D. He has
continually made notable contributions to this movement through
wise counsel, published articles, lectures and service on committees
from its early years. Naturally these activities bulk large in our measure
of the man, but they constitute a minor part of any evaluation of all
his services to medicine, public health and social welfare as a whole.

It is necessary to say this because all the Association ever got out of
him for publication regarding his personal history was that he ' ' trained
at Vanderbilt University, learned to practice medicine in Tennessee,
entered the Navy in 1913, and was promoted successively to the grade
of Captain. ' ' Only those who have had the privilege of knowing him
intimately realize what a fascinating story of a World-wide leader in
public health and medicine is encompassed in that brief summary.
CAPTAIN STEPHENSON From official records one finds that Captain

Stephenson served until 1918 in the Navy on the
Yangtze River and in Japan as Executive Officer
of the Naval Hospital in Yokahama, being then
transferred as Staff Medical Officer to Admiral
Plunkett in France. At the close of the First
World War he was assigned as Chief of the Divi-
sion of Genito-Urinary Diseases in the Brooklyn
Naval Hospital. Again in 1921, he was returned
to the Yangtze Patrol Force and carried on
epidemiological investigations on cholera and
plague, finding time also to be Instructor in
Military Medicine at Peiping University Medi-

Kansas City,


cal School. The years 192425 found him still in the Orient, as
Medical Officer of the Asiatic Fleet. This experience was followed by
another tour of duty in the Brooklyn Naval Hospital, which gave
way to an exciting period as Brigade Surgeon with the Marine Corps
Expeditionary Force in Northern China as commanding Officer of
the field hospital. Back to the United States for duty in the New
York Naval Hospital and clinical work in public health, Columbia
University; and off again to the South Seas as Aide to the Governor
of American Samoa for reorganizing the public health department
of that dependency in 1935; thence to the Army Industrial War
College for graduate study.

Finally in 1936, this man of many careers scientific, medical, edu-
cational, public health, administrative was ordered from these world-
wide field duties to Washington to take charge of the Division of
Preventive Medicine, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy Depart-
ment. To the direction of this vital and growing service, biographers
must add : Professor of Preventive Medicine, U. S. Naval Medical
School; Adviser to the Shore Establishments Division, Office of the
Assistant Secretary of the Navy; Member of the Advisory Council,
U. S. Public Health Service ; Member of the Tennessee Valley Author-
ity and Medical Division; Lecturer on Preventive Medicine, Johns
Hopkins University; Liaison Officer for the Navy Department to the
Medical Sciences Division of the National Research Council; Member
of the Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate Health and Wel-
fare Activities; Member of the Federal Interdepartmental Safety
Council; Naval Observer recently attached to the American Embassy
in London; Member of the Interdepartmental Venereal Disease
Committee, Washington.

Whatever his assignment, wherever he has lived, however he has
been pressed for time in preparing the many scientific papers indexed
under his name, Captain Stephenson has never failed to give aid and
leadership to the campaigns against syphilis and gonorrhea and pro-
grams for social protection of community life and welfare. In rec-
ognition of these distinguished services the Committee on Award
presents this Honorary Life Membership in the American Social
Hygiene Association. W. F. S.


iHE story of a man who graduated in medicine in 1898, launched
his medical career as an officer in the Spanish-American War, and has
spent forty-one years in distinguished service with the United States
Public Health Service on every health and medical frontier of that
far-flung organization, calls for a professional biographer who knows
how to deal with limits of space and dramatic details. It is not
difficult, however, for the amateur to trace his official record :

Marine Hospital Quarantine and Immigration Service; Superin-
tendent of Hospitals ; Executive Officer under Colonel Gorgas ; Chief


Sanitary Officer of the Panama Canal Zone ; Quar-
antine Officer for the Republic of Panama; tours
of duty at the United States Hygienic Laboratory;
Chief Sanitary Officer for the Panama-Pacific
Kx position; Director of Plague Suppressive
Measures in California; administrative direc-
tion of measures for prevention of typhus fever;
service during the first World War at Little
Rock in extra-cantonment health and sanitation,
including direction of the training center for
officers to be assigned to other military areas. All
these are but milestones cited to show the prac-
tical training and administrative experience which
went into the preparation of the man selected for
one of the most difficult and complicated pioneer
tasks ever undertaken by an officer of the Public
Health Service assignment as the first venereal
disease control officer.

