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sizes and justifies repetition of the Committee's recommendation at
past annual meetings that every effort again be made to enlarge the
number and geographic distribution of members and to make every
endeavor to secure as many young members as possible.

The Committee desires again to call attention to its belief that a
nation-wide active membership is a valuable source of information
upon state and community conditions and social hygiene programs.
During this year, again, with national defense activities so urgently
demanding assistance and cooperation from the Association, and its
state and local affiliates, a rapidly increasing and well-informed
membership is vitally important.

The Committee on Resolutions (Huon H. DOWLING, Chairman)

The Committee on Resolutions, functioning in accordance with the
by-laws of the Association, presents the following for your considera-
tion and action :

(1) RESOLVED: That all acts and proceedings of the Board of Direc-
tors, the Executive Committee, and the officers of this Association
carried out since the last annual meeting of this Association on
February 5, 1941, be, and the same are, hereby ratified, adopted and
approved, and the same are hereby made the acts and proceedings of
this Association at this meeting, such acts and proceedings to take
effect as of the dates on which the acts and proceedings purport
respectively to have been carried out.

(2) WHEREAS, by reason of treacherous, unprovoked assault, the
United States is now at war with the Axis nations ; and



COMMITTEE EEPORTS 173

WHEREAS, it is more than ever vital that all the armed forces and
civilian forces of this country engaged in the war effort be surrounded
with conditions insuring health, morale, and welfare; and

WHEREAS, since the start of the defense program in 1940, this Associa-
tion has stood ready to lend all possible assistance to Federal, State,
and local authorities in promoting such conditions;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That the American Social Hygiene
Association pledge its continued cooperation and assistance to the
proper Federal, State and local authorities in carrying out their
programs to promote health, morale and welfare.

(3) WHEREAS, during 1941, this Association endorsed and urged
upon Congress the passage of H. R. 2475 generally referred to as
' ' the May Bill ' ' which among other provisions authorizes and directs
the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy and the Federal
Security Administrator to take such steps as they deem necessary
to suppress and prevent prostitution in designated areas adjacent to
military or naval camps and other places ; and

WHEREAS, H. R. 2475 was passed by Congress and was approved by
the President on July 11, 1941 ;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That this Association recommends that
the provisions of this Act (Public Law 163 77th Congress Chapter
287 1st session) be now utilized in the manner which proves in prac-
tice most effective in achieving the objectives which led Congress and
the President to approve it as a major facility for the repression of
prostitution.

(4) WHEREAS, Pursuant to an agreement made in 1940, between var-
ious departments of the Federal Government, this Association was
invited to aid in stimulation of public support for the measures out-
lined therein for control of venereal diseases in areas where armed
forces or industrial workers are concentrated ; and

WHEREAS, progress has been made along all the lines of activity
planned under the terms of the agreement ; and an Interdepartmental
Venereal Disease Committee has been set up, with participation by
this Association, to promote correlation and coordination of activities
in this field at the Federal, State and local levels ;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That the American Social Hygiene
Association extend its full cooperation to the Interdepartmental
Venereal Disease Committee.

(5) WHEREAS, in the Federal Budget for the fiscal year beginning
July 1, 1942 and ending June 30, 1943, the President has recom-
mended that the sum of $8,180,000 be appropriated under pertinent
provisions of the "Venereal Disease Control Act," enacted by Con-
gress in 1938; and



174 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

WHEREAS, a supplemental appropriation bill H. R. 6548 has been
introduced in Congress to provide $2,500,000 as additional funds
to be used during the remainder of the current fiscal year for the
same general purposes ;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That this Association give its support
to the President's budgetary recommendation allocable to the
"Venereal Disease Control Act" and to the supplemental appropria-
tion provided for in H. R. 6548, and that Congress be asked to approve
each of these appropriations. Editors note: Approval was given.

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That this Association request the States
to appropriate an aggregate amount at least equal to the aforesaid
Federal appropriations, and that both the States and the Federal
Government make adequate provisions to carry on the expanded work
without curtailment after July 1, 1942.

