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alone found that 1,282 cases of infection resulted from contacts the individuals
made in 295 taverns, 114 hotels, 50 houses of prostitution and 148 street
solicitations. Dance halls and massage parlors also figured in this picture. Many
of these places were repeatedly reported to law enforcement officials because of
flagrant illegal conditions existing in them." (From a statement by Walter
C. Cromwell, Director Department on Community Conditions, Juvenile Protective
Association.)

"Facilities for finding; and treating casos of syphilis and gonorrhea have
increased considerably in Chicago since the beginning of the venereal disease
control program, but they are not nor have they ever been equal to the needs.
The failure to take adequate preventive measures to trace and eliminate sources
has greatly retarded the effectiveness of treatment facilities as well as prevention.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 231

' ' Few measures are taken, or agencies exist for the prevention of commercialized
prostitution in Chicago and Illinois. Inadequate legal and protective measures
constitute the weakest program here. We have an Injunction and Abatement
Law which is seldom used against houses of prostitution. ' '

Robinson Social Hygiene Association : " Our association has com-
pleted the organization of a county health and welfare council to
correlate all of the health and welfare agencies of the county. As a
recognition of our contribution to the community, our president was
made a member of the city board of health. Pamphlet distribution
and library work continues. We have no defense or military project
near our county."

Important among Social Hygiene Day events each year is the conference
sponsored by the Chicago Coordinating Committee on Social Hygiene Day, which
also holds interim meetings for exchange of information among the Committee
members. In 1940 the Committee sponsored a two-day Regional Conference
and was host to the American Social Hygiene Association at its Twenty- seventh
Annual Meeting, when the William Freeman Snow Award for Distinguished
Service to Humanity was presented to General John J. Pershing. Among
A.S.H.A. visitors to Illinois recently, including the cities of Springfield, Blooming-
ton, Evanston, Joliet, Elwood and other communities, have been Miss Shenehon,
Miss Pinney, Dr. Snow, Dr. Clarke, Dr. Storey, Miss McGrath, Mr. Gould.

The Bureau of Child Hygiene and Public Health Nursing of the State Depart-
ment of Health, for six years has supplemented the work of the Bureau of Venereal
Disease Control by a year-round state-wide program of social hygiene education,
carried on under the auspices of the district nursing units by Mrs. Margaret
Wells Wood, formerly of the A.S.H.A. staff.

INDIANA

Population Population rank among states 12

Urban 1,887,712 A.S.H.A. members in state 72

Rural 1,540,084

3,427,796

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

Evansville: Health Committee, Council of Social Agencies: Chairman, G. Ash-
burn Koch, 2112 Penn Street.

Fort Wayne: League Against Venereal Diseases: President, A. G. Burry; Sec-
retary, dem J. Steigmeyer, 259-60 Central Bldg.

Hammond: Social Hygiene Committee, Defense Council: Chairman, H. C. Groman,
M.D., City Hall.

Indianapolis Social Hygiene Association: Secretary, Mrs. Warrick Wallace, 1098
W. Michigan St.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, William E. Bayer, War Memorial Bldg.,

Indianapolis.
Indiana Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. James L. Murray, 64

W. 73rd Street, Indianapolis; Social Hygiene Chairman, Mrs. Carl Manthei,

1015 Churchman Ave., Indianapolis.
Indiana Council of Church Women: President, Mrs. E. L. Eggers, 437 Detroit

Street, Hammond.
Indiana Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. Ted

Lashbrook, Sunny Ridge Farm, Westfield.
Indiana Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Howard Batman, 815 Board

of Trade Building, Indianapolis.



232 JOUBNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

Indiana Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, Helen Teal, 1125 Circle Tower,
Indianapolis; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section, Marie Winkler, 224
N. Meridian Street, Indianapolis.

Indiana State Conference on Social Work: President, William A. Hacker, Indiana
Public Schools, 150 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis; Executive Secretary, Wade
T. Searles, Indiana University Training Course for Social Work, 1076 West
Michigan St., Indianapolis.

Indiana State Medical Association: President, Maynard A. Austin, M.D., Ander-
son; Secretary, T. A. Hendricks, 23 E. Ohio St., Indianapolis.

Indiana Teachers Association: Secretary, Margaret Sweeney, 207 East Chestnut
Street, Jeffersonville.

