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to gain the formally recorded approval of the medical profession to the plan.
In addition, however, it served the useful purpose of stimulating interest in
the subject, and the consultant and his associates have addressed numerous local
medical societies upon various clinical aspects of the diagnosis and treatment
of syphilis.

(10) Informative literature for distribution to patients has been prepared.

(11) An educational campaign for the laity has been conducted. In this
respect the newspapers have been most cooperative in granting full publicity
to all news-worthy items. For the more desirable direct approach, the State
Health Department has acquired the educational talking slide film, For All Our
Sakes, and other recent motion pictures on venereal disease control, and the
consultant and his associates have made a large number of talks to such civic-
minded groups as luncheon clubs and Parent- Teacher Associations."



252 JOUBNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

The Maryland Social Hygiene Society, in the 1920 decade one of the most
important and effective state voluntary groups, maintains a skeleton organiza-
tion, should emergency arise calling for action on the part of such an agency.

A.SJLA. staff members are frequent visitors to Baltimore, in especial Dr.
Walter Clarke, who lectures at Johns Hopkins University.

MASSACHUSETTS

Population Population rank among states 8

Urban 3,859,476 A.S.H.A. members in state 129

Enrol 457,245

4,316,721

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees
Boston:
Massachusetts Society for Social Hygiene: President, George Gilbert Smith,

M.D.; Executive Secretary, Mrs. S. W. Miller, 1146 Little Bldg.
Massachusetts Anti-Syphilis Committee: Chairman, Walter B. Cannon, M.D.,

Harvard University Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street.

Massachusetts Committee on Social Hygiene Day: Honorary Chairman, Gover-
nor Leverett Saltonstall; Chairman, Ralph Bradley, Secretary, Mrs. 8. W.
Miller, 1106 Little Bldg.
Cambridge: Social Hygiene Committee, Cambridge Tuberculosis and Health

Association: Chairman, J. L. Budd, M.D., 689 Massachusetts Avenue.
Holyoke Social Hygiene Committee: Chairman, Louis K. Appel, 42 Brookline

Avenue.
Northampton: Sub-Committee on Social Hygiene, Hampshire County Public

Health Association: Executive Secretary, Mrs. Geneva F. Roekford.
Pittsfield: Social Hygiene Committee, Council of Social Agencies: Secretary,

I. P. Thompson, 74 North Street.

Springfield: Social Hygiene Committee, Hampden County Tuberculosis and Pub-
lic Health Association: Director, W. O. Johnson, 145 State Street.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, Coleman C. Curran, Boom 159, State

House, Boston.
Civitan International: Lt. Governor, New England District, H. F. Fabricius, 26

Pleasant Street, Baldwinville.
Kiwanis International:*
Lions International:*
Massachusetts Conference on Social Work: Executive Secretary, Bichard K.

Conant, 41 Mt. Vernon Street, Boston.
Massachusetts Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. Luther R.

Putney, 80 Boylston Street, Boston; Social Hygiene Chairman, Helen L D.

McGillicuddy, M.D.
Massachusetts Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs.

Merton B. Dexter, 115 Albemarle Street, Springfield.
Masschusetts Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Leo R. Minnehan, 2

Acron Road, Brookline.
Massachusetts Medical Society: President, George A. Schadt, M.D., Springfield;

Secretary, Michael A. Tighe, M.D., 8 The Fenway, Boston.
Massachusetts Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, Helen G. Lee, 420

Boylston Street, Boston; Secretary, State Organization for Public Health

Nursing, Mrs. Ben Ross Schneider, 21 Winthrop Street, Winchester.
Massachusetts Teachers Federation: Hugh Nixon, 15 Aahburton Place, Boston.
Massachusetts Tuberculosis League: Executive Secretary, Arthur J. Strawson,

1148 Little Bldg., Boston.
Rotary International:*
United Service Organizations, Region I: Executive, Chester H. Smith, 1103

Park Square, Boston.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 253

Official Agencies

Massachusetts Committee on Public Safety: Executive Director, J. W. Farley,
18 Tremont Street, Boston.

Massachusetts State Department of Education: Commissioner of Education,
Walter F. Downey, Boston; Supervisor of Physical Education, Daniel J. Kelly.