(6) WHEREAS, in spite^of tremendous efforts by official and voluntary
agencies during the last war, the loss of time by soldiers from training
and combat, due to syphilis and gonorrhea, was 6,804,818 man-
days; and

WPIEREAS, prostitution is the main spreader of these diseases to civil-
ians as well as to the armed forces ; and

WHEREAS, prostitution not only spreads disease but also corruption
to the morals of youth, to the stability of marriage and family life,
and to the integrity of government; and

WHEREAS, this country is again engaged in a life-and-death struggle
for which the services of every trained man and woman are vital ;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED : That this Association give its unqualified
endorsement to all measures calculated to inculcate and maintain
high standards of sex behavior, and to reduce prostitution and the
spread of the venereal diseases, not only among the armed forces but
also throughout the entire civilian population.

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED : That the State legislatures meeting in 1942
be urged by this Association to adopt such laws as may be necessary
to provide ample legal measures for suppression of prostitution and
to provide funds for proper enforcement of such laws.

(7) WHEREAS, the- nation-wide observance of Sixth National Social
Hygiene Day on this date has been made successful largely through
the efforts and cooperation of State and local social hygiene societies
and of other organizations, professions and the public generally; and

WHEREAS, the scope and interest in observance of this Sixth National
Social Hygiene Day reflects a greatly increased public response to
the work done by the many groups and individuals cooperating with
this Association;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED : That this Association, together with the
Committee on National Defense Activities, renew thanks to all who
have lent their assistance to the success of Sixth National Social
Hygiene Day; and propose the continuance of this annual event.



COMMITTEE REPORTS 175

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That National Social Hygiene Day be
continued in future years, and that Wednesday, February 3, 1943,
be designated Seventh National Social Hygiene Day.

(8) WHEREAS, during the year, death has come to a number of out-
standing leaders in the social hygiene field, among whom were
Mr. George Blumenthal, Mr. Arthur Curtiss James, Miss Julia
Jaffray, Miss Jessamine Whitney, Dr. Loren B. Johnson, Mrs. Martha
P. Falconer, Dr. J. N. Baker, Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, Miss Vir-
ginia M. Murray, Dr. J. Rosslyn Earp, Mr. Frank S. Cunningham,
Mr. Charles H. Schweppe, Mr. Isaac Adler, Dr. Minot Simons, Dr.
Fred Moore, Dr. Kenneth D. Blackfan, Mr. A. D. McDonald, Mrs.
Robert Campbell Lawson, Mr. William Gibbs McAdoo;

BE IT RESOLVED: That the American Social Hygiene Association
record at this time its profound sorrow at the loss of these friends
and co-workers.



The Committee on Awards (EDWARD L. KEYES, Chairman}

The membership of the Committee on Awards for 1941 comprised :
Dr. Edward L. Keyes, Chairman, Dr. Thomas Parran, General John J.
Pershing, Mrs. Sybil Neville-Rolfe, Dr. William F. Snow.

In selecting the recipient of the Snow Medal for Distinguished
Service to Humanity and in awarding honorary life memberships,
the Committee has had in mind the entrance of the United States
into the second World War. Important pioneer contributions were
made during the first World War to the solution of social hygiene
problems in education, control of the venereal diseases, law enforce-
ment against prostitution, and social protection and rehabilitation
of women and young persons. The Committee believes that it is
important at this time to stimulate those in authority to review and
consider the adaptation of many practical procedures which yielded
notable results at that time. It is believed that the selections made
will help accomplish this purpose through reference to the work anu
leadership of some of those who were responsible for outstanding serv-
ices in behalf of the social hygiene activities of that period.

The Committee decided that the medal should be awarded for the
year 1942 to Frederick Fuller Russell, and asked General Ireland
to make the presentation. (See pages 135-143.)

The Committee decided to award honorary life memberships on
the occasion of the Sixth National Social Hygiene Day to six leaders
in the social hygiene movement who have all been pioneers and were
all active in the first World War period, and have continued to render
great service in behalf of this field of activity during the intervening
years. Those selected for these awards are : John D. Rockefeller, Jr.,
Bascom Johnson, Claude C. Pierce, Elizabeth Campbell, Joseph R.
Phelps, Charles S. Stephenson.

