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syphilis as a part of pre-employment medical examination. More
than half employ infected workers in the absence of infectious lesions
or medical disability. Many engage in educational activities for the
benefit of personnel.

The Association, during 1941, pressed especially the value of
instruction of workers and has set up two educational demonstrations
(one in a Kentucky mining area, the other in a California airplane
industry) in addition to its widespread general cooperation with labor
organizations, industrial management, and health authorities.

Cooperation with Pharmacists

The activities of the Joint Committee of the American Pharmaceu-
tical Association and the American Social Hygiene Association have
included preparation and distribution of a leaflet entitled A Tip
from Your Pharmacist, especially devised to meet the problem of
pharmacists when asked for information regarding syphilis or gonor-
rhea. A test of this leaflet is in progress in Virginia, Maryland, New
Jersey and New York, in cooperation with the respective state phar-
maceutical associations. To date 89,836 copies have been distributed
by pharmacists. The Association has participated in state and
national meetings of the pharmaceutical profession; has distributed
eight releases to 33 pharmaceutical publications; and prepared eight
special articles for various pharmacy journals. Through the efforts
of the Joint Committee, the American Social Hygiene Association
serving as secretariat, all state pharmaceutical associations have set
up special committees on venereal disease or have designated members
to act as such, and all have adopted strong resolutions asserting their
desire to cooperate in the prevention and control of syphilis and gonor-
rhea. The Committee's efforts have brought pharmacists and health
authorities together in fruitful cooperation in educational activities
in which the drug stores serve as a center for distribution of popular
instruction material and of advice as to the sources of correct diag-
nosis and treatment.

The Joint Committee has investigated various problems referred
to it by the Association, and has provided authoritative information.

General Activities

Two new sound films were produced by the Association during 1941.
In Defense of the Nation, mentioned above, and Plain Facts, a straight-
forward presentation of facts about syphilis. Con Estas Armas, a
Spanish version of our sound film With These Weapons, the Story
of Syphilis, was produced and is being well received and widely dis-
tributed in Latin America. A third film Health is a Victory, dealing
with gonorrhea went into production in December, 1941, and will
be ready for distribution in February, 1942.

In the field of legislation, in addition to the May Act already men-
tioned, the Association supported Congressional action to appropriate
$6,250,000 to the United States Public Health Service for use by the


states and territories in combating venereal disease, supplied informa-
tion which citizens used to obtain passage of prenatal examination
laws in seven states and premarital examination laws in six states.*

Fifth National Social Hygiene Day, February 5, 1941, was pro-
moted by the Association with five regional conferences and several
thousand local meetings, and much press and radio publicity through-
out the nation. A successful conference of executives of social
hygiene societies was convened by the Association on October 11-12,
1941, in New York and Atlantic City.

The thirtieth anniversary of the discovery of salvarsan by Paul
Ehrlich was celebrated in New York City on October llth with the
Honorable Frances P. Bolton presiding and Mrs. Paul Ehrlich the
guest of honor, and a large audience of distinguished people in
attendance. The proceedings were broadcast and given prominence
in the daily press.

During 1941, four new social hygiene societies or committees joined
the constantly growing national social hygiene movement, making a
total of 145 organizations.

While national defense activities have claimed most of the Asso-
ciation 's time and money, the program for sex education and training
for family life has gone forward; the public demand for educational
materials has been met and several new important publications have
been issued.

An issue (November, 1941) of the Journal of Social Hygiene was
sponsored by the National Education Committee on the subject
The Schools and Education for Family Life. Another number (Feb-
ruary, 1941) was given over to Professor Maurice A. Bigelow 's report
on a cooperative project between this Association and the United
States Public Health Service. A reprint edition of this report entitled,
Health Education in Relation to Venereal Disease Control was sent
to members of the National Education Committee and also to a large
number of educators throughout the country who assisted Professor
Bigelow in obtaining necessary information for completion of the
study. An outline prepared by Professor Bigelow was sent to mem-
bers of the National Association of Biology Teachers, in order to
supplement our data on what biology courses in high schools are con-
tributing to social hygiene education. The interest and need of teach-
ers, parents and youth groups regarding material of this type is
indicated by the fact that about 40 per cent of pamphlets and about
90 per cent of books distributed in 1941 have dealt with the subject
of sex education. Staff members have participated in many confer-
ences on sex education or family relations.