On July 9, 1918, the Act passed by Congress creating the United
States Interdepartmental Social Hygiene Board became law. This
included the establishment of a Division of Venereal Diseases in the
United States Public Health Service. Dr. Pierce organized and
directed this Division as Assistant Surgeon General in charge for four
years, serving also during that time as a member of the Interdepart-
mental Social Hygiene Board. This period marked the beginning of
Federal assistance to the states for venereal disease treatment and
control . The early reports and papers of Dr. Pierce and his associates
at that time are interesting reading and outline the essential basis on
which the vigorous nation-wide program of today has been developed
through the vicissitudes of the intervening years.

When the newly-created position of District Director was estab-
lished in 1922, Dr. Pierce was released from his administrative duties
in Washington and assigned to Chicago, in charge of District No. 3;
hut the organization work for this area was scarcely completed before
it became necessary for him to proceed to Mexico and to Cuba to study
the seaports and confer with government authorities regarding sani-
tary conditions and modification of quarantine restrictions. Subse-
quently an outbreak of malignant smallpox at Windsor, Ontario took
him to Canada for the difficult task of international quarantine service
and vaccination of several hundred thousand inter-city workers and
more than six hundred thousand residents of Detroit.

The year 1926 found Dr. Pierce again in Washington serving as
Assistant Surgeon General in charge of Personnel and Accounts.
Then, a new Act having created the position of Medical Director, he
\vas advanced to that post in July, 1931, but continued his direction
of the Division of Personnel and Accounts. Conditions abroad next
claimed Dr. Pierce for supervision of medical inspection of aliens in
Europe and Great Britain. During this service, for three years,
opportunity was afforded the health authorities of all the countries of
P^urope to benefit by Dr. Pierce 's wide experience with all their major



problems of disease prevention and administration. Correspondence
during this period shows that he never forgot the official and voluntary
agencies interested in the field of social hygiene "back home" whose
officers eagerly looked to him for information of new or different
approaches to their special problems in changing conditions of Europe.

In August, 1937, the announcements of orders carried the informa-
tion that Medical Director Claude C. Pierce was relieved of duty in
Europe and assigned as Director of Public Health District No. 1
with Headquarters Office in New York City. The New England
hurricane, the greater Metropolitan-Interstate demonstration project
for control of venereal disease, the many details of liaison activity
between the Federal Public Health Service and the state authorities
in this area, the complicated military-industriai-civilian relationships
of this second World War, are illustrative of the many emergencies
and vitally important problems whose solution calls for the judgment
and counsel of an officer with just such skill and long experience for
"an Elder Statesman," as Surgeon General Parran recently described
Dr. Claude C. Pierce to whom we are today privileged to award
an Honorary Life Membership in the American Social Hygiene
Association. W. F. S.


Vv HEN several agencies pooled their resources arid merged to form
the American Social Hygiene Association in 1914, one of the chief
assets contributed by the National Vigilance Association was a young
lawyer who had already proved his mettle in the attack on the under-
world promoters of commercialized prostitution. The new Executive
Committee were concerned to hold this brilliant acquisition. As
Dr. Keyes said, "There's a man!" But Bascom Johnson then had no
thought of spending his life in building a career in this field. He had
been trained to practice law. He had a family. He had merely
thrown his skill and resources into this fight as any good citizen does
to launch a necessary reform and to protect his fellow citizens from
merciless exploitation. No wonder the members of the Executive
Committee were anxious lest he should decide he had done enough.
But they did not press the matter. They simply placed before him
one challenging problem after another and are still doing so.

One of the first was the effort cooperating with
West Coast agencies to improve conditions at
the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco.
Through Mr. Johnson's leadership the constitu-
tionality of the California Injunction and Abate-
ment Law was established before the State
Supreme Court, and this led to the closing of
the notorious Barbary Coast.

In 1917, Mr. Johnson again faced a job of
immense importance : On active duty as a Major
of the Sanitary Corps, U. S. A., he served



through the First World War as Director of the War and Navy
Department Commissions on Training Camp Activities, Law Enforce-
ment Division, which saw that areas near Army cantonments were
kept free from prostitution and other forms of vice hazardous to
soldier health and efficiency. Team-work of official and voluntary
agencies closed over 130 red-light districts, hundreds of houses of
prostitution, and conducted campaigns against vice and venereal
disease in more than 800 American communities.

The war-time assignment ended in 1919, after six months' special
duty abroad in connection with the program of the Chief Surgeon
of the A.E.P. for combating venereal disease. Returning to direct
the Association's post-war program of legal and protective activities,
Mr. Johnson aided various groups in securing state legislation against
prostitution. From 1919 to 1925, twenty-three states adopted such
laws in whole or in part, so that most sections of the country now
have legal provisions which may be invoked for community and
individual protection against this evil.