The Committee attaches to this report the brief citations relating
to these recipients (see pages 144-154) ; and understands that in due



176 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

course, the Editor of the Journal of Social Hygiene will prepare a
statement regarding the presentation and acceptance of these awards
at the several regional conferences.

Under the rules governing this Committee, its membership for the
year 1942 will comprise Dr. Edward L. Keyes, Chairman, Dr. Thomas
Parran, General John J. Pershing, Mrs. Sybil Neville-Rolfe, and
Dr. Frederick F. Russell.

In conclusion, the Committee wishes to acknowledge special indebt-
edness to Mrs. Gertrude R. Luce, who as Assistant Secretary of the
Association, has served as secretary to the Committee, to Miss Jean B.
Pinney, Editor of the Journal of Social Hygiene, to Miss Reba
Rayburn, Editorial Assistant, and Mr. Lewis F. White, President of
the L. F. White Printing Company who prepared the citations for
distribution.

The Committee on National Defense Activities (PHILIP R. MATHER,
Chairman}

Since its last report, this Committee has continued to represent the
Association in conferences and studies of plans for coordination and
correlation of activities for venereal disease control and social
protection.

In the past year, the United States Public Health Service has done
excellent work and has expanded its personnel and efforts to deal with
venereal disease problems and related environmental conditions wher-
ever military and naval establishments have been located and con-
centrations of industrial defense workers have become necessary. In
this same period, the Section on Social Protection has been built up
under the direction of Governor McNutt and Mr. Charles P. Taf t, the
Assistant Director of Defense Health and Welfare Services. It will be
recalled that Mr. Johnson of the Association's staff was loaned to the
Government for some months to organize this new section, whose work
has been continued and expanded under the immediate direction of
Mr. Eliot Ness, the Director of Public Safety in Cleveland. The mem-
bers of the Committee have kept in close touch with officers of both
these administrative units of the Federal Security Agency.

All the members of this Committee have taken part in conferences
and appointments with the Secretaries of War and Navy and their
ranking staff officers. As a result of these meetings and conferences,
it is possible to assure the Board of Directors and members of the
Association that the work of the Association has been closely corre-
lated in its field with the work of the Federal Government.

Similarly, members of the Committee or of the staff have kept in
touch with other national voluntary groups such as the United Service
Organizations, member organizations of the National Health Council,
and the National Social Work Council, the American Medical Asso-
ciation, and other professional, welfare and church agencies.

The Committee takes satisfaction in reporting that there has
recently been set up in Washington an Interdepartmental Venereal



COMMITTEE REPORTS 177

Disease Committee, comprising two members each from the Army,
the Navy, and the Federal Security Agency, with one representative
each from the United States Department of Justice and the American
Social Hygiene Association. This Committee reports directly to the
Secretaries of War and Navy, and the Federal Security Adminis-
trator, and is expected to serve in a technical advisory capacity to
these three Federal officers named in the May Act, with special ref-
erence to problems relating to venereal diseases and social protection.

The Committee has been interested in participation of the Asso-
ciation in certain training courses: (1) an orientation course set up
for selected state and local health officers, public health nurses, and
sanitary engineers who are sent to Washington for instruction;
(2) a similar course for officers assigned to military police duty from
the nine corps areas of the Army, who are ordered in to Washington
for instruction under the direction of the Provost Marshal General.
In connection with instruction in both these courses, officers and staff
members of the Association have been invited to participate. A third
instruction course for selected civilian police officers is in process of
evolution under the auspices of the International Police Chiefs Asso-
ciation, and when this plan crystallizes, the Association is expected
to participate in the instruction.

The Committee believes that the members of the Association wall be
interested to hear the content of the recent communication on "moral
conditions in the vicinity of Army camps and stations" sent by the
Provost Marshal General of the Army to all provost marshals of
camps, posts and stations and commanding officers of military police
battalions.