Massachusetts State Department of Public Health: State Commissioner of Pub-
lic Health, Paul J. Jakmauh, M.D., Boston; Director, Division of Genitoin-
fectious Diseases, Ernest B. Howard, M.D. On leave for Army duty, Acting
Director, P. A. Surgeon John B. Hozier of U. S. P. H. S.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Beverly, Boston (7), Brockton, Cambridge (2), Fall River, Fitchburg, Great
Barrington, Haverhill, Holyoke, Lawrence (2), Lowell, Lynn, New Bedford,
Newton, Pittsfield, Quincy, Roxbury, Springfield, Waltham, Worcester (2).

U. S. Public Health Service: For Director, District I, see New York. Liaison
Officer, First Army Corps Area, Sr. Surgeon Boy E. Bodet, Boston Army Base,
Boston.

Massachusetts State Department of Public Welfare: Commissioner, Arthur G.
Rpteh, Boston.

National Youth Administration, Region I: Begional Director of Touth Person-
nel, James W. Earley, No. 10 Post Office Square, Boston.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,
Region I: Supervisor, John J. Murphy, 120 Boylston, Boston.

U. S. Army, First Corps Area: Headquarters, Boston Army, Base, Boston;
Venereal Disease Control Officer, Captain Thomas H. Sternberg, MC.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,
W. A. Munson; State Home Demonstration Leader, Mrs. Annette T. Herr,
Massachusetts State College, Amherst.

U. S. Navy, First District: The Commandant's Headquarters, and Venereal Dis-
ease Control Officer, Lt. Comdr. F. J. Bailey, Boston.

U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for
War Information Centers: Edith Baker, Clark University, Worcester; Prof.
Arnold D. Rhodes, Massachusetts State College, Amherst; Mrs. Catherine W.
Roberts, Smith College, Northampton.

Work Projects Administration: State Director of Community Service Program,
Harold G. Dunney, 600 Washington Street, Boston.

State Department of Public Health, Division of Genitoinfectious
Diseases, Boston. Every effort is made to cooperate with the U. S.
Public Health Service and the military and naval authorities. The
Massachusetts program gives equal emphasis to the control of both
syphilis and gonorrhea, with the provision of adequate treatment
facilities and case finding.

The decline in reports of gonorrhea which began in 1932 has continued and
since 1937 has been precipitous, coinciding with the appearance of the sul-
fonamides It is possible that physicians are using these drugs in any condition
which might be gonorrhea without making the diagnosis, and thus without making
a report. The decline in reports from clinics may be due to a decreasing
tendency on the part of physicians to refer patients to clinics since treatment
with the sulfonamides is much simpler than the older methods of treatment with
which many physicians declined to be bothered.

The rate of around 15 per 100,000 population for syphilis is less than the rate
reported by the Scandinavian countries.

Through the use of Federal funds, the clinics at the Boston Dispensary, the
Massachusetts General Hospital and the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital have been
completely remodeled and largely re-equipped and are attracting nation-wide
attention as the best clinics in this field in the country, and perhaps in the



254 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

world. These three clinics particularly, and some of the others, are now equipped
for culture of the gonococcus which is so essential for the determination of cure
when the sulfonamides are used. The laboratory at the Boston Dispensary is
being used for the training of technicians from other laboratories in gonococcus
culture.

The follow-up service in the clinics continues to be more and more effective as
indicated by a continued decline in the number of cases which have to be
reported to local boards of health. The distribution of arsenicals has increased
tremendously.

The Department of Public Health has cooperated fully with the Army and
Navy authorities in matters related to the national war program, and is
following up draftees with positive or doubtful tests. Where investigation of
contacts indicates reason to believe that prostitution is being practiced, responsi-
ble police officials are notified.

The Harvard School of Public Health continues to offer a course of training
for health officers in genitoinfectious disease control. The Department con-
tinues cooperation with the Massachusetts Medical Society in maintaining a
course of postgraduate instruction for physicians.

Massachusetts has had a prenatal examination law for syphilis in effect since
November 1, 1939; and has since adopted a premarital examination law which
became effective October 31, 1941.

Boston: Massachusetts Society for Social Hygiene. The work of
the Society continues to carry out the classical aims of social
hygiene: (1) sex education and education for marriage and family
life; (2) prevention and control of syphilis and gonorrhea; and
(3) social protective measures.