In 1924, Mr. Johnson engaged in one of the most extensive social
hygiene projects ever undertaken the League of Nations Study of
International Traffic in Women and Children. As Director of Inves-
tigations for the Special Body of Experts appointed by the League
Council, and applying the fact-gathering methods developed and
tested in hundreds of U. S. A. studies, he and a small staff surveyed
twenty-eight European and Latin American countries. In 1930, when
the Council extended the study to the Near, Far and Middle East,
he headed a Commission of Three to visit twenty countries. The
reports of these studies, issued by the League in 1927 and 1933, and
presented to the governments concerned, definitely influenced world-
wide conditions.

Home again, Mr. Johnson w<as busy as writer, speaker and consul-
tant to cities and groups facing difficult prostitution conditions aggra-
vated by the unemployment emergency. He was particularly in
demand to aid in drafting the laws requiring premarital and prenatal
examinations for syphilis, one or both of which between 1935 and
1942 were passed by 33 state legislatures.

In September, 1939, with the first limited national defense emer-
gency he was asked to aid health and law enforcement authorities in
plans for circumventing the racketeers of organized prostitution. As
our new Army has gathered its two million men, his keen judgment
and resourceful mind have been edged tools, sharpened by twenty-five
years of practical social hygiene experience, to help cut down the
destroying power of vice and disease among the armed forces.

It was natural, when early in 1941 the Government organized its
Section on Social Protection in the Office of Defense Health and
Welfare Services, that Mr. Johnson should be borrowed to help get
the new program under way. Still serving informally as Consultant
to the Section, he is now, as Associate Director for the Association,
aiding in intensive efforts where most needed to improve community



conditions near Army camps and Naval bases, while directing at long
range a field staff scattered throughout the entire country.

"B.J.," as he is affectionately known, was born in Washington,
D. C., attended Worcester Academy in Worcester, Massachusetts,
graduated from Yale University in 1900 as a Bachelor of Arts, and
from the University of Pennsylvania as an LL.B. in 1903. In pre-
paratory school, serving as captain of the track team and winning
the New England Interscholastic pole vault and the quarter mile race,
he began a career in sports and athletics which has continued through-
out his life. As a Yale freshman, he broke the intercollegiate pole
vault record and, in his senior year, was captain of the Yale track
team. lie was a member of the New York Athletic Club team at the
Paris Olympic Games in 1900. For these achievements, and as an
enthusiastic devotee of tennis and golf in recent years, he holds many
trophies. Before joining the Association's staff he practiced law in
Philadelphia, served as law officer for the Federal Indian Bureau, and
was Secretary of the Recreation Commission of New York City for
a year.

In presenting to Mr. Johnson Honorary Life Membership in the
American Social Hygiene Association, the Committee on Award rec-
ognizes the long-time and invaluable contribution to the national
program made by one who has kept the ideals and aims of that
program perpetually before him, and has steadily inarched forward
towards the goal. J. B. P.


D R. Elizabeth Campbell was one of the pioneers of women-in-
medicine and her outstanding success in her field has blazed the
way for the many able women who have followed in her footsteps.
Born in Ripley, Ohio, in 1862, she came of a family who had already
established a record for faithful public service. Pier paternal great-
grandfather was a governor of the state and her maternal grandfather
was one of the trio of abolitionists who established the first under-
ground railway system for the escape of slaves at the time of the
Civil War. In the old home, high above Ripley on the Ohio River,
one of the stations was established and in the house, now a memorial
building of the state, the concealed room where D R- CAMPBELL

the slaves were hidden can still be seen.

Educated in private schools, Elizabeth Camp-
bell developed early an interest in medicine and,
after some preliminary study in a physician's
office, she entered the University of Michigan
where she studied for three years, then trans-
ferring to the Medical College of the University
of Cincinnati. She was graduated from the
Medical College in 1895 and became an interne
in Prison Hospital for Women at Framingham,


Massachusetts. After completing her interneship, she returned to
Cincinnati where she opened her office and soon established the large
and successful practice she carries on today.

In addition to her large private practice, Dr. Campbell soon
developed an interest in public health affairs, holding that general
health conditions in the community were matters of prime importance
to every practicing physician and a part of such physician's responsi-
bility. In 1902, Dr. Campbell was elected a member of the staff of
Christ Hospital, the first woman to hold such a position in any hospital
in Cincinnati. She became Vice-President of the Cincinnati Acad-
emy of Medicine in 1910, again being the first woman to hold this
position. The recognition of her standing and ability as a physician
naturally increased the value of her work in the field of public health.
In 1909, w ? ith an interested group of women she organized the Cincin-
nati Visiting Nurse Association, becoming the first president. In 1917,
she became interested in social hygiene, securing sufficient interest
to organize, and assuming the presidency of the Cincinnati Social
Hygiene Society.