While you have had presented to you by the Executive Director
summaries of the varied activities of the Association, the Committee
desires to emphasize the extent and importance of the investigation
studies which number more than 435 in the past sixteen months.
Copies of these reports on prostitution and related conditions have
been depended upon by all the departments of the Federal Govern-
ment concerned, and have been of equal significance in the considera-
tions of the states and communities involved. A spot map and assign-
ment area summary have been prepared to show graphically the
distribution and volume of these activities.

The Committee has given some attention to Congressional legis-
lation and appropriations, and to state legislation, particularly to
amending or supplementing existing prostitution laws. In the matter
of appropriations, the Committee expects that the Congress will appro-
priate $8,180,000 for what may be called the established program.
This is an increase over the appropriation for the current year which
was $6,250,000. In addition, the Committee expects that the Con-
gress will appropriate a supplemental sum of $2,500,000 recommended
by the President. The Committee does not have any specific Con-
gressional legislation in mind which requires study and consideration
unless it becomes necessary to amend in some way the May Act, or
to supplement it by additional measures.



A YEAR OF NATIONAL DEFENSE ACTIVITIES

CONDENSED REPORT FOB 1941
WALTEE CLARKE, M.D.

Executive Director, American Social Hygiene Association

It was recognized even before the declaration of the limited
national emergency that in all probability the problems of prostitu-
tion would again become conspicuous as the nation prepared for
defense and possibly for war. Our specific national defense activities,
started in 1939, increased in 1940, were still further enlarged in 1941.

Law Enforcement Activities

The Association's studies of prostitution conditions in communities
in or near which armed forces or defense industries are concentrated
have been of acknowledged value to the War and Navy Departments
and the Federal Security Agency.

Number of studies of importance to Military Areas:

made in 1939: 20; 1940: 86; 1941: 423.

Reports of these studies to a total number of 531 gave authoritative
information regarding prostitution and related activities to the Army,
the Navy, the Public Heath Service, and since its establishment, to the
Social Protection Section of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare
Services, and also to state and local health and law enforcement
officers.

Legal and medical consultants followed up these studies in many
communities where dangerous conditions existed. Serving in this
capacity during the first half of 1941, Doctor Snow, Doctor Storey,
Mr. Johnson, Mr. Dickerson, Mr. Bracken and Mr. Gould were
almost constantly in the field, advising and aiding local and state
officials.

In March, 1941, the Division of Social Protection * was established
in the Federal Security Agency. Mr. Bascom Johnson of the
Association's staff was loaned to organize the Division and as Direc-
tor, to launch its program for repression of prostitution and estab-
lishment of social protection measures. Two legal consultants of
of the Association were assigned to the Division of which Mr. John-
son was Director until September, 1941, when he was recalled to
the Association's staff.

Through the joint efforts of the Association and affiliated agencies
and several Federal agencies, the May Act was passed by Congress
and signed by the President on July 11, 1941. This Act gives the

* Now the Social Protection Section.

178



A YEAR OF NATIONAL DEFENSE ACTIVITIES 179

Secretaries of War and the Navy power to create zones about Army
or Navy establishments within which zones the practice of prostitu-
tion or aiding or abetting such practice becomes a Federal offense,
and thereafter, in addition to the activities of the Department of
Justice, authorizes and directs the Secretaries of War, Navy, and
Federal Security Administrator to take such steps as they deem
necessary.

The result of these and other activities by the Association, the
Division of Social Protection, the United States Public Health
Service, the Army and Navy and many local and state health and
law enforcement officials has been a remarkable improvement in
conditions in many communities adjacent to Army and Navy estab-
lishments. Though the May Act was not formally invoked during
1941, it has had a salutary effect. Many cities, large and small, which
had flagrant prostitution conditions have instituted a policy of law
enforcement, with marked diminution of opportunities for exposure
to infection and lessening of demoralizing influences. Among the
cities which have shown great improvement and whose officials and
citizens are to be complimented are the following :