Medical and public health activities in 1941 included a series of
lectures by Doctor Walter Clarke at the Harvard School of Public
Health, lectures by Doctor William F. Snow and Mr. Bascom John-

* Total now 26 states with prenatal examination laws and 26 with premarital
examination laws.


son to training classes conducted separately by the United States
Public Health Service and by the Section on Social Protection of
the Federal Security Agency, participation in the work of the
National Research Council, addresses to medical association meetings,
popular addresses on medical subjects, advisory service to health
authorities and practitioners of medicine, the confidential medical
advisory service to individuals seeking enlightenment on health mat-
ters in the field of social hygiene, and continuation of participation
in research projects dealing with intravenous drip treatment of
syphilis and gonorrhea. Considerable time was given to the develop-
ment of a clinical research group studying lymphogranuloma vener-
eum, and a report of this significant work will be published shortly.

The Association continued its membership in the National Health
Council which provides unity of action, in appropriate fields, of all
the important national voluntary health agencies, and the National
Social Work Council representing the national voluntary social work
agencies. These councils provide a mechanism for cooperation, con-
sultation, and material assistance.

The United Service Organizations has given the Association sup-
port, and the Association has cooperated with the U.S.O. in its impor-
tant morale-sustaining activities.

Cooperative projects were continued with:

1. The United States Public Health Service as follows:

a. Prevention and Control of Syphilis and Gonorrhea in National Defense
Industries, July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942.

b. Studies of Methods of Public Education and Training of Personnel,
July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942.

c. Promotion of Cooperation with Pharmacists in Combating Venereal Dis-
eases, July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942.

2. The National Tuberculosis Association and Howard University
dealing with health education in Negro colleges.

3. The Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America.

A grant of $500 was made in 1941 to the Subcommittee on Vener-
eal Diseases of the National Research Council to provide secretarial


A gain of 45 per cent in number of contributions over the best
previous year is especially gratifying and a clear indication of grow-
ing public awareness of the necessity for supporting the Associa-
tion's activities. The National Anti-Syphilis Committee has more
than justified its existence by giving invaluable service to the Asso-
ciation's money-raising program.

Total income in 1941 $193,770.47

Total expense in 1941 185,673.15


The staff of the Association, consisting of 44 consultants, execu-
tives and field workers and clerks and secretaries, rendered service
of high quality and were devoted to the Association's interests and
its service to the nation. The accomplishments of the Association
during 1941 would not have been possible except for this high morale
and devotion to duty.

The statistical summary of the year's work is as follows:

Field work: 23 staff members visited 46 States and the District of Columbia,
British Columbia, Puerto Rico and Hawaii a total of 2,385 days of field work.

A liaison office was maintained in Washington, D. C., with Doctor Snow and
Mrs. Luce and frequently other staff members working from this base.

Branch offices were maintained for the entire year in Chicago, Illinois with Doctor
Bertha Shafer in charge, and in San Francisco, California with Mr. William
F. Higby in charge. A branch office was maintained for the first four
months of 1941 in New Orleans, with Mrs. William Haller, Jr., in charge.

Publications: Distribution

Journal of Social Hygiene 27,848

Social Hygiene News 154,000

Pamphlets 1,341,243

Books 1,981

Films produced : Films distributed :

In Defense of the Nation Sold 301

Plain Facts Rented 96

Health is a Victory (in production) Given away 4

Publicity Releases: 125 distributed to about 7,000 newspapers, making a total
of 20,800 releases.

