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personnel diagnosed as having venereal disease in the City and County of San
Francisco are interviewed by one of the male investigators. It has been found
that the procedure of having this personnel interviewed by a health department
representative has greatly increased the number of traceable sources and con-
tacts of venereal disease infection reported prior to the inauguration of this
procedure. The investigators have been assigned private rooms in the various
military and naval venereal disease clinics and appointments are made with the
patients to be interviewed. This direct health department armed forces rela-
tionship has considerably accelerated the speed of reporting and investigating
alleged sources and contacts.

Jail Clinic Examination Program: All women arrested for vagrancy and
prostitution in the City and County of San Francisco are examined at the
San Francisco City Jail Women's Clinic, operated by health department per-
sonnel. Under a procedure, inaugurated February 1, 1942, all women examined
are given gonorrheal culture as well as serologic examination, and are held under
quarantine for 72 hours pending results. The culture method has been found a
much more satisfactory means of detecting gonorrhea than the slide method.
Fourteen per cent of the women found to have negative gonorrheal slides had
positive gonorrheal cultures. Prior to holding these women for a period of 72
hours, pending the results of the culture, many found to have positive cultures
failed to report to the health department for continuation of their treatments.
Under the present program these women are treated at the San Francisco City
Jail Women's Clinic until they are discharged as cured.

All male persons arrested and committed to the San Francisco County Jail
have a routine serologie examination, conducted by the health department.
Those found to have syphilis, are treated at the county jail by the sheriff's
department.

Drug Store Program: A cooperative program has been developed whereby
pharmacists are requested to discontinue the practice of diagnosing or prescribing
for venereal disease patients who come to their attention. They are requested
to refer all such patients to a private physician or to the San Francisco City
Venereal Disease Clinic. To facilitate this program, drug stores are furnished
referral cards which have a space to insert the name of the physician to whom
the pharmacist refers his patron; on the lower portion of the card a place is
provided for the signature of the drug store. The middle of the card gives
name and address of the San Francisco Venereal Disease Clinic.

The pharmacist is advised to refer to the San Francisco Venereal Disease
Clinic all patients who say they cannot afford to pay for private physician care.
A large number of patients who would otherwise attempt self -treatment for a
venereal disease thus come to the attention of private physicians or the health
department. Placards are being prepared for distribution to drug stores, thereby
carrying on an educational venereal disease control program for the public
through the cooperation of local pharmacists.

Liquor Place Control Program: Metal lavatory placards have been distributed
to at least one half of the liquor places in San Francisco by the male venereal



204 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

disease control investigator. These placards refer the reader to his private
physician or to the San Francisco Venereal Disease Clinic for diagnosis, treat-
ment, and advice. Whenever the manager of a liquor place is contacted by the
investigator, he is told of the purposes and objectives of the local venereal
disease control program and his cooperation solicited. The liquor places are
revisited every six months by the investigator who reports as to the condition
of the metal signs previously placed.

Suppression of Prostitution: This is the function of the local police depart-
ment, which cooperates splendidly. Whenever new information becomes available
from venereal disease patient interviews, as to the existence of a house of
prostitution the police department is notified and they respond quickly by
closing the house and arresting the inmates.

Venereal Disease Educational Program: The local educational program is
carried on under the direction of the venereal disease control educator. A special
program has been developed in the Chinese community, the largest in North
America. Much of the English venereal disease literature has been translated
into Chinese and distributed throughout Chinatown, and frequent lectures are
conducted among the Chinese lay audiences. These lectures are given by phy-
sicians and translated paragraph by paragraph into Chinese by a translator
provided by the local Works Project Administration.

Plans have been formulated to develop a labor union venereal disease educa-
tional program. Under this plan lectures will be presented to various local
labor unions at their regular meetings and the individual labor union will be
requested to vote on the proposal of offering a serologic survey to the members
of the union group. Wherever such a serologic survey is voted upon favorably,
arrangements will be made to provide health department personnel to conduct
the survey at the local labor union halls.

