American Social Hygiene Association.

Journal of social hygiene (Volume 28) online

. (page 2 of 71)
Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 2 of 71)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


control. A report of a study made
by the American Social Hygiene
Association. Eileen McGrath. 97.
Syphilis reporting and Wassermann
findings by states. Lueile Hook
Hamlin. 103.

Tennessee.

Yearbook summary. 334.

Youth notes. 113.
Texas, San Antonio.

Planning for ' ' the kind of help they
need." Studies of women and
girls arrested for prostitution in
three selected cities; means and
methods of medical care and social
treatment. 388.



576



CONTENTS



Texas.

Yearbook summary. 336.
Youth notes. 113.

Those same old questions. Bay H.
Everett. Editorial. 551.

Time to make the kill. Frontispiece,
reverse. December.

To all women and girls. Edith Liv-
ingston Smith. 479.

Townsend, James G. Protecting work-
ers from venereal diseases. I. In
civilian defense industries. 78.

Tunney, Commander Gene. The bright
shield of continence. 473.

Turner, Thomas B. Some aspects of
venereal disease prevention in war-
time. 518.

Twenty-ninth anniversary number.
March.

U

United Service Organizations regional
representatives. Begional supervi-
sors of U.S.O. member agencies and
Federal Security Agency regional
recreation representatives. 240, 363.
United States Army.

An agreement by the War and Navy
Departments, the Federal Security
Agency, and state health depart-
ments on measures for the control
of the venereal diseases in areas
where armed forces or national de-
fense employees are concentrated.
May. 1940. 31.
Army assignments.
See Army.

Fit to fight . . . and fit for life. A
brief review of the social hygiene
activities of the U. S. Army. 4.
See Selectees.

Some aspects of venereal disease pre-
vention in wartime. Thomas B.
Turner. 518.

Some illustrations of Army, Navy,
Public Health Service and Social
Protection Section problems. 54.
Venereal disease control in the U. S.
Army: Annual rates per 1,000
strength 1890-1940. Chart. 9.
V.D. Officer Assignments, 487, 564.
See Turner above.



U. S. Army continued

War Department Circular No. 170-13,
Aug. 16, 1941. Prohibition of
prostitution within reasonable dis-
tance of military establishments.
57.

War Department memorandum, De-
cember 16, 1940, to commanding
generals of all armies, corps areas
and departments: Control of the
use of intoxicating beverages by
military personnel, and the im-
provement of moral conditions in
the vicinity of camps and sta-
tions. 59.

War Department memorandum of
March 22, 1941, to commanding
general of all corps areas, depart-
ments, armies, G.H.Q., air force,
armored force and G.H.Q. ; chiefs
of all arms and services and com-
manding officers of exempted sta-
tions: Improvement of moral con-
ditions in the vicinity of camps
and stations. 60.

"When brothels close v.d. rates go
down." Bascom Johnson, Jr.
525.

Photographs of Army Life. Insert

following 16.
United States Navy.

An agreement by the War and Navy
Departments, the Federal Security
Agency, and state health depart-
ments on measures for the control
of the venereal diseases in areas
where armed forces or national de-
fense employees are concentrated.
May, 1940. 31.

Army and Navy Orders, 57.

"Best traditions of the service ..."
The United States Navy and social
hygiene. 22.

General order concerning control of
prostitution in areas adjacent to
naval activities. 61.

Navy appointments. 558.

The Navy social hygiene program in
action. Boss T. Mclntire. 127.

Some illustrations of Army, Navy,
Public Health Service and Social
Protection Section problems. 54.



CONTENTS



577



U. S. Navy continued

Venereal disease control program of
Navy gains impetus. 557.

Photographs of Navy Life. Insert

following 24.
United States Public Health Service.

"Health is the state's foundation";
the Division of Venereal Diseases.
30.

Illustrations of materials. Insert
following 32.

Funds budgeted and activities re-
ported for venereal disease control
in states and territories for the
fiscal years 1938-41. Table. 37.

Syphilis control activities reported
for states and territories under
provisions of the Venereal Disease
Control Act, 1936-41. Chart. 38.

Some illustrations of Army, Navy,
Public Health Service and Social
Protection Section problems. 54.

Conference at Hot Springs marks a

milestone. 485.
U. S. War Department.

See U. S. Army.
Urology award. 564.
Utah

Yearbook summary. 339.



Venereal disease.

Commercialized prostitution and dis-
ease transmission in New York
City. Walter Clarke. 426.