The war situation has intensified activities and broadened oppor-
tunities, but not at the expense of the general program which is
defense work in its broad sense. Any specific service for the
benefit of the armed forces will, of course, contribute ultimately
to the continuing social hygiene program.

Our lecture staff, headed by Dr. Helen I. D. McGillieuddy, continues its
service to many different types of groups. Increasing calls have been made
upon the Counseling Service with Lester W. Dearborn as director, and it is
quite apparent that the emergency is developing a new set of problems with
which we are being asked to help. The Defense Program has been carried
on by Richard H. Anthony, who has been able to establish a highly effective
cooperative program with official and voluntary agencies in the field. Mr.
Anthony, besides being field representative of this Society, is part-time epidemi-
ologist in the Division of Genitoinfeetious Diseases of the State Department
of Public Health. He is also vice-chairman of the Committee on Social Pro-
tection Services of the Massachusetts Public Safety Committee, of which Dr.
McGillieuddy is also a member, and he and Dr. MeGillicuddy are both members
of the Boston Committee on Social Protective Measures. Mr. Anthony was
chairman of a sub-committee of the latter which recently completed a survey
of the social protection problems in Boston under three headings: I The Service-
man on Leave; II The Girl Problem; and III Genitoinfectious Diseases.

The Society in 1941 published a booklet on gonorrhea and syphilis Two
Diseases You Don't Have to Have in everyday language designed for soldiers
and sailors. So far nearly 150,000 copies have been distributed. Through
cooperation of selective service officials, these booklets are furnished to every
soldier inducted into the Army from Massachusetts, no matter where he goes.
We also place them in the hands of every soldier stationed in Massachusetts,
no matter where he comes from. Many of these boys write to the Society
for additional information. In this way the Society is enabled to reach a group



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 255

of young men directly and to take advantage of wartime mobilization to further
our long-range educational program.

High point of the past year's activities was the New England Eegional
Conference held on February 3, Sixth National Social Hygiene Day, when the
Society and the Massachusetts Committee on Social Hygiene Day, headed by
Governor Leverett Saltonstall, acted also as host to the Twenty-ninth Annual
Meeting of the American Social Hygiene Association. The Conference theme
Social Protection in Wartime and After, and the notable list of topics and
speakers, brought a thousand interested members, friends, and representatives
of important New England health groups together for valuable exchange of
views and information. At the A.S.H.A. Annual Meeting the William Freeman
Snow Award for Distinguished Service to Humanity was presented to Brigadier
General Frederick F. Russell of Harvard University, and Honorary Life Mem-
berships in the American Social Hygiene Association to Mr. Bascom Johnson
and Colonel Claude C. Pierce. Eighty-one state and community agencies joined
in sponsorship of the Conference, and fresh impetus was given to work in the
whole area by this event.

The Society's Annual Meeting, held on May 5, 1942, was an informal affair,
briefly presenting the range of activities during the past year, signs of progress,
and certain everyday problems. It should be recorded that Massachusetts
continues to maintain its record of a low venereal disease rate and efforts
toward still further declines. Massachusetts has both premarital and prenatal
examination laws.

Cambridge Tuberculosis and Health Association. Medical and
public health facilities are adequate to handle the problem, and the
state program is well financed and supported. Local pharmacists
are very cooperative in the distribution of literature, promotion of
programs and in other ways. Newspapers cooperate in the educational
campaign, and other channels of information are : institutes, talks to
organized groups, movies, exhibits, literature, letters to physicians,
and individual conferences.

Measures for the repression of prostitution and the prevention of sex delin-
quency are under police supervision. Cambridge has policewomen and a
delinquency squad. Probation officers and social case workers engage in
rehabilitative activity.

Church and other groups have sponsored programs and participated in
institutes and conferences promoted by the Social Hygiene Committee con-
cerning marriage and family relationships. Case workers have individual
conferences. The Association organized a course in Marriage and Family
Belations for young married people (Negroes) at the Community Center.

Social Hygiene Day was observed as usual. A meeting on Social Hygiene
and National Defense was held on March 11, 1941, with prominent speakers
from the Army and the Massachusetts Department of Health, and with local
leaders speaking and leading discussion concerning the health of men in the
service, the health of Cambridge and What Is and Can Be Done to Prevent Un-
favorable Effects on Health by National Defense. The Social Hygiene Committee
cooperated with the Massachusetts Society in sponsoring a Regional Conference
on February 3, 1942.

