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Approach to Sex Education in Schools and Education for Human Relations and
Family Life on the Secondary School Level: A Program and Correlated Outline
the work of this Committee and its chairman, Dr. Mabel Grier Lesher, have been
published by the American Social Hygiene Association and widely distributed.
The Committee has also been in contact with the officers of the State Department
of Public Instruction regarding collaboration in education for family life in
the public schools and reports gratifying progress.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 281

Newark Department of Health: The outstanding features of the
year are:

1. Fifty-six cases of early syphilis treated by the new five-day
massive-dose drip treatment.

2. A blood test record of nearly 180,000 tests.

3. The highest record of syphilis patients dismissed as finished:
1,655 finished and 1,814 on rest, presumably finished.

4. Great reduction of syphilis case load : From the peak of 7,854
in 1940 to 5,960 in 1941.

5. An exceptional record in treatment of gonorrhea: 97.3 per
cent of cases clinically cured in one week, confirmed by subsequent
tests.

6. Introduction of gonococcal cultures as more reliable diagnosis
and test of cure.

7. Extensive cooperation in examinations of draftees and treat-
ment of those infected.

Genito-Urinary Clinic Male: During the year 516 new cases with smears posi-
tive for gonorrhea were admitted, in addition to several cases which were clini-
cally gonorrhea but in which no positive smears could be obtained. One reason
for the existence of these cases is that under the present treatment the improve-
ment is so rapid that unless a positive smear is obtained at the first visit it can
never be obtained.

The work was greatly facilitated by the use of cultures, making the diagnosis
and particularly the proof of cure more accurate. The routine proof of cure
consists of three negative smears and three negative cultures. The routine
treatment consists of sulfathiazole with the occasional use of sulfadiazine and
sulfacetamide. Under this regime 502, or 97.3 per cent of the 516 proven cases,
showed a clinical cure inside of one week. These cases were all proven to be
cured by subsequent tests. The remaining 14 cases showed such a lack of uni-
formity, that no conclusions can be drawn from them. Four responded to further
use of sulf athiazole ; two responded to sulfadiazine, two more to sulfacetamide
and one to sulfapyridine. Five have failed to respond and still show positive
smears or cultures after varying lengths of time.

The reason for this lack of response is also inconclusive. Some were admittedly
uncooperative, while it was felt that others were entirely cooperative. The time
factor before beginning treatment did not seem operative. No serious side effects
of the drugs were noted and the percentage of complications was negligible
being less than one half of one per cent.

During the year the non-venereal work has increased greatly, showing the need
for this work in the community. As the laity become more educated, more cases
come in to the G. U. Department directly and the number of consultations with
other departments of the clinic shows a steady increase. The gonococcus cultures
in addition to the smear tests which have been introduced this year have proved
very valuable as a more accurate means of diagnosis and test of cure. For
example: During the month of December, out of 138 tests in which both cultures
and smears were taken, the cultures showed 30.4 per cent positive, whereas the
smears showed only 21.7 per cent positive. By the smear method alone, many
cases of infection are missed.

Genito-Urinary Clinic Female: The introduction of the sulfonamides in the
treatment of gonorrhea has been peculiarly valuable in the treatment of
females inasmuch as the treatment methods formerly used were far less effective
in females than they were in males. The greatest value of the culture test



JOURNAL OF SOCIAL, HYGIENE

method is also shown in the female cases because the smear test alone was much
less reliable in females than it has been in males.

Health and Defense: The venereal division works in close cooperation with
the draft boards and the state department of health in the handling of the
venereal aspect of the examination of draftees. The State Department of
Health has referred to the Venereal Division all draftees from Newark who
were found to be positive for syphilis or gonorrhea, except those who chose to
go to private physicians. Many of these failed to obey the order to report to
their physicians and these were in turn referred to us for follow-up. Draftees
have been followed up by our Social Service Investigators to bring them to
the clinics for further diagnosis and for treatment when this was indicated.
The Social Service has succeeded in bringing in all but 5 per cent of these
draftees for medical attention. This service has added a considerable proportion
of patients to the case-load of our clinics.

Social Service: The effectiveness of venereal disease control measures depends
upon no one feature so much as it does upon the extent and thoroughness of
the social service aspect of the venereal clinics. Its essential functions are:
1. Case Holding, and 2. Case Finding.

