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Journal of social hygiene (Volume 28) online

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tant, Bertha M. Shafer, MJX, 9 East Huron Street.
Chicago Coordinating Committee on Social Hygiene Day: Chairman, Bertha M.

Shafer, M.D., 9 East Huron Street.
Illinois Social Hygiene League: President, Louis E. Schmidt, M.D.; Executive

Director, Bertha Shafer, M.D., 9 East Huron Street.
Illinois Society for the Prevention of Blindness: Executive Secretary, Audrey

N. Hayden, 203 N. Wabash Avenue.
Chicago Committee of Fifteen: (Inactive.)
Juvenile Protective Association: President, Mrs. George E. Dean; Executive

Director, Jessie L. Binford, 816 S. Halstead Street.
Public Health Institute: President, Joseph H. King; Secretary, C. A. Cum-

mings, 159 North Dearborn Street.

Danville Social Hygiene Association: Chairman, W. H. Debenham, Y.M.C.A.
Decatur: Social Hygiene Committee, Decatur Health Council: Chairman, Lloyd

C. Brown, 137 S. Church Street.
Evanston Social Hygiene Organization: Chairman, Mrs. Frank W. Cauley, 1519

Hinman Avenue.

Moline Public Health Forum: Chairman, Miss Mabel M. Dunlap, 1531 Third Ave.
Robinson Social Hygiene Association: President, P. K. Houdek.
Rock Island: Social Hygiene Committee, Rock Island Council of Social Agencies:
Acting Chairman, Mrs. J. B. Frederick.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, William C. Mundt, MeBarnes Bldg.,

Civitan International: District Governor, North Central District, Martin B. Rome-

iser, 1730 Greenleaf Avenue, Chicago.
Illinois Conference on Social Welfare: Executive Secretary, Bernard Eoloff, 225*6

South Fourth, Springfield.
Illinois Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. F. Russell Lyon, 6100

Newburg Avenue, Chicago; Social Hygiene Chairman, Bertha Shafer, M.D.,

25 East Washington Street, Chicago.

Illinois Council of Church Women: President, Mrs. Carl Kirby, Tallula.
Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. S. Mira-

bella, 2425 S. Oakley Avenue, Chicago.


Illinois Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Crawford Starr, 213 St. Louis
Street, Joliet; Executive Vice-president, Douglas H. Timmerman, The Mer-
chandise Mart, Chicago.

Illinois Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, Charlotte Landt, 8 South Michi-
gan Avenue, Chicago; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section, Marguirete
Boom, 1004 Main Street, Evanston.

Illinois State Medical Society: President, Edward H. Weld, M.D., Rockford;
Secretary, Harold M. Camp, M.D., 224 S. Main Street, Monmouth.

Illinois Tuberculosis Association: Executive Secretary, Mrs. Theodore B. Sach,
343 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago.

Illinois Woman's Christian Temperance Union: Headquarters, Boom 1209, 189
W. Madison Street, Chicago. In charge, Mrs. N. T. Palmer; President, Mrs.
Maude Petteys Fairbairn.

Kiwanis International:*

Lions International:*

Rotary International:*

United Service Organizations, Regions V, VI and VIII: Executive, Ivan B. Ehodes,
835 Field Bldg., Chicago.

Official Agencies

Illinois State Council of Defense: Executive Director, Major General Frank Parker,

188 W. Randolph Street, Chicago.
Illinois State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruction,

John A. Wieland, Springfield ; Director of Physical Education, Don Cash Seaton.
Illinois State Department of Public Health: State Director of Public Health,

Ronald R. Cross, M.D., Springfield; Chief, Division of Venereal Disease Control,

Herman M. Soloway, M.D.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Alton, Anna, Aurora, Belleville, Berwyn, Bloomington, Cairo, Calumet City,
Champaign, Chicago (39), Chicago Heights, Deeatur, East St. Louis, Evanston,
Galesburg, Granite City, Harvey, Herrin, Jacksonville, Joliet, La Salle, Macomb,
Mattoon, Maywood, Metropolis, Moline, New Shawneetown, Peoria (2), Quiney,
Robbins, Rockford, Sparta, Waukegan.

Illinois State Department of Public Welfare: Director, A. L. Bowen, Springfield.

