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G. L. Schuster; State Home Demonstration Leader, Mrs. H. V. McKinley,

University of Delaware, Newark.
U. S. Navy, Fourth District: See Pennsylvania.
U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for

War Information Centers, Jones E. Jeffries, State College for Colored Students,

Dover; William D. Lewis, University of Delaware, Newark.
U. S. Public Health Service: For Director, District I, and Liaison Officer, Second

Army Corps area, see New York.
Work Projects Administration: See Maryland.

State Board of Health, Dover. In Delaware the venereal disease
program is carried out by the Division of Communicable Disease
Control. The program includes the operation of clinics for the treat-
ment of all the venereal diseases, contact tracing, case finding, and
follow-up work, the supplying of drugs to clinics and physicians for
the treatment of these diseases, and such statistical and epidemiological
studies as are indicated. A program of public education by means of
talks, motion pictures and distribution of literature is carried on.

Drugs for the treatment of syphilis and other venereal diseases are supplied
to the hospital clinics and to practicing physicians upon request for any properly
reported case. Physicians conducting clinics are paid a small fee for each clinic

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 211

attended. Indigent cases living more than ten miles from a clinic are treated by
practicing physicians under an arrangement with the Board of Health. Epidem-
iological investigations are made by both the nursing and medical staff. The
cooperation of the police is occasionally necessary but is only used when all other
measures have failed. The juvenile courts and the mental hygiene clinics have
been of great assistance in some cases.

In common with other states having large industrial concentrations, Delaware
is giving attention to the prevention and control of venereal diseases among
industrial workers. Several large industrial concerns are carrying on programs of
blood-testing and health education.

Delaware has a law requiring prenatal examinations for syphilis, which became
effective March 8, 1939. The proportion of physicians reporting prenatal exam-
inations is increasing, according to the latest published report. The state is also
among those which are considered to have adequate laws for the repression of
prostitution.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Population Population rank among states 37

Urban 663,091 A.S.H.A. members in state 108

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

Washington:

Social Hygiene Society of the District of Columbia: President, H. H. Hazen,
M.D. ; Executive Secretary, Ray H. Everett, Room 311, 927 15th Street, N.W.

Washington Liaison Office, American Social Hygiene Association: Associate Di-
rector in Charge, Jean B. Pinney; Office Secretary, Gertrude R. Luce, Room
609, 927 15th Street, N.W.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, E. W. Luther, 2437 15th Street, N.W.,

Washington.
Civitan International: District Governor, Chesapeake District, John W. Farrell,

925 Fidelity Bldg., Baltimore, Md.
District of Columbia Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. P. C.

Ellett, 643 Ingraham Street, N.W., Washington; Social Hygiene Chairman,

Mrs. E. B. Buckley, 7125 16th Street, N.W., Washington.
District of Columbia Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare,

Mrs. Bertha B. Jones, 2627 Adams Mill Road, Washington.
District of Columbia Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, Edith M. Beattie,

1746 K Street, N.W., Washington; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section,

Marie A. Dougherty, 900 19th Street, N.W., Washington.
District of Columbia Tuberculosis Association: Executive Secretary, Herald H.

Lund, 1601 18th Street, N.W., Washington.
Kiwanis International:*
Lions International:*
Medical Society of the District of Columbia: President, Henry R. Schreiber,

M.D., Washington; Secretary, T. Wiprud, 1718 M Street, N.W., Washington.
Rotary International:*
United Service Organizations, Region IV: See Virginia.

Official Agencies

District of Columbia Council of Defense: Executive Director, Col. Lemuel L.

Bolles, Toner School Bldg., 24 and F Streets, N.W., Washington.
District of Columbia Department of Education: Superintendent of Schools, Frank

W. Ballou, Washington; First Assistant Superintendent in Charge of Colored

Schools, Garnet C. Wilkinson.
District of Columbia Health Department: Health Officer, George C. Ruhland,

M.D., Washington; Director, Venereal Disease Division, William E. Graham,

M.D.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



212 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at: Washington (27).