Correspondence :

Mail received 38,653 pieces

Mail sent 42,895 pieces

Local telephone calls made 11,418

Long distance telephone calls made 451

Telegrams sent 1,241

To Members and Friends

The next three issues of the JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE, April, May :md
June, will present The Program in Action in the States and Communities.
This will be another in the series which started in November, 1940, on
Social Hygiene and National Defense and which now, in keeping with
current events, is continued as dealing with Social Hygiene in Wartime.

The Program in Action in the States and Communities, in addition to
circulation in JOURNAL form among members and friends, will also be
reprinted, with some additional helpful material, as The Social Hygiene
Yearbook for 1942 (price $1.00 postpaid). A valuable feature in both
JOURNAL and Yearbook editions will be the lists of social hygiene groups
and cooperating agencies which will head each state narrative.

That we may estimate the number of copies needed, please let us know
your needs as far as possible in advance of printing.


Vol. 28 April, 1942 No. 4


Social Hygiene

Social Hygiene in Wartime. I.
The Program in Action in the States and Communities. Part I.


Editorial 185

The Social Hygiene Program in Action h> the States and Communities 187

State and Community Summaries:

Alabama 189

Arizona 192

Arkansas 194

California 196

Colorado 205

Connecticut 207

Delaware 209

District of Columbia 211

Florida 216

Georgia 219

Idaho 222

Illinois 224

Indiana 231

Iowa 234

Kansas 235

National Agencies 240

(Continued in May issue)

Seventh National Social Hygiene Day
February 3, 1943

The American Social Hygiene Association presents the articles printed in the
JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE upon the authority of their writers. It doea not
necessarily endorse or assume responsibility for opinions expressed or statements
made. The reviewing of a book in the JOURNAL or SOCIAL HYGIENE does not
imply its recommendation by the Association.


C.-E. A. WINSLOW, Chairman





The JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE is supplied to active members of the American
Social Hygiene Association, Inc. Membership dues are two dollars a year. The
magazine will be sent to persons not members of the Association at three dollars
a year; single copies are sold at thirty-five cents each. Postage outside the United
States and its possessions, 50 cents a year.

Entered as second-class matter at post-office at Albany, N. Y., March 23, 1922.

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103,
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized March 23, 1922.

Published monthly (nine issues a year) for the Association by the Boyd Printing
Company, Inc., 372-374 Broadway, Albany, N. Y.

Copyright, 1942, by The American Social Hygiene Association, Inc.
Title Eegistered, U. S. Patent Office.





CENTRAL STATES DIVISION: 9 East Huron Street, Chicago, 111.
BERTHA M. SHAFER, M.D., Field Consultant

WESTERN STATES DIVISION: 45 Second Street, San Francisco, Cal.
W. FORD HIGBY, Field Consultant

WASHINGTON, D. C., LIAISON OFFICE: 927 15th Street, N.W., Room 609

Miss JEAN B. PINNEY, Associate Director in Charge

MRS. GERTRUDE R. LUCE, Office Secretary

Social Hygiene

VOL. 28 APRIL, 1942 NO. 4

Social Hygiene in Wartime. I.

The Program in Action in the States
and Communities. Part I.*

" From every quarter come evidences of our national concern for
total physical and moral fitness . . . fitness for the freedom we cherish.
. . . This job depends ultimately upon the people themselves and their
moral fibre. . . . I, therefore, call for the united efforts of government
Federal, state and local-of business and industry, of the medical pro-
fession, of the schools, and of the churches; in short of all citizens. No
one can doubt the objective, or fail to cooperate in the various programs
once he understands them. This is one effort in which every man, woman
and child can play his part and share in ultimate victory . . ."