Those were dramatic days! At the first public meeting an army
officer, asked to give his opinion as to' the protection of the soldiers
against disease, arose, and with great dignity advised ''the ladies to
go home and attend to their knitting as such problems belonged to
men." At that time there existed a rather famous (or infamous)
"red-light district" in the heart of the city. Segregation was a moot
question. Many excellent people believed it the only way to handle
prostitution. This small organization, knowing soldier boys went in
and out of those houses without let or hindrance, felt helpless even
to attempt to stem the tide. And then came the edict from Washing-
ton, promulgated by Secretary of War Newton D. Baker, that no
segregated district could remain within a five-mile radius of any
encampment. It was a great day when it was found that the care-
fully measured distance to Fort Thomas fell within the limit. Having
Federal authority, action began at once, against all sorts of odds, to
clear the street, and soon the group had the great satisfaction of
seeing the last denizen depart, bag and baggage.

In 1932, calling on a few physicians to help, Dr. Campbell organized
the Cincinnati Committee on Maternal Health, as a branch of the New-
York Society. The unusual feature of the organization is the medical
control. -Carrying out her firm convictions, that physicians should
sponsor social problems with medical implications, Dr. Campbell stood
firmly for the venture becoming a committee of the Academy of
Medicine. Against many objections, the work was adopted by the
Academy, and has grown to large proportions, embracing nine
intramural clinics.

In all of this growth and development, Dr. Campbell has been
the guiding spirit. She is today active as Chairman of the Committee
on Maternal Health, having served also on the national board of Ihat
organization; and as Vice-President of the Cincinnati Social Hygiene
Society. From 1925 to 1936 she served on the Boai'd of the Amoi-imn


Social Hygiene Association, continuing as Vice-President from 1936
to 1938.

Not alone for these accomplishments, and for the inspiring leader-
ship and high ideals which have distinguished the deeds of this
stout-hearted fighter, but as well for the warmth and kindliness in
every-day human relationships shown by a gracious lady, we are
privileged to award Honorary Life Membership in the American
Social Hygiene Association. J. B. P.


HARVARD University conferred the degree of Doctor of Medicine
upon Joseph Royal Phelps in 1903, and experience in the practice of
medicine completed his preparation for a career in military medicine
and surgery. From his entrance into the Medical Corps of the United
States Navy to retirement in December, 1938, Captain Phelps was
always the forthright proponent of enquiry, analysis and improve-
ment of methods along lines he believed would achieve results.

His tours of duty at sea and on shore carried him to many parts
of the earth and assigned to him many difficult problems for example,
from the duties of Health Officer of American Samoa to studies in
Washington of metabolism in relation to the Navy ration ; and from the
surgical technique on a battleship to instruction in hygiene and pre-
ventive medicine for graduate students in the Naval Medical School.
Although he is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, Cap-
tain Phelps was always particularly interested in epidemiology, and
much of his writing and influence were directed toward promotion
and coordination of laboratory research, statistical studies, clinical
practice and epidemiological investigations. While illness restricted
his personal contacts and field activities, he continued these efforts
through his Fellowship in the American Public Health Association
and his membership on many advisory boards, in addition to his
official connections.

Another of Captain Phelps' research activities of special interest
was a statistical study of the toxic effects of arsenical compounds
used in the treatment of syphilis in the Navy. This important work,
begun in 1926, has been continued by his successors. At this period
of his assignment to duty in Washington, he also served on the
Advisory Board of the United States Hygiene Laboratory (now
known as the National Institute of Health).

For members of the American Social Hygiene Association, Cap-
tain Phelps' selection in 1917 to organize and later to direct, until
1927, the Division of Preventive Medicine, Bureau of Medicine and
Surgery in the Navy Department, is one of the high points of his
career. This Division functioned with great advantage not only in
the navy, but in correlation with the Venereal Disease Administrative
Unit of the Army and the then newly created Division of Venereal
Diseases in the Public Health Service.


During these years the United States Interde-
partmental Social Hygiene Board was active in
promoting the civilian program and assisting state
and local authorities, universities, the social
hygiene agencies and other organizations to
undertake research and demonstrations of better
methods for diagnosis, treatment and public
health control of the venereal diseases, and for
education and social protection. Dr. Phelps was
one of the forceful members of the Executive
Committee of this Board.

On recommendation of the Surgeon General
of the Navy in December, 1924, and by direction
of the Secretary of the Navy, a board of officers
was convened by order of the Chief of the
Bureau of Navigation to study the venereal
disease problems of the Navy. The officers of
this Board represented the Bureau of Navigation, the office of the
Major General Commandant of the Marine Corps, the office of the
Judge Advocate General of the Navy and the Bureau of Medicine and

Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 19 of 71)