National Youth Administration, Region IV: See West Virginia.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,

Region IV: Supervisor, James S. Owens, ^Representatives : Marie Duffin, Hugh

M. Gregory, 1025 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Washington.
U. S. Army, Third Corps Area: See Maryland.
U. S. Navy: Venereal Disease Control Officer, Lt. Comdr. E. E. Sullivan (MC),

Navy Yard, Washington.
U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for War

Information Center, Walter G. Damiel, Howard University, Washington.
U. S. Public Health Service: For Director District II, and Liaison Officer Third

Army Corps Area, see Maryland.
Work Projects Administration: See Maryland.

Health Department of the District of Columbia.

Medical and Piiblic Health Measures: Facilities are being in-
creased as rapidly as funds and satisfactory personnel can be
obtained, although they are not yet adequate. Appropriations and
public support seem to be gradually increasing. A physician and
nurse have been assigned to the Women's Bureau for the purpose
of examining each morning those women brought in during the
night. Those found infected are placed under treatment.

Health Education and Public Information: Newspapers and radio stations,
particularly Station WINX cooperate in campaign against venereal diseases.

Distribution of pamphlets is carried on by the Bureau of Public Health
Instruction. Motion picture films, lectures are a part of the program.

Legal and Protective Measures:

Cooperation between the District of Columbia Health Department, the Police
Department and the Army and Navy is being strengthened. Information as to
sources of infection is being furnished these groups by the Health Department.
Legal measures to compel infectious recalcitrant persons to take treatment are
being contemplated. Steps are being taken to secure adequate space for these
persons when they are apprehended.

The services of six additional epidemiologic workers has been made available
through funds secured from the U. S. Public Health Service. These workers
concentrate especially on persons reported by the Selective Service; on their
contacts; and on contacts named by infected soldiers and sailors.

Social Hygiene Society of the District of Columbia, Washington.

The Annual Report of the Executive Secretary says : " Our
Society, during the past year, has initiated and carried on an
extensive wartime program in addition to continuing most of its
normal peacetime activities. Fortunately many items in our normal
program geared most effectively into the wartime machinery.

" Secretary Stimson, Secretary Knox, and Governor McNutt all
agree with General Pershing in considering venereal disease 'by
far the greatest single threat to military efficiency and morale.'
They are united, also, in condemning prostitution as the outstanding
source of venereal infections. Hence our Society's work in pro-
moting better venereal disease control and more efficient law



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 213

enforcement in Metropolitan Washington has been a notable con-
tribution to the nation's wartime effort.

Meeting Basic Needs: "The Society's prostitution surveys have provided the
basis for more efficient law enforcement in that field. Our committee on
medical measures was the first to call attention to the need of prophylaxis stations
in Washington's central area where Service men seek recreation. It took a year
to get these stations into operation but now they are functioning twenty-four
hours a day, seven days a week. The Society's committee has presented to
Congress the District's social hygiene needs and has been influential in securing
thousands of needed dollars for increased personnel and facilities. The Society's
committee on educational measures has worked, quietly but consistently, to
secure increased attention to social hygiene problems in the school, the church,
and the home. We have furnished pamphlets which have been found most useful
in the nearby camps and have provided special articles for the camp newspapers.

"When the District's full time venereal disease officer resigned last summer
and chaotic conditions developed in the clinics, our Society worked incessantly
with the health officer in combing the country for the needed experienced and
well-trained replacement. On numerous occasions the health officer has expressed
appreciation for 'the effective and continuing help given by the Society.'

' ' The Society also has been confronted with a steadily increasing field for its
consultation and advisory services in connection with the District's rapidly
growing population. In order to provide this additional individual service it
has been found advisable to schedule fewer public lectures particularly as so
many men and women now are engaged in Red Cross, Civilian Defense and
other special duties that prevent their attendance at lectures. We have reached
much larger audiences, however, through greatly increased use of the radio. This
wider public likewise has benefitted through the extensive publication of social
hygiene news, articles and editorials in Washington's newspapers. A whole-
hearted vote of appreciation is extended to the local press for this fine assistance.