Franklin D. Roosevelt

May 25, 1942


As previously announced, this issue of the JOURNAL, and
the two following numbers undertake to present for our
members and friends a summary of current events and prog-
ress on "the forty-eight fronts" and in the outlying terri-
tories of the nation. Realizing at the start that any such
attempt of necessity must omit many interesting and impor-
tant details which might come under the head of "informa-
tion of aid to the enemy," that the redoubled problems of
wartime leave to those struggling with them in the states
and communities little time for reporting and knowing
well that compilation and publication would be a time-
consuming and costly job, the Editors nevertheless considered

* See also Part II, May issue, and Part III, June issue.



that the JOURNAL could perform no greater service at this
time. The results, we believe, justify the effort, and judging
by the comments received on previous reviews of this nature,
the interchange of knowledge and the broad view provided
will be of value to all concerned with the social hygiene

The Program in Action in the States and Communities is
published as No. I in a new JOURNAL series on Social Hygiene
in Wartime, which takes up where the previous series on
Social Hygiene and National Defense left off in January,
1942, with a review of Army, Navy, Public Health Service
and Social Protection Section activities, under the general
title The Federal Program in Action. 1 Future numbers on
various aspects of wartime social hygiene problems and
programs are contemplated, as material becomes available
for publication.

Like the early JOURNAL reports on social hygiene measures
and methods developed during the First World War 2 . . .
now proving of high importance as source material for the
current program ... all of this data is prepared and pub-
lished with a double purpose: First, for immediate service
in today's war emergency, and second, as a permanent record
of American courage and perseverance in facing and fighting
the venereal diseases and the prostitution racketeers during
critical period in the nation's life, while at the same time
keeping up the long-range educational and community pro-
grams which must sustain national health and morale when
the war is over.

1 The series on Social Hygiene and National Defense included : I. Program of
the American Social Hygiene Association, and State Activities. (November,
1940). II. A Community Program: A Symposium on Civilian Responsibility.
(December, 1940). III. An Industrial Program. (April, 1941). IV. A Youth
Program. (May, 1941). V. The Attack on Commercialised Prostitution. (Octo-
ber, 1941). VI. The Federal Program in Action. (January, 1942). Most of
these numbers may be secured from the American Social Hygiene Association,
1790 Broadway, New York City, for 35 cents each postpaid. Issues out of
print may be found in many library collections.

2 See Eeadings and Eeferences on Social Hygiene in Wartime, a chronological
bibliography, reprinted from the JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE, January, 1942, as
Pub. No. A-447. American Social Hygiene Association. Single copies free
on request.



Four years ago, when the JOURNAL last undertook to present a
summary of social hygiene activities carried on by state and com-
munity agencies and groups, health officials and social hygiene
workers were just getting set on their marks for a new cross-country
marathon against syphilis.* With the recommendations of the
memorable Conference on Venereal Disease Control Work called
by the Surgeon General in December, 1936, as a goal with press and
public cheering from the side-lines and celebrating Social Hygiene
Day with sinews strengthened by increased funds available through
the LaFollette-Bulwinkle Act and matching state appropriations, the
track seemed clear for a spurt in health improvement which would
break all records.

This flying start was fortunate, for only a little more than a year
later it was apparent that all the available money, all the united
effort, all the careful strategy that could be mustered, would be needed
to cope with the doubled and redoubled social hygiene problems
arising out of the national emergency. Social hygiene workers were
among the first to be called to active duty, in September, 1939, and
as the national defense effort swelled and finally burst into war,
heavy and heavier have become the responsibilities of all concerned
for prevention and control of venereal disease, for the repression of
prostitution, for the protection of youth and the preservation of
morale, and for the continuous public information and education
program which is even more vital in war than in peacetime.

That these responsibilities are being met willingly, intelligently
and effectively, is demonstrated many times in the pages which follow.
The results are showing in more opportunities for "good times in
good company" for young people, in cleanups of the prostitution
racket and efforts to help restore its victims, in better care of those
infected with syphilis and gonorrhea, and finally, in our Army and
Navy, in lower venereal disease rates and so less loss of strength from
this cause than in any mobilization in the nation's history. Most
encouraging of all is the evident general faith that what is done now
counts for the future as well as for the present, and the determination
to "make it good."