Statistical Information: There has been a decrease in the reporting of
syphilis and gonorrhea in the City and County of San Francisco during the
calendar year of 1941 as compared to 1940. The numerical decrease in the
reporting of syphilis is only 55, but there were 642 less gonorrhea patients
reported in 1941 as compared to 1940. The number of cases of syphilis and
gonorrhea reported during the last ten years are as follows:

Tear Syphilis Gonorrhea

1932 2024 1527

1933 1836 1389

1934 1612 1492

1935 1480 1551

1936 1671 1677

1937 1997 2410

1938 1999 2254

1939 1959 2419

1940 2495 2632

1941 2440 1990



A.S.H.A. officers and staff have continued to work in close cooperation with Cali-
fornia groups. National representatives visiting the state during the past year
and a half include Dr. Snow, Dr. Storey, Mr. Johnson, Dr. Clarke, Professor
Bigelow and Miss Eleanor N. Shenehon. Several of these remained for a several
months' period of work with health officials, industrial groups and law enforce-
ment authorities. Cities visited included San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego,
(where a new society was set up at a meeting on Sixth National Social Hygiene
Day) San Bernardino, Santa Barbara, Santa Monica, Pasadena, Oakland, Long
Beach, and Stanford University.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 205

COLORADO

Population Population rank among states 33

Urban 590,756 A.S.H.A. members in state 56

Rural 532,540

1,123,296

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

Colorado Springs: Social Protection Committee, Defense Council: Chairman,

M. J. Henley, Acacia Hotel.
Denver: Social Protection Committee, Defense Council: Chairman, Mrs. Mary

E. Holland, 314 14th Street.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, M. L. Lyckholm, State Capitol Bldg.,

Denver.

Civitan International:*
Colorado Conference of Social Work: President, Esther M. Dimchevsky, 4200

East 9th Avenue, Denver; Program Chairman, Ivan Assay, Social Security

Board, 916 Patterson Bldg., Denver.
Colorado Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. M. E. Eichards,

2711 Vine Street, Denver; Social Hygiene Chairman, Mrs. E. A. Hollingsworth,

3235 North Speer Blvd., Denver.
Colorado Council of Church Women: President, Mrs. William Schmallhorst, 616

6th Street, Berthoud.
Colorado Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. O. A.

Carlson, Fort Lupton.
Colorado Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Arthur Keese, Box 275, Fort

Collins.

Colorado Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, Irene Murchison, 621 Majes-
tic Bldg., Denver; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section, Louise Zetzsche,

2839 W. 27th Ave., Denver.
Colorado State Medical Society: President, Guy C. Gary, M.D., Grand Junction;

Executive Secretary, Harvey T. Sethman, 1612 Tremont PI., Denver.
Colorado Tuberculosis Association: Executive Secretary, Helen L. Burke, 305

Earth Bldg., 16th and Stout Streets, Denver.
Colorado Woman's Christian Temperance Union: Headquarters, 1671 Logan St.,

Denver: In Charge and President, Mrs. Adrianna Hungerford.
Kiwanis International:*
Lions International:*
Rotary International:*
United Service Organizations, Region XI. See Missouri.

Official Agencies

Colorado Council of Defense: Executive Vice-chairman, Paul P. Newlon, 221
Boston Bldg., Denver.

Colorado State Board of Health: Secretary, Roy L. Cleere, M.D., Denver; Direc-
tor, Division of Venereal Disease Control, L. J. Lull, M.D., Denver.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Colorado Springs, Denver (2), Fort Collins, Fort Lupton, Fowler, Qreeley,
LaJunta, Manzanola, Pueblo, Eocky Ford, San Louis.

Colorado State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Inez J. Lewis, Denver.

National Youth Administration, Region XI: Eegional Director of Youth Person-
nel, May Eisher, 810 Fourteenth Street, Denver.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,
Region XI: Supervisor, Mrs. Vyvyan M. Parmelee, 1706 Welton Street, Denver.

State Department of Public Welfare: Director, Earl M. Kouns, Denver.

U. S. Army, Eighth Corps Area: See Texas.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



206 JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,
F. A. Anderson; State Home Demonstration Leader, Helen Prout, State Agri-
cultural College of Colorado, Fort Collins.

U. S. Navy, Twelfth District: See California.

U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for War
Information Centers: Irene M. Coons, Colorado State College of Agricultural
and Mechanic Arts, Fort Collins; Amie-Louise Bishop, University of Colorado,
Boulder.

U. S. Public Health Service, District VIII: Director, Senior Surgeon Lynne A.
Fullerton; Venereal Disease Control Consultant, P. A. Surgeon Arthur B.
Price, 617 Colorado Bldg., Denver; For Liaison Officer, Seventh Army Corps
Area, see Nebraska.