Indiana Tuberculosis Association: Executive Secretary, Murray A. Auerbaeh,
Eoom 1219, Security Trust Bldg., Indianapolis.

Indiana Woman's Christian Temperance Union: President, Mrs. Paul Halliday,
1204 Wayne St., N. Manchester.

Kiwanis International:*

Lions International:*

Rotary International:*

United Service Organizations, Region VI: See Illinois.

Official Agencies

Indiana State Board of Health: State Health Commissioner, John W. Ferree,
MJX, Indianapolis; Chief, Bureau of Venereal Diseases, George W. Bowman,
M.D.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Anderson, Bicknell, Bloomington, Boonville, Brazil, Cannelton, Columbus, East
Chicago, Evansville, Fort Wayne, Gary, Hammond, Indianapolis (7), Kokomo,
Madison, Marion, Muncie, New Albany, Petersburg, Princeton, Richmond, Shelby-
ville, South Bend, Terre Haute, Wabash.

Indiana State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Clement T. Malan, Indianapolis.

Indiana State Department of Public Welfare: Administrator, Thunnan A. Gott-
sehalk, 141 South Meridian Street, Indianapolis.

National Youth Administration, Region VI: See Illinois.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,
Region VI: See Illinois.

State Defense Council: Director, Clarence A. Jackson, 300 Board of Trade
Building, 143 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis.

U. S. Army, Fifth Corps Area: See Ohio.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,
H. J. Eeed; State Home Demonstration Leader, Leila R. Gaddis, Purdue
University, La Fayette.

U. S. Navy, Ninth District: See Illinois.

U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for
War Information Centers: Prof. W. S. Bittner, Indiana University, Blooming-
ton; Prof. Wm. M. Hepburn, Purdue University, La Fayette; Paul R. Byrne,
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame.

U. S. Public Health Service: State Venereal Disease Consultant, P. A. Surgeon
Hugh L. C. Wilkerson, State Dept. of Health, Indianapolis. For Director,
District III, see Illinois; for Liaison Officer, Fifth Army Corps Area, see Ohio.

Work Projects Administration: Director of Community Service Programs, Miss
Mildred E. Schmitt, 429 N. Pennsylvania St., Indianapolis.

Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis. "The Board has
coordinated its venereal disease control activities with the medical
and other closely allied professions and voluntary organizations.
A program for control of prostitution, in accordance in every par-
ticular with that of the U. S. Army, has been announced by
the State Board of Health. In cooperation with City and County

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 233

health departments it supports 36 public health venereal clinics,
located in the more populous centers of the State. In addition,
medical reports are received each month from 5 penal and cor-
rectional, and 7 neuro-psychiatric state institutions. Free distri-
bution of anti-syphilitic drugs for treatment of indigent patients
regardless of the stage of the disease, consisting of 20 doses of
the arsenical compound in the form of neo- or sulpharsphenamine
and 20 injections of heavy metal in the form of bismuth sub-
salicylate has been followed. These anti-syphilitic drugs are also
mailed to private physicians in communities where no public health
clinics are located. The board also maintains a laboratory for
the use of physicians, venereal clinics and state institutions. Blood
specimens and smears and cultures for gonorrhea examination are
accepted for indigent venereal patients.

"A new and cheaper method of testing blood for syphilis was recently inaug-
urated by the State Board of Health and Indiana's private pathologists as the
first cooperative move in the campaign. A reduction to $1.00 of private patholog-
ical fees is expected to account for several thousand tests in the next year.
Because of this program it is also expected that the Indiana State Board of
Health Laboratory of Hygiene will give more than 100,000 free tests during this
same period. Yearly averages for the State Laboratory have been around 722,374
tests for 1941. The Indiana Association of Pathologists and the Indiana State
Board of Health have adopted one blood test. In the past they used the
Wassermann, Kahn, and Kline tests, but up to the present time the state and
private pathologists have given all three tests as a matter of routine. Hereafter,
only the Kline test will be given in the first instance, but if this test registers
negative, no further test will be made. Thus, in all cases where the first test
is negative, the expense of two other tests will be saved, allowing more persons
the advantage of the blood test for the same charge. In event that the Kline
test proves positive in the State Laboratory, the State Board of Health will also
run the Wassermann and the Kahn tests. The private pathologists in Indiana
have demonstrated beyond all doubt their altruistic attitude and have entered
this campaign with the spirit of putting aside private interest.