The federal fight against venereal
disease. Paul V. MeNutt. 117.

Police and health department func-
tions in repressing prostitution and
controlling venereal diseases. Wil-
liam F. Snow. 419.

Protecting workers from venereal
diseases. I. In civilian defense in-
dustries. James G. Townsend. 78.
II. In government defense indus-
tries. Ernest W. Brown. 83.

Some aspects of prevention in war-
time Thomas B. Turner. 518.
Venereal disease among industrial
workers. Special number on prog-
ress in prevention and control of.
February.



Venereal disease control.

Cooperation of industry with the
Detroit Health Department. Clement
Scott. 94.

Funds budgeted and activities re-
ported for, in states and territories
for the fiscal years 1938-41.
Table. 37.

Industry's opportunity. Some com-
ments on past, present and future
efforts to solve the venereal dis-
ease problem among workers.
Walter W. E. May. 69.

National conference on venereal dis-
ease control needs in wartime to
be held at Hot Springs. 432.

Public agencies working to control.
Chart. Insert following 44.

Venereal disease control in the U. 8.
Army: Annual rate per 1,000
strength 1890-1940. Chart. 9.
Venereal Disease Control Act. Syphilis
control activities reported for states
and territories under provisions of
the, 1936-41. Chart. 38.
Venereal disease control program of
Navy gains impetus. 557.

Vermont.

Health education among industrial
workers. 96.

Yearbook summary. 341.
Vim, vigor and victory. William JP.

Snow. Editorial. 1.
Virginia.

Yearbook summary. 343.
Voluntary agencies, national.

See National agencies.
Voluntary agencies, state and local.

For reports on work of, see Yearbook

summaries of respective states.
Vonderlehr, R. A.

Memorandum to state and local
health officers. 520.

Quotation. 102.

W

War and the coming winter on the
social hygiene front. Editorial. 428.



578



CONTENTS



War weddings.

Editorial. 482.

Photographs. Frontispiece. No-
vember.
Wartime.

The N.Y.A. health program in war-
time. Marie D. Lane. November.
469.

Social hygiene in wartime. III.
Youth in wartime. November.

Social hygiene and youth in defense
communities. Maurice A. Bigelow.
437.

Youth in wartime. Photograph.
Insert 468-9.

Youth standards in wartime. Pro-
grams relating to the immediate
needs of youth as engendered by
the wartime situation. Harvard
seminar on youth standards in
wartime. Report of workshop No.
1. Richard H. Anthony, Leader.
448.
Wartime problems to be discussed at

A.P.H.A. meeting in St. Louis. 433.
Washington, D. C., Institute on Social
Protection.

Getting social protection across.
Ray H. Everett. 521.

Spurs community action. 491.
Washington.

Yearbook summary. 347.
Washington, Tacoma.

Planning for "the kind of help
they need." Studies of women
and girls arrested for prostitution
in three selected cities; means and
methods of medical care and social
treatment. 388.
Weatherly, Colonel Eugene T. Local

control of prostitution in wartime.

383.
West Virginia.

Yearbook summary. 352.
What she thinks about it. Facts and

opinions of 3,300 Wisconsin high

school girls. Aimee Zillmer and

Ruth Larsen. 464.



"When brothels close v.d. rates go

down." Bascom Johnson, Jr. 525.
Who is behind the vice "racket"!

Chart. 382.

Who is "delinquent"? Editorial. 481.
Winslow, C-.E. A. Quotation. 29.
Wisconsin.

Yearbook summary. 355.
Women. To all women and girls.

Edith Livingston Smith. 479.

World war. From the first world war
scrapbook. 480.

Wyoming.
Yearbook summary. 358.



Youth.

"The business of youth" in war-
time. Editorial. 482.
National voluntary youth agencies,

names and addresses. 471.
Social hygiene in wartime. III.
Youth in wartime. November.
Social hygiene aids for youth and

youth leaders. 492.
Social hygiene and youth in defense
communities. Maurice A. Bigelow.
437.

Youth notes. 113.
Youth in wartime. Photograph.

Insert 468-9.

Youth standards in wartime. Pro-
grams relating to the immediate
needs of youth as engendered by the
wartime situation. Harvard seminar
on youth standards in wartime. Re-
port of workshop No. 1. Richard H.
Anthony, Leader. 448.



Zillmer, Aimee, and Ruth Larsen.
What she thinks about it. Facts
and opinions from 3,300 Wisconsin
high school girls. 464.