Work Projects Administration: Director of Community Service Program, Dr.
Cyril M. Whitlow, 810 Fourteenth Street, Denver.

State Board of Health, Denver. As more money is made available,
the facilities for ease finding and treatment for patients with
venereal disease increases. Because of the sparse population in
parts of our State, clinics are not practical. However, twelve
clinics are in operation in health units and larger cities. Several
doctors have taken advantage of a plan which provides for pay-
ment to doctors for treatment of prenatal and congenital syphilis
cases in their offices. Congenital cases must be under ten years
of age.

Passage of new laws requiring premarital and prenatal examinations for
syphilis in 1939 has assisted materially in finding infections and getting them
under treatment, as well as preventing syphilis among babies.

The druggists have been cooperative in furnishing show window space for
an exhibit on venereal disease which is loaned upon request by the Director
of Venereal Disease Control. They have also given counter space for posters
and have distributed literature. The educational program progresses slowly.
Movies have been shown and lectures given to medical societies and interested
lay groups. Some newspaper publicity has been used in local papers. Radio
stations KOA, KVOD, and KFEL cooperate well.

Since passage of the May Act, the existent houses of prostitution have been
closed. Bars, dine and dance places and other similar places although under
observation, are oftentimes named as places of "pick up". As yet, no facilities
exist for rehabilitation of offenders.

The citizens in areas around the three army camps are very active in
furnishing entertainment to soldiers through the USO. Theaters are cooperating
by giving reduced rates. Families are inviting soldiers into their homes.

Blood tests are included in the pre-employment examination at one industrial
plant. Patients found to have syphilis are employed and required to bring
a statement monthly from their private doctor regarding regularity of treatment.
Four other plants have pre-employment blood tests. No educational programs
are carried on by them.

All Selective Service men found to have positive blood tests or to have
gonorrhea, are followed up and assisted with arrangement for further examination
and treatment.

Our reporting of venereal disease in the State has increased three times
in 1941 over 1939. This is due in part to the queries sent to doctors who
have sent specimens of blood to the State Laboratory as part of the prenatal,
premarital, selective service and routine examinations. Ninety percent of the
blood tests done in the State are done at the State Laboratory.

Among ASH A visitors to Colorado last year was Miss Shenehon, who con-
ferred with health officials, education and social work groups.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 207

CONNECTICUT

Population Population rank among states 31

Urban 1,158,162 A.SJI.A. members in state 148

Rural 551,080

1,709,240

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

Hartford: Committee on Social Hygiene Information: Connecticut Tuberculosis

Association; Acting Chairman, Ira V. Hiseock, New Haven.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, Pierce IT. Clark, State Office Bldg., 165

Capitol Avenue, Hartford.
Civitan International: District Governor, New England District, Louis F. Oneker,

1087 Broad Street, Bridgeport.
Connecticut Conference of Social Work: President, William H. Bulkeley, 419

Franklin Avenue, Hartford; Secretary, Mrs. Frieda Offenbach, 58 Gordon

Street, Hamden.
Connecticut Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. Leslie Mathews,

918 Hoyden Hill Eoad, Fairfield; Social Hygiene Chairman, Mrs. Raymond 8.

Powelson, R.F.D. No. 6, East Haven.
Connecticut Council of Churches and Religious Education:
Connecticut Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman, Public Welfare, Mrs. Ter-

tius Van Dyke, Gunnery School, Washington.
Connecticut Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, Margaret K. Stack, Room

502, 252 Asylum Street, Hartford; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section,

Marian M. Redmond, 570 Howard Avenue, New Haven.
Connecticut State Medical Society: President, Roy L. Leak, M.D., Middletown;

Executive Secretary, Creighton Barker, M.D., 258 Church Street, New Haven.
Connecticut State Tuberculosis Association, Inc.: Campaign Director, Mabel Baird

43 Farmington Avenue, Hartford.

Connecticut Teachers Association -.Secretary, Anne J. Gates, Willimantic.
Connecticut Woman's Christian Temperance Union: Headquarters, 36 Pearl Street,

Hartford. In charge and President, Mrs. Ella F. Burr.
Kiwanis International:*
Lions International: 9 "
Rotary International:*
United Service Organizations, Region I: See Massachusetts.