"In the epidemiological field, through the Bureau of Venereal Disease Control
they investigate sources of infection, family contacts, and cooperate with all city
and county health officers. They also undertake to secure and tabulate other
information regarding disposition of cases through the University School of
Medicine and Hospitals, penal and correctional institutions, and other private
and public hospitals in the State of Indiana. Ordinary means of educational
work, such as news releases for the public press and health journals, motion
picture films, lantern slides, lectures, and exhibits are used by the department.
Meetings are being held with medical societies, nursing associations, social
service organizations, P.T.A. associations, lodges, labor unions, luncheon and
service clubs, Chamber of Commerce organizations, youth groups. The educational
facilities of the State Board of Health have also been used by druggists, dentists,
churches, factories, Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. groups. Specially prepared letters
and pamphlets have been mailed to many clubs and organizations. They also
have undertaken to correlate and carry on organized measures and activities for
the protection of individuals and communities against such practices, amusements
and environmental influences favoring the dissemination of syphilis and gonorrhea.

"News releases appear in practically all daily publications in the state. A few
radio broadcasts have been given. Through the Bureau of Health and Physical
Education, the State Board of Health uses silent and sound motion picture films,
exhibits, charts, and posters, and in addition, lectures are provided through this
Bureau in cooperation with state and county medical societies. Automatic
balopticon machines using lantern slides are in continuous use throughout the
state. Approximately 100,000 educational social hygiene pamphlets are dis-
tributed each year.

"Th State Board of Health cooperates with prosecuting attorneys, local



234 JOTJBNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

police, and state police in the repression of commercialized prostitution. Sex
delinquency cases are referred to Juvenile Court authorities for further
investigation. ' '

In the General Assembly, the state marriage laws as they relate to premarital
examination for venereal disease were passed and made effective March 1, 1940,
as well as a prenatal law effective January 1, 1940.



A.8.H.A. visitors to Indiana during the past year have included Dr. Clarke
and Miss McGrath, for conference with health officials, social hygiene workers
and industrial groups in the cities of New Albany, South Bend, and Indianapolis.



IOWA

Population Population rank among states 20

Urban 1,084,231 A.S.H.A. members in state 44

Rural 1,454,037

2,538,268

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

None.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, R. J. Laird, Argonne- Armory Building,

Des Moines.
Iowa Association for Social Welfare: President, J. H. Godtfring, Y.M.C.A.,

Sioux City.
Iowa Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. S. E. Lincoln, 2220

East 32nd Street, Des Moines.
Iowa Council of Church Women: President, Mrs. W. A. Button, 1705 S. Newton

Street, Sioux City.
Iowa Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. Fred Loss,

305 W. Main Street, Marshalltown.
Iowa Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Cecil Saddoris, Soil Conservation

Service, Denison.
Iowa Nurses Association: Secretary, Mrs. Margaret Stoddard Parker, 307 7th

Avenue, N.W., Independence; Secretary, State Organization for Public Health

Nursing, Hazel Roberts, Court House, Manchester.
Iowa State Medical Society -.President, Frank P. Winkler, M.D., Sibley; Secretary,

Eobert L. Parker, M.D., 3510 Sixth Avenue, Des Moines.
Iowa State Teachers Association: Executive Secretary, Agnes Samuelson, 415

Shops Bldg., Des Moines.
Iowa Tuberculosis Association: Executive Secretary, C. W. Kammeier, 610 Flynn

Bldg., Des Moines.
Iowa Woman's Christian Temperance Union: Headquarters, 412 Shops Bldg.,

8th and Walnut Sts., Des Moines. In charge and President, Mrs. Harriette

G. McCollough.
Kiwanis International:*
Lions International:*
Rotary International:*
United Service Organizations, Region VIII: See Illinois.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 235

Official Agencies

Iowa Industrial and Defense Commission: Secretary, Rodney Q. Selby, Crocker

Bldg., Des Moines.
Iowa State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruction,

Jessie M. Parker, Des Moines.
Iowa State Department of Health: State Health Commissioner, W. L. Bierring,

M.D., Des Moines; Director, Division of Venereal Disease Control, B. M.

Sorenson, M.D.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Burlington, Cedar Rapids, Clinton, Davenport, Des Moines, Dubuque, Fort Dodge,
Keokuk, Muscatine, Oskaloosa, Ottumwa, Sioux City, Washington, Waterloo.