/. > s

Vol. 28 January, 1942 No. 1



Journal






Social Hygiene




Social Hygiene and National Defense. VI
The Federal Program in Action



" We are fighting today for security, for progress, and for peace, not
only for one generation but for all generations. Victory means victory
for the institution of democracy, the ideal of the family, the simple
principles of common decency and humanity."



Franklin D. Roosevelt



CONTENTS



Editorial: Vim, Vigor and Victory 1

Fit to Fight . . . and Fit for Life: Social Hygiene Activities of the United States Army. . 4

" Best Traditions of the Service ": The United States Navy and Social Hygiene 22

"Health Is the State's Foundation": The Division of Venereal Diseases, United States

Public Health Service 30

Safeguards Plus Salvage: The Social Protection Section of the Defense Health and

Welfare Services 40

Supplemental Notes:

Some Typical Community Conditions and Efforts to Deal with Them 49

Some Illustrations of Health and Protection Problems 54

Army and Navy Orders and Other Government Documents 57

Readings and References on Social Hygiene in War Time. 63



Seventh National Social Hygiene Day
February 3, 1943



The American Social Hygiene Association presents the articles printed in the
JOURNAL or SOCIAL HYGIENE upon the authority of their writers. It does not
necessarily endorse or assume responsibility for opinions expressed or statements
made. The reviewing of a book in the JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE does not
imply its recommendation by the Association.



EDITORIAL BOARD
C.-E. A. WINSLOW, Chairman

JOSEPH K. FOLSOM WILLIAM F. SNOW

EDWARD L. Kins JOHN H. STOKES

JOHN C. WAED

JEAN B. PINNKY, MANAGING EDITOR
WILLIAM F. SHOW, EDITORIAL CONSULTANT



The JOURNAL or SOCIAL HYGIENE is supplied to active members of the American
Social Hygiene Association, Inc. Membership dues are two dollars a year. The
magazine will be sent to persons not members of the Association at three dollars
a year ; single copies are sold at thirty-five cents each. Postage outside the United
States and its possessions, 50 cents a year.

Entered as second-class matter at post-office at Albany, N. Y., March 23, 1922.

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103,
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized March 23, 1922.

Published monthly (nine issues a year) for the Association by the Boyd Printing
Company, Inc., 372-374 Broadway, Albany, N. Y.

Copyright, 1941, by The American Social Hygiene Association, Inc.
Title Registered, U. S. Patent Office.

PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER
AT 372-374 BROADWAY, ALBANY, N. Y., FOB

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION

EDITORIAL OFFICES
1790 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY



BRANCH OFFICES

CENTRAL STATES DIVISION: 9 East Huron Street, Chicago, 111.
BERTHA M. SHATER, M.D., Field Consultant

WESTERN STATES DIVISION: 45 Second Street, San Francisco, Cal.
W. FORD HIGBY, Field Consultant

WASHINGTON, D. C., LIAISON OFFICE: 927 15th Street, N.W., Room 609
MRS. GERTRUDE R. LUCK, Field Secretary



Copyright Harris & Ewing





President of the United States
Commander-in-Chief, United States Army and Navy




FRANK KNOX PAUL V. McNUTT

Secretary of the Navy Federal Security Administrator



HENRY L STIMSON

Secretary of War



The JOURNAL gratefully acknowledges the generous coopera-
tion given by the various Federal agencies described in this
Sixth issue on Social Hygiene and National Defense, through
provision of facts, figures, photographs, charts and other records
and data, and particularly through the personal assistance of
the several staffs to Miss Jean B. Pinney, Mr. Ray II. Everett
and Dr. William F. Snow, who were assigned by the Editorial
Board to collect this material and prepare it for publication.
Without this friendly official help such a project would hardly
have been possible.

Similarly authentic and specific information upon progress
of official state and local social hygiene activities, and upon
work of cooperating voluntary agencies, is planned for presenta-
tion in future issues of the JOURNAL.



Photograph of Secretary Knox is by courtesy of the United States Navy

Photograph of Secretary Stimson is by United Slates Army Signal Corps

Photograph of Administrator McNv.it is by courtesy of the Federal Security Agency



Journal

H v ,,.' > of '- ; \ ; ".
|J Social Hygiene

VOL. 28 JANUARY, 1942 NO. 1

Social Hygiene and National Defense. VI
The Federal Program in Action

" We are fighting today for security, for progress, and for peace, not
only for one generation but for all generations. Victory means victory
for the institution of democracy, the ideal of the family, the simple
principles of common decency and humanity."