A continuously alert attitude toward syphilis and gonorrhea rates, soldier and
sailor activities and reports of investigations keeps the Committee abreast of the
present situation. The Social Protection Committee and the Soldiers and Sailors
Committee are working closely with the Social Hygiene Committee and are
following the plan developed by the Massachusetts Committee on Public Safety.

Holyoke Social Hygiene Association. " Study and thought have
been given to the social hygiene problems which might arise, from
being in close proximity to an army aviation base. Many of the
problems which we anticipated did not materialize we are glad to



256 JOURNAL, OF SOCIAL, HYGIENE

say and after a survey by the officials of the State organization
of social hygiene, we were pleased to receive their confirmation that
we were successfully dealing with problems that presented
themselves."

The policy of the Association has been to encourage the educa-
tional phases of the social hygiene program, as enlightenment is the
best means of effecting progress.

Newspapers, radio station WHYN, cooperate and social agencies distribute the
educational program literature and other educational materials. Police authori-
ties, including a woman police officer, are active in regard to sex delinquency
and prostitution. The Health Department program is adequate and efficient.
Lecture courses for young people who contemplate marriage are popular and well
attended. Public and private recreational organizations, including a well-func-
tioning USO, have offered their facilities for men in the services.

Pittsfield: Social Hygiene Committee, Council of Social Agencies.

This enterprising organization utilized Social Hygiene Day, 1942,
to announce in the newspapers a " marked gain in syphilis cases "
due to the war emergency, and to urge through a radio broadcast
over station WBRK, that the community take steps promptly to
prevent further infections. Considered as a most important factor
in the interruption of the consistent downward trend of Pittsfield's
venereal disease rate is the shifting population occasioned princi-
pally by growing industrial employment which brings new people
to the city "who have not been exposed previously to our social
hygiene campaign."

The City Health Department carries on a vigorous program for finding and
treating syphilis and gonorrhea. The Committee is active in public education
and information, with lectures and talks by physicians and many lay groups.
Churches and other institutions assist in the training of young people for
marriage and family life through lectures and round tables.

Springfield: Social Hygiene Committee, Hampden County Tuber-
culosis and Public Health Association. This comparatively new
group has given definite attention to social hygiene in the com-
munity during the past year. Out of 90 special programs, 18 with
a total attendance of nearly 2,000 were devoted to social hygiene
subjects. Five meetings were held in celebration of Social Hygiene
Day in February. The Committee has a large group of cooperating
individuals and agencies who assist with this program.



Massachusetts social hygiene groups continue to be among the strongest
allies for the national program, and to set the pace for work throughout New
England. Cooperation with the A.S.H.A. is closely knit, and interchange of staff
visits and information is frequent. Among A.S.H.A. officers and staff members
visiting Boston or other Massachusetts points during past months are: Dr.
Snow, Dr. Clarke (who regularly gives a course at the Harvard School of
Public Health) Mr. Johnson, Mr. Gould, Miss Shenehon, Mr. Stenek, Miss Pinney
and Dr. Storey. Mr. Philip Mather, Chairman of the A.S.H.A. Committee on
War Activities, as a resident of Boston, takes part in state and community work.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 257

MICHIGAN

Population Population rank among states 7

Urban 3,454,867 A.S.H.A. members in state 126

Rural 1,801,239

5,256,106

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

None.
Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, Lisle H. Alexander (acting), 602 Bar-
ium Tower, Detroit.

Civitan International: Lt. Governor, North Central District, John H. Kenyon,
12755 Indiana Avenue, Detroit.

Kiwanis International:*

Lions International:*

Michigan Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. A. W.
Bruce, 507 W. 8th Street, Traverse City.

Michigan Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. Edgar Thompson,
119 Monterey Avenue, Highland Park ; /Social Hygiene Chairman, Melita Hutzell,
State Department of Health, Lansing.

Michigan Council of Church Women: President, Mrs. Arthur C. Elliott, 510
Dougherty Place, Flint.

Michigan Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Walter Bass, Radio Station
WOOD, Grand Rapids.

Michigan Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, Olive Sewell, Capitol Savings
& Loan Bldg., Lansing; Secretary, State Organization for Public Health Nurs-
ing, Mrs. Paul Cotcher, Genesee Co. Health Ass'n, Linden.