National Youth Administration, Region VI: Regional Director of Youth Per-
sonnel, Marion Hawthorne, Civic Opera Bldg., 20 N. Wacker Drive, Chicago.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,
Region VI: Supervisor, Mrs. Janet Burgoon; 'Representatives, Henry W. Waltz,
Julia Mae Hamilton, Alfred V. Taylor, 105 West Adams Street, Chicago.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,
H. P. Rusk; State Home Demonstration Leader, Mrs. Kathryn Van Aken Burns,
College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, Urbana.

U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for
War Information Centers, Dr. Charles E. Howell, Northern Illinois State
Teachers College, DeKalb; Robert E. Scudder, Northwestern University, Evans-
ton; Dr. Robert B. Browne, University of Illinois, Urbana.

U. S. Army, Sixth Corps Area: Headquarters, Post Office Bldg., Chicago;
Venereal Disease Control Officer, Captain Oscar D. Schwartz (MC).

U. S. Navy, Ninth District: The Commandant, Headquarters, Great Lakes
Station; Venereal Disease Control Officer, Lt. (jg) J. J. Burke (MC-V), Dis-
trict headquarters; Lt. Comdr. A. Ross (MC), Naval Training Station, Navy
Pier, Chicago.

U. S. Public Health Service: Director, District III, Senior Surgeon Mark V.
Ziegler; Liaison Officer, Sixth Army Corps Area, Surgeon Adolph S. Rumreich,
District Venereal Disease Control Consultants, Surgeon Alfred J. Aselmeyer,
Senior Surgeon Oliver C. Wenger, Post Office Bldg., Chicago; State Venereal
Disease Consultant, Assistant Surgeon Leslie W. Knott, State Dept. Public
Health, Springfield.

Work Projects Administration: Director of Community Service Program, Mrs.
Evelyn S. Byron, 6th Floor Merchandise Mart, Chicago.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.


Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield. " The program
of the Division of Venereal Disease Control is aimed at the objec-
tives: To diagnose as early as possible every case of syphilis. (Case
finding.) To institute competent medical care as soon as diagnosis
is made. (Treatment provision.) To keep infectious cases under
medical care until they are no longer a menace to society or to them-
selves. (Case holding.) To prevent new infections by medical,
educational and legal measures. (Prevention.)

Case Finding: Selective Service A Medical Advisory Board No. 39 (Venereal
Diseases) has been established in the State of Illinois with the cooperation of the
Selective Service Commission. All clinicians in charge of venereal disease clinics
in the state have been appointed members of this Advisory Board, with District
Health Superintendents and full-time Health Commissioners. All positive venereal
disease cases found among selective service registrants are referred to members
of this Board and arrangements are made to place them under treatment either
with private physicians, venereal disease clinics or State institutions.

National Defense and Military Activities: Venereal disease clinics are estab-
lished in seven military areas in Illinois. Agreement has been made with the
Sixth Corps Headquarters whereby all contacts and sources of venereal infections
in enlisted personnel are submitted directly to Health Commissioners near
encampments and to the U. S. Public Health Service district liaison officer who
submits this information to the Division of Venereal Disease Control, where it is
relayed to medical and lay investigators.

Premarital Health Examinations: This law became effective July 1, 1937,
and during 1941 there were about 100,000 serological tests done in Illinois,
showing about 1.1 per cent positive syphilis.

Prenatal Blood Tests: This law became effective July 1, 1939, and during 1941
there were about 50,000 tests done with about 1 per cent positive.

Industrial Surveys are being undertaken with the cooperation of the Division
of Industrial Hygiene and the Illinois Manufacturers Association. Special atten-
tion is being given in industries engaged in defense projects.

Other Blood-Testing Surveys: Blood-testing surveys are being undertaken in
schools, fairs, hotels, restaurants. Routine blood testing of all patients of private
physicians, hospitals and clinics is recommended.

Laboratory Examinations: Private and hospital laboratories are submitting
a monthly report of serological tests and smears done and the number found
positive. The State laboratories include the main laboratory at Springfield,
branch laboratories at Carbondale, Champaign, Chicago, Galesburg and East
St. Louis. The total laboratory work done in the branch laboratories during
1941 was:

Blood Tests Darlcfields Smears

Chicago 406,456 4,212 140,251

Outside Chicago 504,979 260 133,844

Epidemiology: During 1941 there were 2,100 routine assignments (investigation
of case to learn source) bringing 172 cases under treatment, and 585 suspected
sources investigated, bringing 148 cases under treatment.