Recommendations for Bettering Health and Welfare: "Washington's legal,
medical, and social programs for dealing with prostitution and its associated
diseases need overhauling if we are to attain maximum constructive results.
Practitioners of the oldest profession are largely responsible for the District's
high venereal disease rate and for the infecting of many visiting selectees from
surrounding camps.

"A series of vicious circles are apparent in the local situation. Uneven
administration of justice resulting in light fines or sentences encourages the old
merry-go-round procedure arrest, inadequate penalties, and back on the street
again. Lacks in medical treatment mean the continuance of disease spreading.
And failures in providing social services and in segregating youth from the
hardened older offenders mean that opportunities for rehabilitation of youthful
offenders are lost. Some who might be saved from drifting further into the
channels of delinquency never get a chance to return to socially useful activities.

"Recently the chairman of the Subcommittee on Social Protection and
Venereal Disease, Civilian Mobilization Division, D. C. Office of Civilian Defense,
submitted for that subcommittee and the Social Hygiene Society the following
minimum recommendations for improving local conditions:

(1) A study of arrest, prosecution, and sentencing relating to prostitution in
the District of Columbia, as a guide to sounder and more uniform justice.

(2) One hundred new beds at Gallinger Hospital for the quarantining and
intensive medical treatment of infectious syphilis and gonorrhea cases.

(3) Social service workers for individual case work including vocational
guidance and occupational therapy.

(4) Additional police and health department personnel to enable officials to
reduce prostitution and its disease by-products to a minimum.



214 JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

(5) Strengthening of the medical and social service programs in the District's
penal institutions to assure continuing medical treatment and to provide for
the social reconstruction of those susceptible to such measures.

"Immediate action on these recommendations is required to meet Washington's
obligations to safeguard both its own residents and the youth now training to
fight for Uncle Sam. Either through the District budget or through Federal
grants-in-aid or both, funds for these essential additions should be provided.

So Green Is Their Vista: "With Mars in the saddle, Cupid's plans often go
awry. War and its manifold dislocations of normal social life play havoc with
the fond hopes of many young people. Hence we have had more of them
coming to us for advice.

" 'Shall we get married now or wait till he comes back if he does come
back?' That question, asked frequently these days, was raised most recently by
a little, wide-eyed girl, who looks in her teens but actually is twenty-three years
old. She's a government typist working on a late shift many miles from her
suburban room but, she says, 'my man meets me every night at 11:30 and
brings me home.' And when she says 'my man' you can just feel how much
in love she is. But Uncle Sam wants him too, and soon. So what's to do about itf

"Her ignorance of what our conservatives still call 'the facts of life' is
pathetic and, you say to yourself, she's mighty lucky to have met up with her
'man' rather than running crash into some of the more sordid adventures
that so often confront a youngster of her type. He's a good, steady lad and
he thinks of her as the world's eighth wonder.

"After discussing the pros and cons of their situation with them, and attempt-
ing a realistic inventory of its promises and risks in the light of today's topsy-
turvy world conditions, they've decided to get married now. No decision is
100 per cent safe in these times, but we believe they have made the best choice
and earnestly hope that Fate, in her court of last resort, will not reverse thi
judgment. ' '

Premarital and Postmarital Counseling: "Marriage counseling both before
and after the knot has been tied increasingly has become an important part
of the Society's program. Ours is an informal service, solving problems where
it can, and referring clients to other agencies or qualified individuals (physicians,
lawyers, clergymen et al.) when advisable. The age-range of those seeking
guidance this past year was from 17 to 63 years, and the difficulties dealt 'with
were as diverse as the age-range would imply.

"With the influx of new workers in Washington, our marriage counseling
service is receiving more referrals from other communities, notably from such
former associates as Dr. Paul Popenoe in Los Angeles and Dr. Valeria Parker in
New York. But, lest we seem to over emphasize the scope of the Society's
marriage guidance work, it is well to remember that approximately only 20
per cent or less of our time is devoted to this sector."