In order to achieve the public health objectives in venereal disease control,
patients must be kept under treatment regularly and long enough. Since the
adequate care of a ease of syphilis requires at least a year and a half to two
years, if treatment is regular, and often much longer when irregular, success in
holding patients is really the crux of the matter.

Inasmuch as syphilis is infectious mainly in its early stages, and can be
quickly rendered non-infectious by treatment, the heart of syphilis control
medically lies in the earliest possible discovery and treatment of every new
infection. And, inasmuch as gonorrhea remains infectious until cured, its
earliest discovery and cure are of the utmost urgency. Hence the emphasis
upon case-finding. Every new case of syphilis or gonorrhea is made the
starting point for tracing contacts and bringing them under medical supervision.

The Venereal Division lays paramount emphasis upon its social service for

case-finding and case-holding. Approximately fifteen full-time employees are

engaged in it, including the workers of the W.P.A. Venereal Project which has
been rendering very efficient service.

Case-Finding: During the year 104 persons were named by infected persons as
the possible sources of infection. Of these, 64 were located and examined, and
26 were found to be infected and were brought under treatment.

Case-Holding: Every new patient is carefully instructed regarding his case
with a view to securing willing cooperation toward adequate treatment.
Such instruction is repeated from time to time as needed. Those who
lapse from treatment are promptly followed up by letter and personal visits
of investigators. During the year, 18,200 letters were sent and 36,267 visits
were made.

The effects of this service is shown concretely in that 1,655 syphilis patients
were dismissed during the year as permanently arrested or cured, having been
held long enough to receive adequate treatment. In addition, 1,814 more
patients were placed on rest from treatment as presumably finished. This is
the highest record of finished cases the clinic has ever attained.

Holding Early Cases: Desiring to ascertain to what extent the Newark clinic
was succeeding in holding its primary and secondary (infectious) patients long
enough to assure curative treatment, we analysed the 83 early cases which came
to the clinic during the year 1939. There were 49 men and 34 women.

Nine patients were referred to private physicians after 8 of them had already
received from 24 to 68 treatments. Eighteen patients were lost to the clinic
before receiving adequate treatment. However, 13 of these had already received



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMABIES 283

from 19 to 56 treatments before they left the clinic and hence were in all
probability no longer a public health risk.

Fifty-six of the 74 patients (excluding the 9 transferred to private physicians)
or 75.7 per cent, were held in the clinic long enough to receive adequate treatment,
and the large majority of the rest received enough treatment to reasonably insure
them against serious damage and to assure continued non-infectiousness. This
is a very exceptional clinic record.

Public Education: The important work of public health education as it bears
on the problems of youth and on the venereal diseases among Negroes was
continued during the year under the leadership and with the personal service of
Dr. E. Mae McCarroll. She conducted talks and discussions on various aspects
of these issues with 68 community groups of a wide variety, mostly young people.
Some of the talks were accompanied by motion picture showings. The growing
awareness of these problems among young people and their understanding of
them which is manifest is undoubtedly an outgrowth of this intimate educa-
tional service.



" Near-neighbor " relations between the A.S.H.A. and New Jersey groups
naturally exist, and during the past year, in addition, a number of national
conventions and conferences held at Atlantic City have brought A.S.H.A. staff
members and officers into the state. Among these have been the meetings of
the American Medical Association, the American Public Health Association
and the National Conference of Social Work. A.S.H.A. representatives participat-
ing have been Dr. Snow, Dr. Clarke, Dr. Storey, Mr. Johnson, Miss Pinney and
Mr. Stenek. In connection with all these meetings, comprehensive exhibits of
social hygiene work have been shown and demonstrated, and at the A.P.H.A.
meeting in October, 1941, the N.C.S.W. meeting in June, 1941, special
sessions were arranged on social hygiene topics, with outstanding speakers.
Various meetings of state groups have also had A.S.H.A. staff as speakers or
conference consultants.



NEW MEXICO

Population Population rank among states 42

Urban 176,401 A.S.H.A. members in state 19

Rural 355,417

531,818

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

None.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, W. A. Humphries, 3205 E. Central
Avenue, Albuquerque.

Kiwanis International:*

Lions International:*

New Mexico Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. P. V. Thorson,
307 South Leas, Eoswell.

New Mexico Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs.
Frances Goddard, Box 83, Mesilla Park.

New Mexico Medical Society: President, Carl Mulky, M.D., Albuquerque; Sec-
retary, L. B. Cohenour, M.D., 221 W. Central Avenue, Albuquerque.