Expressed in terms of the "eight point program on 48 fronts,"
some achievements and needs revealed may be briefed as follows:

* See Footnotes to Progress; a brief summary of recent social hygiene events
in the states and communities, with notes on the present favorable outlook.
Compiled by Jean B. Pinney and Eleanor N. Shenehon, JOURNAL OP SOCIAL
HYGIENE, May-June, 1938. Reprinted, with additional text, as the Social
Hygiene Yearbook. 1938. 165 pages. 75 cents postpaid. American Social
Hygiene Association, 1790 Broadway, New York, N. Y.


Work Done Needed

Community Organization.

By actual count, more agencies, groups Many more leaders and voluntary groups
and individuals are engaged in social especially in communities near camps,
hygiene work than ever before. naval bases, and war industries.

Public Information.

Through press, radio, and films, more Still wider knowledge of how these
people than ever before are learning diseases attack the nation's strength,
the truth about syphilis and gonorrhea. how they may be avoided, how cured.
Young people, chief victims, in armed forces or home town, need more help now!


A growing number of employers pro- For fifty-six million men and women
tect the health of employees by helping in the national labor forces, knowledge
them to discover syphilis and gonorrhea of the facts and how they can help,
and secure prompt treatment.

Law Enforcement and Legislation.

Twenty-three states have lessened op- Similar laws in the other twenty-five
portunity for exposure to venereal states and strong law enforcement to
disease by adopting good laws for drive out the prostitution racketeers
repression of prostitution. wherever they lurk.

Law enforcement officials have closed red-light districts in over 800 communities.

Twenty-six states protect marriage from Premarital examination laws in twenty-
syphilis by laws requiring premarital two states, prenatal examination laws
examinations. Twenty-six states require in twenty-two states, and revision of
physicians to examine expectant mothers. >ouie existing laws.
1943 is a legislative year in 44 states, and a number of special sessions are
being called for ' war legislation. ' The passage of other good laws and their
observance should be encouraged, to protect Army and Navy personnel, the com-
munity and the family from the spread of syphilis and gonorrhea.

Social Protection.

A growing number of communities safe- More effective community action
guard young people against ' ' bad times against unwholesome commercialized
in bad company" by providing "good amusements and other unfortunate
times in good company," and endeavor community or home conditions leading
to salvage victims of bad conditions. to delinquency.

Greatly needed is wider recognition of the possibility of reclaiming women, girls
and young men exploited by prostitution racketeers, and provision of suitable
personnel and facilities for counsel and care.

Driving Out the Quacks and Charlatans.

Health officers, physicians, pharmacists, More trained workers who can give
nurses, social workers and other trained sound medical and social advice to
persons are making fine progress. sufferers from syphilis and gonorrhea.

Guidance is especially needed for girls who become infected or pregnant because
of abnormal and disturbed conditions brought about by the war emergency.

Training for Family Life.

Many parents, teachers, counselors, and A general recognition that such train-
church leaders try to see that sex edu- ing prepares also for good citizenship
cation is given children and youth, with and national service, and many more
preparation for successful marriage, trained persons capable of imparting
parenthood and family life through such information in a wholesome,
home training and formal education. normal manner.


Among all concerned, there seems to be greater effort to avoid duplication of
work to join strength, to build together. Needed: For all and by all,
the united effort for total physical and moral fitness for the freedom we cherish,
recently called for by President Roosevelt.


Editor's Note: The information given in the following pages has been
gathered chiefly from statements furnished by the agencies whose activi-
ties are described. Where such statements were lacking, other sources
have been drawn upon as available, including the Association's corre-
spondence files, newspaper clippings and various published reports. In
some cases, owing to lack of published information and pressure of other
responsibilities, especially the war emergency, on state local agencies,
omissions have been unavoidable, and it is hoped to remedy this later.

Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 23 of 71)