Franklin D. Roosevelt

January 6, 1942

EDITORIAL

VIM, VIGOB AND VICTORY

" Keeping the greatest number of men in the battle line
the greatest number of days of the year" is a time-honored
objective of military medical officers and unit commanders.
In our second World War, this aphorism needs to be applied
also to the assembly line in industry, to the supply lines, and
to the home guard. All-out efforts for victory must include
united action and maximum effort to eradicate syphilis and
gonorrhea as allies of human enemies. These diseases and
their traitorous promoters work behind the lines cutting down
vim and vigor in ways which may be aptly described as sabo-
tage, aid to the enemy, and other subversive activities.

The chief problem of the social hygiene societies is to get
across to the general public this concept of biological warfare

which is now going on through insidious infiltration behind

i



2 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

the battle lines. Press dispatches from China stating that
Japanese army fliers have dropped bomb-like receptacles
filled with rice and wisps of cotton containing cultures of
bubonic plague bacilli planned to infect rats and spread this
pestilence among the Chinese fill us with horror; but no
enemy could hope to accomplish as much damage by such
methods applied to the United States as do those who aid and
abet prostitution and oppose nationwide application of all
measures for reducing the venereal diseases in home towns,
industrial centers, and military areas.

Three years is a short time to transform a nation intent
on reducing its Army and Navy to a minimum and staying at
home, to a nation at war with enemies in all parts of the world.
The selection and assignment to training centers of many
times the peace strength of the Army and the Navy has
been a colossal task. It has not been accomplished without
some serious delays and disappointments in securing effective
action for conservation of health, morale and general welfare.
The same inhibiting influences of misunderstanding, depart-
mental revision, shifting of officials, and slow development
of public support and participation, have been at work in this
field, but have been less obvious to the public than in the fields
of production and transportation of supplies to the theaters
of war. Nevertheless, encouraging progress has been made.
This is the sixth in the JOURNAL'S series of numbers devoted
to Social Hygiene and National Defense. It offers convincing
proof of growth and development toward satisfactory war-
time measures for reduction of the venereal diseases and
establishment of social protection programs.

The limits of time and space have precluded statements
in this JOURNAL issue about other Government agencies at
the Federal level which also have furnished valuable data
and pertinent illustrations of their social hygiene activities.
Eeaders and members of the Association should keep them in
mind as playing an important part in this work in the coming
years of World War II. Among these are the Department of
Justice and its Federal Bureau of Investigation and Bureau
of Prisons, the Office of Education and other administrative
units of the Federal Security Agency, the Children 's Bureau,



EDITORIAL 6

the Federal Works Agency, and several divisions and sections
of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services not
discussed here.

Two important additional policy and correlation agencies
have been set up (a) an Advisory Committee for the Social
Protection Section, and (b) an Interdepartmental Venereal
Disease Committee, reporting directly to the Secretary of
War, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Federal Security
Administrator, and comprising two members each from the
Army, the Navy, the Federal Security Agency and one repre-
sentative each from the Department of Justice and the Amer-
ican Social Hygiene Association.

Readers should also keep in mind that activity at the Fed-
eral level must be geared to similar activities at the State
and local levels if we are to secure immediate benefits and
the permanent results desired.

President Roosevelt's message to Congress and the people
of the United States on The State of the Nation, January 6,
1942, says:

"We are fighting today for security, for progress, and for
peace, not only for one generation but for all generations.
Victory means victory for the institution of democracy, the
ideal of the family, the simple principles of common decency
and humanity."

The response has been an immediate endorsement of these
objectives and full assurance of united action to achieve them.
The American Social Hygiene Association and all its affiliates
and cooperating voluntary committees and organizations must
not fail to do their part in the great task which lies ahead.



FIT TO FIGHT . . . AND FIT FOR LIFE

A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE SOCIAL, HYGIENE ACTIVITIES

OF THE
UNITED STATES AKMY



"The Army of the United States is keenly aware of its
responsibilities, and is determined to make the tour of service
of the citizen soldiers not only a vital contribution to the
security of this country, but also an equally important con-
tribution in the development of better citizenship."

from the War Department publication
The New Army of the United States.

Before the first selectee of our new Army had learned to
present arms, the War Department had thrown its health and
welfare machinery into high gear to outmaneuver the anti-
social forces which inevitably become more active and difficult
to combat when a national emergency demands that a million
new recruits crowd into camp.