In addition to the clinics listed, the addresses of physicians giving treat-
ment for venereal diseases under the state plan may be obtained from state,
county and municipal officers.

National Youth Administration, Region VIII: See Minnesota.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,

Region VIII: See Minnesota.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,

R. K. Bliss; State Home Demonstration Leader, Mrs. Sarah Porter Ellis,

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames.
U. S. Army, Seventh Corps Area: See Nebraska.
U. S. Navy, Ninth District: See Illinois.
U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for

War Information Centers: Dr. Charles H. Brown, Iowa State College of

Agricultural and Mechanic Arts, Ames; Dr. Jack T. Johnson, State University

of Iowa, Iowa City.
U. S. Public Health Service: For Director, District VII, see Missouri; for

Liaison Officer, Seventh Army Corps Area, see Nebraska.
Work Projects Administration: State Director of Community Service Programs,

Helen Cresswell, 114 Eleventh Street, Des Moines.

State Department of Health, Des Moines. The Division of Venereal
Disease Control was established by the Iowa State Department of
Health on July 1, 1938. The aim is to find as many of the cases of
syphilis and gonorrhea as possible; to offer as much assistance as
facilities will permit toward getting adequate treatment for the cases ;
to trace sources of infection of the reported cases, and to find as many
of the persons who may have been exposed to infection by the reported
cases. Once a case is reported, every effort is made to keep it under
treatment until such time as it has received maximum benefit from
therapy and until it is no longer a public health hazard.

On January 1, 1940, drugs, formerly handled through local druggists, began
to be provided by a system of central distribution from the health department
which has proven very satisfactory and much more efficient. By this method it
is also possible to build up files of patients under active treatment, those who
have lapsed treatment, and need follow-up, and cases that have been ' ' cured. ' '
As a result of a clinic directors ' conference on May 22, 1940, a system of uniform
records was adopted.

A bill providing for the serologic examination of all expectant mothers was
passed by the General Assembly and became effective July 4, 1939. A rapid
increase in percentage of expectant mothers so examined during the first year
culminated in an estimated 86 per cent examined during the fourth 3-month
period of the law's operation. The same session of the General Assembly revised
venereal disease laws, aiding materially in making the provisions of the code
more workable and more effectively enforced. The following session of the
Assembly, in 1941, passed a premarital examination law, which became effective
April 9, 1941.



236 JOUBNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

KANSAS

Population Population rank among states 29

Urban 753,941 A.S.H.A. members in state 47

Rural 1,047,087



1,801,028

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

Topeka: Social Protection Committee, Defense Council, Chairman, Frank Korab,
1181 College.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, Irvin L. Cowger, Memorial Building,

Topeka.
Kansas Conference of Social Work: Executive Secretary, Herman Newman,

1181 McVicar Ave., Topeka.
Kansas Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. E. W. Emery, Mt.

Vernon Road, Eoutel, Atchison; Social Hygiene Chairman, Mrs. E. J. Nodurfth,

1844 Wellington Street, Wichita.
Kansas Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. W. A.

Luebke, Freeport.
Kansas Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Eobert D. Benson, Grand

Building, McPherson.
Kansas Medical Society: President, Henry N. Tihen, M.D., Wichita; Secretary,

C. G. Munns, 112 West Sixth Street, Topeka.
Kansas Nurses Association: Secretary, Mrs. Anne Lee Wick, 359 N. Clifton

Ave., Wichita; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section, Euth G. McDonald,

305 Greenwood, Topeka.
Kansas State Teachers Association: Secretary, Boss W. Potwin, 315 West

Tenth Street, Topeka.
Kansas Tuberculosis and Health Association: Executive Secretary, Charles H.

Lerrigo, M.D., 824 Kansas Ave., Topeka.
Kansas Woman's Christian Temperance Union: Headquarters, 1122 Taylor St.,

Topeka. In charge, Mrs. Edna F. Davisson; President, Mrs. Agnes D. Hays,

Ransom.

Kiwanis International:*
Lions International:*
Rotary International:*
United Service Organizations, Region IX: See Missouri.