New Mexico Nurses Association: Secretary, Ora May Hodges, Methodist San.,
Albuquerque; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section, Dorothea Jackson,
Public Health Dept., Las Vegas.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



284 JOURNAL, OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

New Mexico Tuberculosis Association: Executive Secretary, Mrs. Gladys A.

Alexander, P. O. Box 1665, Santa Fe.
New Mexico Woman's Christian Temperance Union: President, Mrs. George A.

Endicott, 1208 So. High St., Albuquerque.
Rotary International:*

Official Agencies

National Youth Administration, Region X: See Texas.

New Mexico Defense Council: Coordinator, Col. E. E. Safford, Post Office Box
1018, Santa Fe.

New Mexico State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public In-
struction, Mrs. Grace J. Corrigan, Santa Fe.

New Mexico State Department of Public Health: State Director of Public
Health, James E. Scott, M.D., Santa Fe; Director, Division of Venereal Dis-
ease Control, E. F. Mclntyre, M.D.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Alamo Gordo, Albuquerque, Artesia, Belen, Bernalillo, Carlsbad, Clayton, Clovis,
Deming, Espanola, Farmington, Fort Sumner, Gallup, Hobbs, Las Cruces, Las
Vegas, Lordsburg, Los Lunas, Lovington, Peeos, Portales, Eaton, Santa Fe,
Silver City, Secorro, Tucumcary.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,

Region X: See Texas.

U. S. Army, Eighth Corps Area: See Texas.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,

A. B. Fite; State Home Demonstration Leader, Mrs. Helen D. Crandall, New

Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, State College.
U. S. Navy, Eleventh District: See California.
U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for

War Information Center, Dr. Dorothy Woodward, University of New Mexico,

Albuquerque.
U. S. Public Health Service: For Director, District IX, and for Liaison Officer,

Eighth Army Corps Area, see Texas.
Work Projects Administration: State Director of Community Service Program,

Isabel L. Eckles, Santa Fe.

State Department of Public Health, Santa Fe. A report says :

Medical and Public Health Measures: Present facilities are not
equal to the need. Many rural areas are still without medical
facilities of any kind. Moreover, the number of such areas will
increase as additional doctors are called into active service with
the armed forces.

The New Mexico State Department of Public Health has formulated a plan
providing for the utilization of a full-time V. D. clinician, a full-time investi-
gator, and essential clerical personnel in each of the ten health districts com-
prising the State. The plan has been completed except for clerical personnel
in four of the ten health districts. Appropriations at present are adequate,
but must be increased as the program develops.

Local pharmacists for the most part are cooperating in suppressing quackery
on an individual basis. Cooperation of the pharmaceutical societies undoubtedly
would be forthcoming, but has not as yet been solicited.

Newspapers and other publications cooperate when requested. Radio stations
likewise cooperate when requested. Eadio stations used by the State Health
Department are Sante Fe, KVSF, and Albuquerque, KOB and KGGM. . . .
Until recently the State Health Department conducted an extensive state-wide
public health educational program through the operation of a mobile sound and
motion picture unit. The mobile unit educational program was initiated on

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 285

October 1, 1939, under the cooperative sponsorship of the New Mexico State
Department of Public Health and the New Mexico State Tuberculosis Associa-
tion as a state-wide public health educational campaign.

The sound truck is operated by a lay person under the general direction of
the Director of County Health Work and the immediate supervision of
the district health officer having jurisdiction over the area of operation. While
in the district, the technician conducts himself as an employee of the district
health officer. Either he or some member of the district office makes the neces-
sary contacts and arranges for showing pictures in schools, to service clubs, and
any other interested bodies. A special effort is made to show pictures in the
remote rural areas. This has been accomplished by going to the rural schools
when they are in session and by showing films in the small villages on an
outdoor screen.

At the present time the State Department of Public Health maintains a
library consisting of approximately sixty films, most of which are sound. They
cover all phases of public health, with considerable emphasis on communicable
disease, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and various phases of maternal and child health.
On occasion leaflets covering special phases of the public health educational
program are distributed in conjunction with the showing of films, though this
is not routine procedure. This educational program was discontinued effective
May 1, 1942, due to inability of the State Health Department to secure tires for
state-owned sound trucks from the local tire rationing board.