San Diego, California San Antonio, Texas

San Francisco, California El Paso, Texas

Portland, Oregon Galveston, Texas

Tacoma, Washington Shreveport, Louisiana

Seattle, Washington Pensacola, Florida

Denver, Colorado Jacksonville, Florida

Salt Lake City, Utah Indianapolis, Indiana
Ogden, Utah

Toward the end of 1941, the Association renewed its suggestions
to the Federal Security Agency, the War Department, the Navy
Department, and the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services
that there should be established an Interdepartmental Committee to
assure harmonious development of policies and activities in relation
to the venereal diseases and to prostitution problems. Such a com-
mittee has now been set up and is functioning. Its membership com-
prises two representatives each from the Army, the Navy, and the
Federal Security Agency, and in addition, one representative each
from the Department, of Justice and the American Social Hygiene
Association.

Officers of the Association have rallied public opinion in many
cities in support of officers responsible for law enforcement, advised
with and aided Federal officers, and pointed out the legal and social
mechanisms for law enforcement. Large quantities of informational
material have been published and distributed. A popular talking
picture In Defense of the Nation dealing with community protective
measures and repression of prostitution has also been produced and
distributed.

Especially noteworthy is the Association's service in preparing <\
Digest of Laws Dealing with Prostitution and Other Sex Offenses,
which Digest has been supplied in manuscript form to the appropriate
officers of the Federal Security Agency, and is now in process of
printing.



180 JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIEXE

Early in 1941, the Association published No Li>n<j Boys Take-
Care of Yourselves, a special leaflet for men about to join the armed
forces. Of this publication, 278,724 copies have been so far requested
and distributed evidence that it met a real need. The United States
Navy has purchased, at cost, 30 copies of our sound motion picture
films, and has distributed 2,500 copies of Diagnosis and Treatment of
the Venereal Diseases (Circular Letter No. 18), which the Association
contributed to aid Navy medical officers in keeping abreast of the
modern diagnosis and treatment of venereal diseases. This publi-
cation was prepared by the Subcommittee on Venereal Diseases of
the National Research Council, of which the Association's Execu-
tive Director is a member.

Small informal groups or specially interested persons, are cooperat-
ing in many of the cities, near Army and Navy establishments, to
keep the Association informed of current developments and to serve
as advisers regarding Association activities in such cities.

To these direct activities leading to substantial amelioration of local
prostitution conditions should be added the general consultant activi-
ties of the Association's officers, especially the Committee on National
Defense Activities consisting of Mr. Philip R. Mather, Mr. Sewell L.
Avery, Major General Merritte W. Ireland, Doctor Fred T. Murphy,
and Doctor William F. Snow; and of the Association's staff, which
have aided the Federal government in considering and establishing
policies and practices for the reduction of prostitution to a minimum,
thereby minimizing the health and moral hazards encountered by the
armed forces and industrial defense workers.

Industrial Activities

Realizing that the health and efficiency of workers in defense
industries are vital to a successful prosecution of the war effort, the
Association has given aid to industries in protecting workers from
syphilis and gonorrhea. Working closely with civil health authorities
and industrial medical services, the Association's staff has encouraged
the establishment of adequate diagnostic and educational case-finding
procedures, adequate provision for treatment by private physicians,
clinics, or industrial medical departments, and adequate instruction
of workers in the avoidance and prevention of infection.

Staff members have visited 70 individual industries in 14 states.
Methods of popular instruction of workers were demonstrated in 12
coal mine villages. Two special leaflets, Vital to National Defense
for male workers, and Calling All Women for women workers, were
written, published, and have been distributed to a total number of
311,618. Articles for the information of management or workers
have been written and distributed to 600 industrial magazines, house
organs, and labor periodicals.

A special study of syphilis as a cause of loss to industry is in
progress. A questionnaire study has been made of the practice of
large industry with regard to the examination of workers for syphilis
and the disposition of discovered cases. This study reveals an



A YEAR OF NATIONAL, DEFENSE ACTIVITIES 181

encouraging picture of present-day industrial medical practice and
trends. Over half of 200 large industries include a blood test for



Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 22 of 71)