Curing Syphilis and Gonorrhea: Washington's system of treating and curing
selectees who were rejected because of venereal disease is one of the best in the
United States. Although some gaps still exist in this program, many of these
rejectees will be ready to serve their country within the next few months. Case-
finding and case-holding measures are steadily being improved, and the diagnosis
and treatment of syphilis are in the hands of highly efficient technical personnel.
With gonorrhea now a controllable disease, our educational efforts have a far
more satisfactory base. For many years we have given syphilis the major role
because there existed specific diagnostic procedures for determining cases, and
specific therapeutic drugs for curing them. In gonorrhea, unfortunately, neither
accurate diagnoses nor specific medication was available. At present, however,
with the culture method displacing the old, unsatisfactory direct smear procedure
as a diagnostic criterion, and the marvel-working sulfonamide compounds curing
eases efficiently, quickly, and inexpensively, we have a much more optimistic
picture to place before the public regarding gonorrhea. This sterilizing scourge
one that for centuries has directed its maiming and mutilating blows particularly



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMAKEBS 215

against womankind probably can be doomed to early oblivion if public and
private health agencies and physicians use with vigor and continuity the weapons
now at hand.

Old Man Mimeograph Keeps Bollin' Along: "Physicians, nurses, and social
workers asked, 'How about a venereal disease clinic directory?' We prepared
one giving locations, days and hours of sessions, and personnel available. The
first issue of 300 copies was quickly exhausted and demands for more kept coming
in from government and department store first-aid stations, social agencies and
other information channels. Then the personnel officer of People's Drugstores
thought each of his managers should have a copy so that when inquiries were
made regarding medications for self -treatment, the pharmacist could advise the
prospective customer where to go for help in case he had no physician or couldn't
afford private treatment. So the old mimeograph got busy again and groaned
out another 700 copies most of which are now in use.

"Both the District Library one of our best allies and our Society have found
wide use for the social hygiene bibliography we jointly prepared. The District
Parent- Teachers Association consult it constantly as do ministers, parents, and
young people in search of reliable books in our field. As for the monthly News
and Views, it's in its 10th volume and still going strong.

"Another 20,000 of our valuable little folders on syphilis and gonorrhea have
been given out in clinics, and through industrial, union, fraternal and church
organization channels. Pamphlets from the Public Health Service and Amer-
ican Social Hygiene Association are made available for special needs.

"Syphilis in the Negro, a new book by our president Dr. H. H. Hazen, has just
been published by the U. S. Public Health Service; likewise a pamphlet on
venereal disease prophylaxis based on the findings of the National Committee
for the Study of Venereal Disease Prophylaxis of which Dr. Hazen is chairman
and your reporter, secretary. Both have contributed additional articles and
reports which have been used by the Army, Navy, Public Health Service and
other national and local agencies.

Where Needs Are Greatest: "Most encouraging has been the signal progress
achieved in bettering the lot of Washington's Negro population this year insofar
as social hygiene is concerned. Two well planned and widely attended institutes
were conducted, the first for physicians and the second for teachers and admin-
istrators of Divisions 10-13, District of Columbia Public Schools. The post-
graduate courses for the medicos were sponsored and promoted by the District
of Columbia Tuberculosis Association, District of Columbia Medico- Chirurgical
Society, District of Columbia Social Hygiene Society, Maryland Tuberculosis
Association, Virginia Tuberculosis Association, and Howard University College
of Medicine. The Social Hygiene Institute for educators was under the aegis
of the Department of Health and Physical Education, Public Schools of the
District of Columbia, Divisions 10-13, Health Service, Howard University, and
the Social Hygiene Society.

"In addition to this special training for leaders, many lectures, broadcasts,
motion picture showings, and exhibits reached the rank and file in churches,
clinics, schools, lodge halls, and other gathering places. All these efforts show
results in increases among those seeking diagnosis and treatment, and in attempts
to better the home and community conditions which so lai-gely are responsible for
the abnormally high disease and delinquency rates that handicap this population
group.