Legal and Protective Measures: State Police have been admonished to
cooperate in the suppression of prostitution by the Governor of the State.
County Sheriffs' Offices in many localities have been most cooperative, notably
in Chaves, Sante Fe, Bernalillo, and McKinley Counties, as have the Chiefs of
Police in Albuquerque, Sante Fe, Roswell, Gallup, and certain other areas.
Facilities for rehabilitation are at present relatively insignificant, but activities
in this direction are in the process of development, the City of Santa Fe having
taken the initiative in this direction with the aid of the A.W.V.S.

The churches and family welfare groups actively support and strongly advocate
adherence to the principles of the premarital and prenatal physical and serologic
examinations whenever and wherever such preventive measures can feasibly
be instituted.

Education for Marriage and Family Life: The University of New Mexico
is apparently the only school of higher learning that has ever incorporated into
its regular curriculum courses in sex hygiene.

National Defense and War Activities: State and local health departments give
the fullest cooperation to the Selective Service Administration of the State. The
State Health Department has assumed entire responsibility for the expense
and conduct of the Serologic Survey, except for the taking of blood specimens.
The State Public Health Laboratory performs all serologic tests and the facilities
of all Health Department-sponsored Venereal Disease clinics have been made
available to Selective Service Medical Examining Boards. In many instances
the clinics are used as Selective Service Examining Centers and the clinic per-
sonnel assist in conducting the examinations. Local health department personnel
conduct epidemiologic investigation on selectees rejected because of a positive
serology, and many have been admitted to the clinics for treatment, while others
have been returned to private physicians for continued treatment.

To meet the vital problems of venereal disease control in industrial and
mining areas, clinics have been established at six points. A serologic survey has
been conducted at one of these places and plans for a similar survey among
the employees of another place is contemplated. The majority of the larger
oil industries make the serologic blood test a part of the physical examination
required by all new employees. Educational activities among industrial groups,
however, has been negligible, due to the lack of health department personnel
qualified to conduct such a program.



286 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL, HYGIENE

Among A.S.H.A. visitors to Santa Fe and Albuquerque during the past year
was Dr. Snow, who spent some time in conference with health and law
enforcement officials there.



NEW YORK

Population Population rank among states 1

Urban 11,165,893 A.S.E.A. members in state 797

Rural 2,313,249

13,479,142

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

New York City:
Social Hygiene Committee, State Committee on Tuberculosis and Public Health :

Secretary, George J. Nelbach, 105 East 22nd Street.
New York Committee on Social Hygiene Day: Chairman, William F. Snow,

M.D.; Secretary, Jacob A. Goldberg, 386 Fourth Avenue.
Social Hygiene Council of Greater New York: Secretary, Jacob A. Goldberg,

M.D., 386 Fourth Avenue.
Social Hygiene Committee, New York Tuberculosis and Health Association:

Secretary, Jacob A. Goldberg, M.D., 386 Fourth Avenue.

Bureau of Marriage Council and Education, Inc.: Director, Valeria H. Parker,
M.D. ; Assistant Director, Gertrude Bettmann Hermann, 54 West 53rd Street.

Brooklyn:
Social Hygiene Committee, Brooklyn Tuberculosis and Health Association:

.Chairman, Charles S. Prest, M.D., 293 Schermerhorn Street.
Y.W.C.A. Department of Human Relations: 30 Third Street.

Jamaica, L. L: Queensboro Tuberculosis and Health Association: Executive Di-
rector, Charles A. Freck, 90-04 161st Street,

Amsterdam: Social Hygiene Committee, Montgomery County on Tuberculosis
and Public Health: Secretary, G. Louise Wills, 20 Market Street.

Auburn: Social Hygiene Committee, Cayuga Health Association: Executive Sec-
retary, Hal Kearns, 160 Genesee Street.

Binghamton: Social Hygiene Committee, Broome County Tuberculosis and Public
Health Association: Chairman, Clement Bowers, 69 Henry Street.

Buffalo Social Hygiene Committee: Chairman, Earl D. Osborne, M.D., Council
of Social Agencies, 471 Delaware Avenue.

Cat ski 11: Social Hygiene Committee, Greene County Tuberculosis Committee:
Executive Secretary, Mrs. Frederick C. Fiero, Cherry Lane.

Corning: Social Hygiene Committee, Tuberculosis Committee of Corning Social
Service Society: Secretary, Robie O. Sargent.

Elmira: Social Hygiene Committee, Visiting Nurse and Tuberculosis Association:
Chairman, Edwin Hotchkiss, Wisner Park.

Geneva: Social Hygiene Committee, Ontario County Committee on Tuberculosis
and Public Health: Executive Secretary, Nancy Disbrow, 34 Castle Street.