Case Holding: Our endeavor is to keep infectious cases under medical care
until they have sufficient amount of treatment to render them non-infectious.
Our method includes the following measures:

A monthly drug letter serving as a requisition for free antiluetie drugs is se*t
to private physicians, and indicates the next five weeks' treatment of each
patient listed as being under the physician's care. This letter is returned to
the Division office and drugs are mailed. If the patient has interrupted his


regular treatment schedule, the physician is requested to fill in the discontinued
treatment notice. Every effort is made by our investigators to return the patient
to the reporting physician for further treatment. Similar provisions for "case
holding" are being carried out in our clinics by the nurses investigating all
delinquent cases. During 1941 there were 1,890 cases reported as having dis-
continued their treatment and of this many cases, 478 patients were returned
to the reporting physician and 587 to other physicians or venereal disease clinics.

Prevention Educational Measures for General Public: To prevent new
infections by medical, educational and legal measures, we employ: Educational
measures for general public including speakers, literature, pamphlets, moving
pictures, venereal disease exhibits, radio dramatizations and newspaper articles
relating to syphilis and gonorrhea.

Educational Measures for the Medical Profession: These include pre-scheduled
treatment outlines, post-graduate refresher courses, Venereal Disease Information
bulletin and other U. S. Public Health Service publications.

Legal Measures: The present laws making it compulsory to report venereal
disease cases should be more rigidly enforced. New laws should be passed giving
the Health Departments more leeway in control of venereal diseases among
inmates of houses of prostitution.

Special Studies Intensive Therapy Treatment of Early Cases of Syphilis:
This study is being carried on at the Cook County Hospital and better than 350
cases are under observation which have been treated with this intensive method.

Gonorrheal Ophthalmia Neonatorum : All cases of gonorrheal ophthalmia neona-
torum are reported to the Director of Public Health and, in cooperation with
the Illinois Society for the Prevention of Blindness, are sent to Chicago for
treatment. The expenses are met through State funds and the Illinois Society
for the Prevention of Blindness.

Congenital Venereal Diseases: Intensive Therapy for Congenital Syphilis,
Management of Congenital Syphilis in Offspring, Gonorrhea in Children.

Other Special Studies: Patient Educational Measures, Gonococcus Culture,
Chicago Special Studies."

Illinois Social Hygiene League, Chicago. " The League was estab-
lished in 1916 for treatment of venereal diseases, study of public
health problems produced by them, and the dissemination of knowl-
edge concerning the relation of these diseases to community health
and welfare.

On October 1, 1917, in the First World War emergency, the State
Council of Defense recognized the League as a medical center for
control, treatment, and prevention of venereal diseases among soldiers
and sailors then stationed in the Chicago area. A permit was issued
authorizing the organization to raise funds for these purposes. The
League is one of the few clinics so authorized at that time which has
consistently carried on its work throughout the years, and is, therefore,
organized and equipped to meet the present emergency.

Today, the League 's Medical Department has as its objectives control of vener-
eal diseases (1) through adequate treatment of all patients referred for care;
thereby limiting the spread of their infection; (2) through seeking out the
source from whom disease was acquired and subsequent contacts to whom the
patient may have given it; (3) research in chemotherapy in treatment of syphilis
and gonorrhea and (4) research in cultivation of the gonococcus and investiga-
tion of menstrua to facilitate transportation of specimens for cultivation. Over
a million treatments have been given by the clinic in its twenty-five years of
service, and more than 64,000 men, women, and children have been diagnosed and


treated. At least half this service has been furnished free with nominal fees paid
for the remainder. During the year 1941, 4,362 patients made 62,454 visits,
and were given medical care. The Medical Department is indebted to the Public
Health Institute for contributing laboratory facilities since 1928, during which
time 295,800 tests have been made. Laboratory services of City and State
Health Departments have also been furnished to the League during the past year.