Official Agencies

Connecticut Council for National Defense: Administrator, Col. Samuel H. Fisher,

Room 302, State Armory, Broad Street, Hartford.
Connecticut State Department of Education: Commissioner of Education, Alonzo

G. Granee, Hartford; Senior Supervisor of Health and Physical Education,

Charles H. Prohaska, M.D., Hartford.
Connecticut State Department of Health: Commissioner of Health, Stanley H.

Osborn, M.D., Hartford; Director, Bureau of Venereal Diseases, H. P.

Talbot, M.D.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Ansonia, Bethel, Branford, Bridgeport, Bristol, Broad Brook, Canaan, Cheshire,
Clinton, Colchester, Cornwall Bridge, Danbury, Danielson, Darien, Deep River,
Derby, East Hartford, Essex, Fairfield, Farmington, Granby, Greenwich (2),
Groton, Hampton, Hartford (4), Litchfield, Manchester, Meriden, Middletown (2),
Moodus, Naugatuck, New Britain, New Canaan, New Hartford, New Haven (5),
Newington, New London, New Milford, Newtown, Niantic, Norfolk, Norwalk,

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



208 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

Norwich, Old Lyme, Pawcatuck, Portland, Putnam, Rockville, Simsbury, South-
ington, Stafford Springs, Stamford, Stratford, Suffield, Thompsonville, Torring-
ton, Wallingford, Waterbury (2), Watertown, West Hartford, Westport, Wethers-
field, Willimantic, Windsor, Windsor Locks, Winsted, Woodbury.

Connecticut State Department of Public Welfare: Commissioner, Robert .1.

Smith, Hartford.

National Youth Administration, Region I: See Massachusetts.
Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, Region

I: See Massachusetts.

U. S. Army, First Corps Area: See Massachusetts.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,

E. G. Woodward; State Home Demonstration Leader, Edith L. Mason, Uni-
versity of Connecticut, Storrs.
U. S. Navy, Third District: See New York.
U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for War

Information Center, Paul Alcorn, University of Connecticut, Storrs.
U. S. Public Health Service: For Director, District I, see New York; for Liaison

Officer, First Army Corps Area, see Massachusetts.
Work Projects Administration: Director of Community Service Program, Mary

M. Hughart, 134 Meadow Street, New Haven.

State Department of Health, Hartford. In six years 1,150 eases
of syphilis have been uncovered by tests performed in the bureau
of laboratories for marriage license law purposes, according to an
article by Dr. Henry P. Talbot, director of the Bureau of Venereal
Diseases, published in the monthly bulletin of the State Department
of Health. Since passage of the Connecticut law, the first of its kind,
twenty-five other states, including all the other New England states
and New York, have passed similar legislation which requires a
blood test for syphilis as a prerequisite for marriage license
application.

During 1941 there were 147 cases of syphilis discovered among female
applicants and 135 cases in the male group. Of total cases diagnosed J.n the
six-year period, 53 per cent were males and 47 per cent females. Each year
more cases of syphilis were diagnosed in the 20-29 age group than in similar
age groupings under twenty or over thirty years. About 80 per cent of
marriages in the state, however, occur in the 20-29 age group.

Of the 8,704 expectant mothers examined by serological test under the
prenatal examination law, 51 individuals tested positive, but 11 of these were
found not to be cases; 34 were placed under treatment.

A series of monthly all-day conferences was arranged for staff field nurses
of the State Department of Health by the Bureau of Venereal Diseases on the
subject of venereal disease control. Topics include : Function of the Nurse
in Venereal Disease Control; The Psychology of Approach to the Patient; N 'euro-
syphilis; Medical Aspects of Gonorrhea; Findings of Research on 5-Day
Treatment for Syphilis at the New Haven Hospital; and review of case histories
and discussion.

The State Department, in connection with Social Hygiene Day observance
in February 1942, urged emphasis this year not only on curative aspects of
venereal disease control, but also along educational and preventive lines, with
stress on the following points: (1) Dissemination of sound information, par-
ticularly to youth, concerning syphilis and gonorrhea through pamphlets,
lectures, motion pictures, etc.; (2) Special appeal to law enforcement agencies
local and state police, and courts to control vice conditions, particularly
prostitution; (3) Cooperation of industry and labor in securing routine pre-
cmployment examinations and follow-up to get cases under proper treatment;



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 209

and (4) Full cooperation and coordination on the part of the medical profession,
health officers and clinical facilities.