Glens Falls: Syphilis Education Committee, Warren County Tuberculosis Com-
mittee: Executive Secretary, Marjorie Bucknam, 59 Ridge Street.

Herkimer: Social Hygiene Committee, Herkimer County Committee on Tubercu-
losis and Public Health: Secretary, Miss Jane Boote, R.N., Court House.

Hudson Falls: Social Hygiene Committee, Washington County Tuberculosis and
Public Health Committee: Dana M. King.

Ithaca: Social Hygiene Committee, Tompkins County Tuberculosis and Public
Health Association: Chairman, H. B. Sutton, M.D., 101 N. Cayuga Street.

Jamestown: Social Hygiene Committee, Chautauqua County Tuberculosis and
Public Health Association: Chairman, Charles E. Goodell, M.D., 413 N. Main
Street.

Johnstown: Social Hygiene Committee, Fulton County Tuberculosis and Public
Health Association: Secretary, Mrs. Iva W. Holmes, County Bldg.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 287

Keeseville: Council on Social Hygiene of Essex County Tuberculosis and Public

Health Association: Executive Secretary, Mrs. Elaine Edmonds, Keene Valley,

N. Y.; Chairman, John H. Evans, M.D.
Kingston: Social Hygiene Committee, Ulster County Committee on Tuberculosis

and Public Health: Chairman, Rev. Maurice W. Venno, 209 Albany Avenue.
Malone: Social Hygiene Committee, Franklin County Tuberculosis and Public

Health Association: Executive Secretary, Florence Anne Brush, Court House.
Middleburg: Social Hygiene Committee, Schoharie County Tuberculosis and Public

Health Association: Secretary, Mrs. Frances B. Spencer.
Middle t own :

Social Hygiene Committee, Orange County Health Association: Executive Sec-
retary, Grace Cole, 44 W. Main Street.

Club for the Prevention of Venereal Disease: President, Paul Morreale.
Mineola: Social Hygiene Committee, Nassau County Tuberculosis and Public

Health Association: Executive Secretary, Frances H. Barbour, 1565 Franklin

Avenue.
Monticello: Social Hygiene Committee, Sullivan County Health Association:

Executive Secretary, Mrs. Beryl L. Cole, Bushnell Bldg.
Newburgh: Social Hygiene Committee, Newburgh Public Health and Tuberculosis

Association: Chairman, Eussell Kymer, Y.M.C.A.
Niagara Falls: Social Hygiene Committee, Tuberculosis and Health Association

of Niagara County: Executive Secretary, Carl O. Lathrop, Gluck Bldg.
Oneida: Social Hygiene Committee, Madison County Tuberculosis and Public

Health Committee: Secretary, Mrs. Grace B. Smith, City Hall.
Ogdensburg: Social Hygiene Committee, St. Lawrence County Tuberculosis and

Public Health Association: Executive Secretary, Mrs. Elizabeth A. Ward, 216

Ford Street.
Oneonta: Social Hygiene Committee, Otsego County Tuberculosis and Public

Health Association: Executive Secretary, Emily A. Spraker, 17 Ford Avenue.
Owego: Social Hygiene Committee, Tioga County Tuberculosis and Public

Health Association: Executive Secretary, Ruth Williams, 203 Main Street.
Penn Yan: Social Hygiene Committee, Yates County Tuberculosis and Public

Health Committee: Chairman, Rev. R. N. Jessup.

Plattsburgh: Social Hygiene Committee, Clinton County Committee on Tuber-
culosis and Public Health: Mrs. Marion Foy, Box 57, 42-A Peru Street.
Poughkeepsie: Social Hygiene Committee, Dutchess County Health Association:

Secretary, Mrs. Cynthia Pettee Sweet, 16 Cannon Street.
Rochester: Social Hygiene Committee, Tuberculosis and Health Association of

Rochester and Monroe County: Secreteary,- Raymond H. Greenman, 277 Alex-
ander Street.
Salamanca: Social Hygiene Committee, Cattaraugus County Tuberculosis and

Public Health Association: Executive Secretary, Mrs. Ella M. Finch, 88

Broad Street.
Saratoga Springs: Social Hygiene Committee, Saratoga County Tuberculosis

and Public Health Association: Chairman, G. Scott Towne, 426 y a Broadway.
Schenectady: Social Hygiene Committee, Schenectady Committee on the Preven-



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