"At its October 1941 meeting the Society's board passed the following

resolution: 'Recognizing the high incidence of venereal disease in the Negro

population, a majority of whom, because of economic conditions, must seek
treatment at clinics:

" 'And recognizing the current shortage of physicians and nurses, be it

" 'Kesolved that the Social Hygiene Society urges an extension of the use
of adequately trained Negro physicians, nurses, and social workers in treating
Negro patients in clinics, the bulk of whose patients are of that race.' "



216 JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

Surveys and Data: Our offices continue to be a central service reservoir for
sound data, statistics, and specialized studies when indicated. A good example
of such studies is the annual drugstore survey which attempts to ascertain the
extent of "over-the-counter" sales of venereal disease nostrums for self treat-
ment and the extent of "back-room diagnosis" and similar unethical practices.
The 1942 study indicates again that Washington druggists are maintaining
higher ethical standards in this field than are those of other comparable cities.

Initiators, Planners, and Doers: Under the chairmanships of Judge Fay L.
Bentley, Doctors George W. Creswell and Russell J. Fields, Captain Ehoda
Milliken, and Esther Scott, the Society's four standing committees have done
yeoman service this year. Judge Bentley 's committee planned our unusually
successful Social Hygiene Day Luncheon and Annual Meeting with Governor
McNutt and Dr. Overholser as principal speakers; Doctors Creswell and Fields
led the medical and public health fronts against syphilis and gonorrhea; Captain
Milliken served as chief -of -staff on the social protective front; and Miss Scott
devoted many productive hours of effort toward energizing the social hygiene
content of Washington's public school curricula. Would that space permitted
a more comprehensive appreciation of the numerous beneficial results achieved
by these generals and their host of lieutenants on special and sub-committees.
Washington owes them and the Society's officers and board members a citation
"for distinguished civic service."



To permit closer contact with national agencies, both governmental and volun-
tary, and especially with the former since war was declared, the A.S.H.A.
since 1937 has maintained a Liaison Office in Washington. Miss Jean B. Pinney,
Associate Director of the Association, is at present in charge, with Mrs. Gertrude
R. Luce acting as Office Secretary. Dr. Snow, Dr. Clarke, and other members of
the national staff are frequently ' ' in residence ' ' at the Liaison Office for purposes
of conference with Army, Navy, Public Health Service, Social Protection Section,
or other officials with whom the Association is working, or for attendance at
the meetings of special groups, including the National Research Council, the
Interdepartmental Venereal Disease Committee, the National Police Advisory
Committee, the Advisory Council of the Women's Interest Section, War Depart-
ment, and numerous others. Officers and staff members of the A.S.H.A. are
frequently called, also, to appear at Congressional hearings on important
matters such as the annual appropriations for the U.S.P.H.S. for venereal disease
control work under the LaFollette- Bui winkle Act of 1937.

Since the Liaison Office is located in the same office building with the Social
Hygiene Society of the District of Columbia, a close and valuable interchange
of information and services is also effected with local social hygiene workers.
An example was the Social Hygiene Day luncheon above referred to, when the
A.S.H.A.'s Youth Service entertained as its guests representatives of youth
groups from most of the 48 states.

FLORIDA

Population Population rank among states 27

Urban 1,045,791 A.S.H.A. members in state 45

Rural 851,623



1,897,414

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

Jacksonville :
Florida Social Hygiene Council: President, Mrs. Willis M. Ball, 1885 Powell

Place.
Daval County Social Hygiene Council: President, Lauren Sompayrac, M.D. ;

George W. Simons, Jr., 404 Hildebrandt Bldg.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 217

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, C. Howard Eowton, Palatka, Florida.
Civitan International: District Governor, Florida District, James N. Burden,

County Tax Assessors Office, Orlando, Florida.
Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. L. H. Gibbs, Box

100 F, Eoute 1, Orlando; Social Hygiene Chairman, Joe Hall, State Board of

Education, Tallahassee.
Florida Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. William

Pepper, Gainesville.
Florida Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Dr. Joy Adams, 401 Florida

National Bank Bldg., St. Petersburg.



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