Committee on Social Hygiene Information, Connecticut Tubercu-
losis Association, Hartford. This Committee has been recently
established and as yet has no report to make.

New Haven Department of Health, Bureau of Venereal Diseases.
The venereal disease control program of the Bureau, which em-
braces case finding, case treatment and education of the public,
has not been materially altered in the past year. Activities have
been extended, however, to include follow-up and arrangement
of treatment for positive Selective Service cases and cases in
which the prenatal blood test is positive.

There has been an increase in the number of talks arranged for clubs and
organizations, particularly among the youth groups. More requests than ever
before have come to the Bureau from high school and college students for
assistance in study projects on social hygiene and venereal disease control,
indicating an increasing awareness of the problem in the younger age groups.
Exhibits have been arranged for several meetings, in particular for two
industrial expositions attended by several thousand factory workers. The
Bureau is working with the Industrial Health Committee of the State Medical
Society to outline a program for education of industrial workers in venereal
disease control and social hygiene.

Statutes of the state include the usual legislation against maintaining and
running houses of prostitution, soliciting, etc. Police Department and Detective
Bureau and Courts cooperate with Health Department in apprehending, trying
and examining prostitutes. The problem in New Haven is not one of organized
houses of prostitution, but of "pick-up" business in taverns.

The courts, policewomen, and some of the social agencies have done and are
now doing some rehabilitation of prostitutes.

Church and family welfare groups actively support and participate in
securing effective enforcement of laws and ordinances.

There is no planned or organized sex education program in the secondary
schools, although some information is given in biology courses. Colleges have
hygiene and public health courses. Young peoples groups at YM and YWCA,
Jewish Community Center, and several churches and settlement houses have
meetings with speakers on preparation for marriage, responsibilities of parent-
hood etc. Talks and films for NYA groups have been given by the Bureau.

DELAWARE

Population Population rank among states 47

Urban 139,432 A.S.H.A. members in state 12

Mural 127,073



266,505

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

None.
Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, Inkerman Bailey, 405 Citizens Bank

Bldg., Wilmington.
Delaware Anti-Tuberculosis Society, Inc.: Executive Secretary, G. T. Evans, 1308

Delaware Avenue, Wilmington.



210 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

Delaware State Conference on Social Work: Chairman, B. E. Mullen, 910 Qilpin

Avenue, Wilmington.
Delaware Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. P. C. Elliott, 200

West 9th Street, Wilmington; Social Hygiene Chairman, Mrs. W. E. Keyes,

Clayton.
Delaware Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Health, Mrs. J. Edwin

Button, Jr., Cannon Street, Seaford.

Delaware Nurses Assopiation: Executive Secretary, Mrs. Mildred Abbott Mar-
shall, 914 Jefferson Street, Wilmington; Chairman, Public Health Nursing

Section, Mary Lenhoff, 200 W. 34th Street, Wilmington.
Delaware Woman's Christian Temperance Union: President, Mrs. Anna Lee

Waller, Delmar.
Ki warns International:*
Lions International:*
Medical Society of Delaware: President, William Marshall, Jr., M.D., Milford;

Secretary, Win. H. Speer, M.D., 917 Washington Street, Wilmington.
Rotary International:*
United Service Organizations, Region III: See New York.

Official Agencies

Delaware State Board of Charities: Executive Director, C. Kollin Zane, Dover.
Delaware State Board of Health: Executive Secretary, Edwin Cameron, M.D.,

Dover; Acting Director, Division of Communicable Disease Control, T. E.

Hynson, M.D., Dover.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Dover, Frankford, Georgetown, Middletown, Milford, Newark, Eehoboth, Seaford,
Smyrna, Wilmington (5).

Delaware State Council for National Defense: Executive Vice-chairman, Gerrish

Gassoway, 2 East 9th Street, Wilmington.
Delaware State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruction

and Secretary of the State Board of Education, H. V. Holloway; Director of

Physical Education, George W. Ayars.

National Youth Administration, Region II: See Pennsylvania.
Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, Region

III: See Pennsylvania.

U. S. Army, Second Corps Area: See New York.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,



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