Social service in a venereal disease clinic is truly social therapy. It is the
social worker who sympathetically and understandingly interviews the newly
diagnosed case and lays the groundwork for long time relationship between clinic
and patient, who helps the patient to accept the diagnosis and to make read-
justments that become necessary in social and family relationships because of
venereal infection; who discusses prevalence of venereal disease in the com-
munity and so helps the patient to see himself as one of many, relieving him of
much of his feeling of embarrassment and shame. The measure of efficiency of
a venereal disease clinic is in its case-holding ability. While we give emphasis
to follow-up service of infectious cases, the League's program is not limited to
this group, since we realize that it is highly important to give the non-infectious
cases protection from the last destructive lesions of syphilis which occur in
30 per cent of cases in which adequate treatment is not received. Our follow-up
service is carried out by letters, telephone calls, and in rare instances, personal
visits. Close friendly relationship between patients and League staff, makes
response to letters satisfactory in most cases.

While lack of understanding of importance of treatment is generally accepted
as principal cause for lapsing from treatment, study of the League's case-load
reveals that among our patients, the most frequent causes are temporary employ-
ment, lack of clothing, lack of carfare, and illness in the family. The task of
epidemiology, never simple is doubly difficult in venereal disease. There is no
intermediate host as in malaria; exposures are voluntary as a result of strong
basic urge; the disease is confused with moral issues. All these tend to complicate
the task. However, in a special study made over three months, 63 patients
revealed information which led to diagnosis of 42 cases of syphilis; 214 addi-
tional patients gave information which led to the diagnosis of 141 cases of

The League has carried on an educational program in social hygiene since
1916. It is now recognized as the main source of this type of information in
the Chicago area. Practically all of the work done results from requests from
agencies familiar with the organization's services. The various phases of social
hygiene are covered according to the needs of the individual groups. Leadership
Training Courses are offered by the League at both Northwestern University and
Loyola University, covering the history of social hygiene as well as the incidence,
prevalence, trends, diagnosis, and treatment of venereal disease. Social hygiene
as an integral part of the treatment program of public and private relief and
family agencies is also considered as are the social, public health, and legal
aspects of prostitution. Nurses' Training Schools are assisted in their educa-
tional programs through a series of lectures. Informal training courses are also
offered to civic groups and to parent-teachers associations. Study courses in
a broad social hygiene program are conducted for adult education classes. Sex
Education for Children is one of the most frequently requested subjects. Discus-
sion groups for students and young people are given through YMCA, YWCA,
settlement houses, and churches. Boy-Girl Relations, Sex Problems of Adoles-
cents, and The Question of Petting are popular topics. As a part of health
education courses the League gives assistance to high schools and colleges in
venereal disease information. Public education in the incidence, prevalence, and
trends of venereal disease is carried on through meetings with Kiwanis clubs,
women's clubs, and business and industrial groups.

An important part of the work is the educational program maintained for
the 4,000 patients. The aim of this part of the program is development of
clear understanding of venereal disease its cause its spread its cure by
every patient enrolled in the League. Emphasis is placed on the need for full
cooperation in seeking out sources of infection and contacts. ' '


Champaign-Urbana Council of Social Agencies. An Institute on
Family Relationships and the Community was held in January 1941,
with programs throughout the month in connection with meetings
of local churches, clubs, schools, P.T.A.'s and other organizations,
with leaders and speakers from the Council's staff and outstanding
experts in related fields who were made available through the
Division of Child Hygiene and Public Health Nursing of the
Illinois Department of Public Health. ... It was the Health
Division of the Council of Social Agencies which nearly ten years
ago became concerned for more adequate provision in the treatment
and prevention of venereal disease. A carefully selected Social
Hygiene Committee within two years set up a ten-year educational
program, adult education through the P.T.A., a training course
for teachers in the public schools, and tentative curricula. They
were also responsible for preparing and securing passage of
ordinances for combating venereal disease in the two cities; and it
was this Committee which originated the plan for a Public Health
District embracing both cities which was accepted in 1937 and has
been of considerable benefit in providing the District with efficient
and authoritative public health administration.

Chicago Board of Health. The syphilis control program instituted
in 1937 in which the Chicago Board of Health, with the approval
of the Illinois Department of Public Health and the United States
Public Health Service secured the cooperation of the Work Projects
Administration, has continued uninterruptedly.