Michigan State Medical Society: President, Henry R. Carstens, M.D., Detroit;
Secretary, L. Fernald Foster, M.D., 2020 Olds Tower, Lansing.

Michigan Tuberculosis Association: Executive Secretary, Theodore J. Werle, 403
Seymour Avenue, Lansing.

Michigan Welfare League: Executive Secretary, John A. MacLellan, 521 Olds
Tower, Lansing.

Rotary International:*

United Service Organizations, Region V: See Illinois.

Official Agencies

Michigan Council of Defense: Administrator, Lt. Col. Harold A. Furlong, 300

N. Grand Avenue, Lansing.
Michigan State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruction,

Eugene B. Elliott, Lansing; Director of Interscholastic Athletics, C. E.

Forsythe.
Michigan State Department of Health: State Health Commissioner, H. Allen

Moyer, M.D., Lansing; Director, Division of Venereal Diseases, Thomas E.

Gibson, M.D., Lansing.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Battle Creek, Benton Harbor, Berrien Center, Dearborn, Detroit (5), Eloise,
Flint, Grand Rapids, Hamtramck, Highland Park, Jackson, Kalamazoo, Lansing,
Midland, Pontiac (2), River Rouge, Royal Oak, Saginaw, Wyandotte, YpsilantL

Michigan State Social Welfare Commission: Chairman, Walter F. Gries, 230 N.

Grand Avenue, Lansing.

National Youth Administration, Region V: See Ohio.
Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,

Region V: See Ohio.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



258 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

U. S. Army, Sixth Corps Area: See Illinois.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,
R. J. Baldwin; State Home Demonstration Leader, Edna V. Smith, Michigan
State College of Agriculture, East Lansing.

U. S. Navy, Ninth District: See Illinois.

U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for
War Information Centers: Jackson E. Towne, Michigan State College of
Agriculture and Applied Science, East Lansing; Geraldine Gerring, Northern
Michigan College of Education, Marquette; Prof. B. D. Thum, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor; Dr. G. Flint Purdy, Wayne University, Detroit.

U. S. Public Health Service: State Venereal Disease Control Consultant, P. A.
Surgeon Francis J. Weber, State Dept. of Health, Lansing. For Director,
District III, and Liaison Officer, Sixth Army Corps Area, see Illinois.

Work Projects Administration: Director of Community Service Program, Mrs.
Bessie M. Garner, 1331 S. Washington Avenue, Lansing.

Michigan Department of Health, Lansing. Michigan's part in the
war effort is represented in greatest degree by the intensive war
industry program. Therefore much of the state's effort at present
is directed toward enlarging and increasing diagnostic and treat-
ment facilities in industrial areas, along with encouragement of
epidemiologic investigations and other methods, such as routine
blood testing, calculated to discover all cases of syphilis and other
venereal diseases. The greatest recent increase has been in diag-
nostic facilities for gonorrhea, with several centers established for
performing gonococcal cultures. Plans are underway to establish
new clinics, particularly in war industry areas, during 1942. At
the end of this year, facilities for syphilis and gonorrhea will prob-
ably be adequate for the needs. The Department has a complete
venereal disease control program and receives adequate financial
support.

A plan is underway to secure cooperation of pharmaceutical societies in the
campaign against quackery. Newspapers and radio stations cooperate fully in
venereal disease education. The Department has directed programs over station
WKAE in East Lansing and prepared material for several broadcasts over
station WJB in Detroit. Other channels of education are motion pictures,
lectures, numerous pamphlets and circulars and the Monthly Bulletin of the
Department of Health. Certain state organizations, such as the Junior Chamber
of Commerce, have venereal disease education as a special interest. Sex hygiene
instruction is a regular part of the curriculum in state-supported educational
institutions. It is planned to have expert educators work directly with labor
groups such as labor union locals, to focus their attention on the venereal
disease problem through the medium of group discussions and motion pictures
devoted to the subject.

The work in and about military and naval establishments, as well as areas of
war industry, should be assisted immeasurably by the new law passed this year
providing for the legal commitment of certain persons afflicted with venereal
disease, and also providing for the detention and examination of persons arrested
on charges of prostitution. The Department of Health Investigator in this
field is active in repressing prostitution. The State Welfare Department is
also devoting some attention to the problems of rehabilitation and sex delin-



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