Official Agencies

Kansas Council of Defense: Executive Assistant, Dale A. Fisher, State House,

Topeka.
Kansas State Board of Health: State Health Officer, F. C. Beelman, M.D.,

Topeka; Director, Division of Venereal Disease Control, Eobert H. Riedel,

M.D.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians of:

Columbus, Emporia, Hays, Hutchinson, Junction City, Kansas City (2), Law-
rence, Leavenworth, Manhattan, Parsons, Salina, Topeka, Wichita.

Kansas State Board of Social Welfare: Chairman, Frank E. Milligan, 901 Har-
rison Street, Topeka.

Kansas State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruction,
George L. McClenny, Topeka.

National Youth Administration, Region IX: Regional Director of Youth Per-
sonnel, New England Bldg., Topeka.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 237

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,

Region IX: See Missouri.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,

J. C. Umberger; State Home Demonstration Leader, Georgiana H. Smurth-

waite, Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science, Manhattan.
U. S. Army, Seventh Corps Area: See Nebraska.
U. S. Navy, Ninth District: See Illinois.
U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for

War Information Centers: Prof. Jesse M. Schall, Kansas State College of

Agriculture and Applied Sciences, Manhattan; Harold G. Ingham, University

of Kansas, Lawrence.
U. S. Public Health Service: For Director District VII, see Missouri; for Liaison

Officer, Seventh Army Corps Area, see Nebraska.
Work Projects Administration: State Director of Community Service Program,

Mrs. Mary Parkman, 912-14 Kansas Avenue, Topeka.

Kansas State Board of Health, Topeka. A special report says:

Medical and Public Health Measures: An all-time high of 3,746 new cases
of syphilis and 1,801 cases of gonorrhea were diagnosed and reported
under treatment by Kansas physicians in private practice and in clinics
in 1941. There were only 936 new cases of syphilis reported in Kansas
in 1936, the year in which the new campaign to control syphilis and gon-
orrhea was undertaken by the U. S. Public Health Service in cooperation
with State and local official health departments and voluntary groups such
as the American Social Hygiene Association. This indicates a definite
expansion of facilities for finding and treating cases of syphilis. The
increased number of cases coming to the attention of physicians is not, however,
due so much to physical or personnel facilities as it is to educational efforts.
Only two new small clinics were established in Kansas in 1941, making a total
of fifteen clinics in the State. The increased awareness and acceptance of the
syphilis and gonorrhea problem among the laity and the medical profession is
probably responsible for the increased attention to these diseases. Our problem
now is to maintain this healthy attitude and increase the quality and efficiency
of our present available facilities and services both in the clinics and among
private practitioners. There are still communities in Kansas where clinics and
specialized personnel should hasten the control of syphilis and gonorrhea. The
absence of clinics in these areas is not due to lack of available funds, but
rather to lack of interest. Here the need for further education is apparent.
The State Health Department program is complete. It includes provisions for
diagnosis, case finding, treatment, education and cooperation with law enforcement
agencies. Local organization, however, is still lacking in many communities.

The Kansas State Pharmaceutical Association without urging has promoted
a campaign of information concerning the venereal disease problem among its
members. Their program includes articles in their official Journal exhibits at
Pharmaceutical Association meetings, distribution of literature, etcetera.

Health Education and Public Information: Kansas newspapers now cooperate
fully in the campaign against venereal diseases. Of course the newspapers,
especially in the larger cities, prefer to print information of a " newsy" char-
acter. The good reporter always tries to give a sensational angle to stories.
When syphilis and gonorrhea are reduced to common communicable diseases and
not portrayed as crime, vice, and immorality, the news value is somewhat
reduced. It is believed that too frequent association of crime, vice and immor-
ality with syphilis and gonorrhea still keeps nice people from supporting a
program to control these diseases. The larger dailies and a great many of the
weekly papers, however, accept and print routine releases concerning syphilis
and gonorrhea.

Radio stations in Kansas frequently use prepared talks on syphilis and
gonorrhea for broadcast by their staffs. Public health workers, both voluntary
and official, have little difficulty in obtaining use of broadcasting facilities for
special programs. Stations which have been especially cooperative are KFBI,
Wichita; WIBW, Topeka; KSTW, Emporia; WEEN, Lawrence, and KOAM,
Pittsburg.



238 JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

Legal and Protective Measures : The policy of the Division of Venereal Diseases
of the Kansas State Board of Health is to place the burden of law enforcement
with regard to prostitution and allied crimes squarely on the shoulders of official



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