The plan to obtain syphilis tests on as many of Chicago's citizens as possible
has secured the cooperation of over one third of the population of the city.
Approximately five per cent of those examined were found infected and placed
under treatment, by private physicians or clinics. The active cooperation of the
Chicago Medical Society resulted in a large increase in the number of cases of
both syphilis and gonorrhea reported as under treatment by private physicians.

Blood tests in elementary schools, in which every school participated, and
approximately fifty per cent of the pupils enrolled had tests made with their
parents' consent, resulted in the enrollment of eight hundred cases of syphilis
in the Children's Unit of the Municipal Social Hygiene Clinic.

With the approval of organized labor, approximately 175,000 confidential blood
tests have been made in industry. Clinic treatment has been provided for all
found infected if they were unable to pay a physician for private treatment.
Syphilis tests have been included as a part of the pre-employment examination
by a large and increasing number of industries, and the policy of permitting
non-infectious cases to continue employment provided they take treatment is
gaining ground.

The educational program in industry includes talks to assembled employees,
the distribution of educational pamphlets, exhibition of posters announcing the
plan and date of lecture and tests. Physicians, nurses and clerical workers
visit the industry at the appointed time and take specimens from volunteers.
Negative results are mailed direct to the employee, and those having positive
results receive a letter directing them to the family physician or a clinic for a
repeat test and diagnosis. Industrial cases under treatment are followed closely.

In April, 1941, a post-graduate course in the diagnosis, treatment and control
of venereal diseases, which included lectures by prominent Chicago specialists
covering all types of venereal diseases and clinical work in the Municipal Social
Hygiene Clinic, was attended by three classes of ten or more physicians each


over a period of three weeks. The course was arranged in cooperation with
the State Department of Public Health and the United States Public Health

The Chicago Health Department received the United States Chamber of
Commerce Award for the best venereal disease control program for the year 1940.

Case finding activities were transferred from the Municipal Social Hygiene
Clinic to the Health Department Building at 54 West Hubbard Street in Septem-
ber, 1941, where a Central Registry Unit for the registration of all venereal
disease cases, alleged sources of infection and contacts since infection, and a
Central Investigation Unit for the purpose of locating, and securing an examina-
tion of such persons, were established. Sources, contacts, suspects and volunteers
are examined at the Central Diagnostic Unit, also located at 54 West Hubbard
Street, and treatment is arranged for those found infected.

Assistance has been rendered the Selective Service System by the establishment
at 54 West Hubbard Street of the Venereal Disease Unit of Medical Advisory
Board No. 39, of which Dr. Herman N. Bundesen is Chairman. Registrants
referred by local draft boards have been given a thorough examination and
those found infected referred to private physicians or clinics for treatment.
These cases are followed closely and many have been cleared and made available
for military service.

Four hundred ninety-three thousand, two hundred twenty-seven visits were
made to Health Department Clinics for examination, consultation and treatment
during the year. Fifty-eight thousand, four hundred seventy-six new applicants
were examined in these clinics and fifty thousand, seven hundred fifty-three field
blood tests were made on volunteer groups. Three hundred and eighty-one health
educational talks were made with an attendance of thirty-one thousand, four
hundred fifty persons. Pamphlets distributed numbered 81,138.

The program conducted under the supervision of the Chicago Board of Health
in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Public Health, the United States
Public Health Service and the Works Projects Administration has had the
interested and active support of Hon. Edward J. Kelly, Mayor of Chicago,
throughout, with excellent cooperation on the part of Municipal Judges and
Police authorities.

For the convenience of venereal disease patients, several branch clinics will
be opened in outlying districts in the immediate future. And for the protection
of enlisted men visiting the city, and defense workers, a number of early
treatment stations will be operated throughout the city.

Chicago : Juvenile Protective Association. The major effort of this
organization is to report to law enforcement authorities community
conditions leading to delinquency and especially taverns where
prostitution is carried on, which are sources of disease.

"Out of the illegal conditions permitted in these places come an endless stream
of venereally infected young people and men and women, to clinics and to private
physicians for treatment.*' "For the year ending March 15, 1942, one clinic

Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 29 of 71)