In a letter of November 25, 1940, Secretary of War Henry
L. Stimson said : l

"As the first contingent of our young men are being inducted
into service for their year of military training, the War Department
is becoming increasingly aware of its responsibility for their health
and well-being. In the training camps already established or soon
to be established, there will be gathered large numbers of the finest
youth of the country, who, in their leisure hours, will be seeking
recreation in communities strange to them, and may find themselves
exposed to temptations to which many of them are not accustomed.

' ' In addition to the moral aspect of the matter, the War Department
is interested in the prevention of disease among the soldiers as a basic
necessity in the creation of an efficient military force. ' '



i Letter to Dr. Bay Lyman Wilbur, President of the American Social Hygiene
Association, acknowledging assistance in problems of venereal disease pre-
vention and repression of prostitution in the preceding year of preparation,
training and war maneuvers of the Regular Army and the National Guard,
and asking for continued aid to the military service in these respects. See also
letter of the Adjutant General, May 4, 1940 and articles in the JOUENAL OF
SOCIAL HYGIENE describing programs and results of the joint activities of Federal,
State and community agencies in these training and maneuver areas. (Series on
Social Hygiene and National Defense, Nos. I to V. November, 1940 to
October, 1941.)



FIT TO FIGHT . . . AND FIT FOE LIFE O

On December 5, 1941, by order of the Secretary of War,
General George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff, issued a signifi-
cant circular (No. 249 shown below) on the eve of the mid-
winter holiday period, when it was expected that many sol-
diers would be granted furloughs. 2

Circular WAR DEPARTMENT

No. 249 Washington, December 5, 1941

Venereal disease. 1. At this time, on the eve of the mid-winter holiday
period when many soldiers will be granted furloughs of varying length, it
becomes necessary to urge all ranks to take every possible measure of
prevention against venereal disease. Many men will be absent from the
direct control of military authority, but responsibility for their conduct
and health is a continuing one. The Secretary of War desires to take
this occasion to reaffirm measures necessary to the prevention of venereal
disease and to outline directly the duties of all concerned in order to
(a) bring the venereal rate among military personnel to an irreducible
minimum, (b) eliminate all possible reason for failure to carry out ade-
quately War Department policy and instructions, and (c) place responsi-
bility definitely.

2. The guiding principle shall continue to be that continence and self-
control not only develop character but are the only completely satisfactory
methods of preventing venereal disease.

3. To emphasize this principle, a strict compliance with all orders in
effect is mandatory, including the showing of training film TF8-154 Sex
Hygiene and the placing of the pamphlet Sex Hygiene in the hands of each
recruit. Officers should use every opportunity to supplement these measures
by talks to groups and individuals at appropriate times and places.

4. Men will be encouraged to use recreational and athletic facilities in
order that their free time may be spent in healthful and interesting
pursuits.

5. The importance of prophylactic measures will be stressed as a neces-
sary precaution when the foregoing educational efforts have failed.
Prophylactic stations will continue to be maintained by the Medical
Department in all camps, posts, and stations and in civilian communities
adjacent to Army stations when it is deemed advisable. Commanders will
emphasize to men of their commands the necessity of reporting to prophy-
lactic stations within an hour after exposure to venereal disease in order
to be treated effectively. Prophylactic treatment will be administered
to all men returning to camp in an intoxicated condition.

6. Men leaving on furloughs will be especially warned of the dangers
of exposure to venereal diseases and will be instructed in methods of
obtaining prophylactic treatment in places where no prophylactic stations
are available.

7. The objective of the War Department is the suppression of prosti-
tution and the elimination of segregated areas of possible infection sur-
rounding our military establishments. Where local authorities fail to
cooperate in removing unsatisfactory conditions, commanders are enjoined
to declare affected areas "off limits" to members of their commands,
and to follow the procedure prescribed in Section II, Circular No. 170,



2 The declaration of war on December 8, 1941, necessarily restricted mid-winter
furloughs, but the Circular has continued in force and generally applicable.



6 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

War Department, 1941, with a view to invoking the powers granted by
the May Act. No deviation from this policy is authorized.

8. The prevention and control of venereal disease is the responsibility
of the unit commander and for the personal performance of that duty he
will be held strictly accountable. Unless extenuating circumstances exist,
a high incidence of venereal disease in a command shall be regarded
as indicative of a lack of efficiency on the part of the commander concerned.
Commanders of units having a low incidence shall receive full credit for



Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 2 of 71)