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Journal of social hygiene (Volume 28) online

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the American Social Hygiene Association studies community conditions and
reports on them as a basis for local action in repression of prostitution, stimulates
public interest and action through its educational program, contributes advisory
service from its staff of trained workers and, in general, makes available the
results of its long experience in the fight against prostitution and the campaign
against syphilis and gonorrhea.


inside the camp ties up closely with that of the Federal Security
Agency and the office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,
which are responsible for development of activities in communities
adjacent to military reservations. Chief among voluntary cooperating
agencies are the American Red Cross, which assigns representatives
to the principal posts and camps, conducts a Home Service program
for soldiers through family contacts and correspondence, and carries
on welfare and recreation programs in hospital areas ; and the United
Service Organizations 16 which undertake to provide personnel to
operate government and community built recreational centers outside
the camps for use of soldiers during their leisure time. The Joint
Army and Navy Committee on Welfare and Recreation acts as an
advisory group to the Secretaries of War and Navy on policies per-
taining to welfare and recreation of the military and naval forces.

Numerous other agencies, official and voluntary, aid in the work
of the Morale Branch. For instance, cooperating with the Welfare
Section of the Welfare and Recreation Division are the American
Bar Association and the Legal Aid Association, whose state and local
affiliates assist in straightening out legal difficulties which may arise
with the soldier's business affairs at home during his absence.

Through the commanding officers 17 the Welfare Section really
operates for the Army's million and a half enlisted men an advisory
bureau on personal and family problems. These include such matters
as the soldier 's war insurance, dissemination of information regarding
the administration of the soldiers' and sailors' Civil Relief Act of
1940, allotments and allowances to soldiers' families, and dependency
problems. The officer may even be called upon to lend a sympathetic
ear and a helping hand in marriage difficulties or family relations
"back home." By constant liaison with civilian agencies qualified
to deal with such difficulties locally, the Welfare Section enables him
to handle the matter competently and promptly. The situation is
cleared up if possible, the soldier's worry is eased, and morale
is preserved.

The soldier acquires a good deal of education in the Army. Aside
from handling a rifle, drill and discipline, and experience in the highly
technical services of modern army tactics, he has a chance while
training to learn many skills and techniques which will be of
practical value to him in civil life. In Ordnance, or the Quarter-
master's Corps, he gains mechanical and special knowledge. He may
become an Orderly in the Medical Corps as a first step toward
specialized training such as laboratory technician, x-ray specialist or

16 These are: The Young Men's Christian Association; the Young Women's
Christian Association; the National Catholic Community Service; the Salvation
Army; the Jewish Welfare Board; and the National Travelers' Aid Association.
By special agreement and arrangements of the United Service Organizations
with other national voluntary agencies and their affiliates, related activities are
carried on for protecting and promoting the effectiveness of these programs.

17 Of Armies, Corps, Divisions, or through the corps area commanders and
other officers as directed, depending on the problem involved.


pharmacist. As a Company Clerk, he can get experience fitting him
for the most complicated " paper- work " jobs in business.

The Education Section considers all the modern educational
methods: correspondence instruction, class instruction, educational
and documentary pictures, exhibits, lectures, craft classes, hobby
groups, " come-and-see " tours, and debates. At the present time
consideration is being given to the establishment of an Army institute
-for military personnel. Many men in the service have had their col-
legiate careers interrupted and will desire to take correspondence
courses. Thousands of men now in our Army have been studying
during their leisure-time such subjects as spelling, arithmetic, busi-
ness English, and accounting, this past year, seizing the opportunity
to better fit themselves for their work when they return home.

So, morale builds through knowledge.

The Recreation Section of the Welfare and Recreation Division
looks after a multitude of morale-building activities. Athletics, for
instance. The Army, of course, is a " natural ' ' for competitive sports,
and company teams strive against each other in regimental leagues
and camp tournaments. Baseball, football, basketball, volleyball,
handball, softball, track and arena events, boxing matches the whole
range of sports and athletics as every American boy knows it in civil
life is open to him in his leisure time in camp. With this difference :
the cost to him, including equipment, is a fraction of what it would
be in his home town. 18

Unit commanders are responsible for assigning a full-time rec-
reation officer to each regiment. Coaches and athletic directors are
drawn from the Army's commissioned personnel having sports train-
ing, including numerous former college athletic stars. Every soldier
is encouraged by his top sergeant and his company commander to
take part in the athletic program. If baseball or boxing are not his
line, there is swimming or tennis, golf, archery or billiards. In
addition, each man and this goes for the commissioned personnel
too is made to feel necessary as ''spectator interest," rooting the
home team to victory.

Aside from actual participation through civilian cooperation, the
soldier gets opportunity to see in action sports headliners whom he
might know otherwise only through the motion-picture screen and the
newspaper. For example, Joe Louis, world's heavy-weight boxing
champion, within the past few months has toured many Army camps,
giving exhibition bouts with two sparring partners. "I saw the
Brown Bomber," is something for a boy to write home!

So, by the development of leadership, teamwork, self-pride, and
organizational spirit, athletics builds its unit of morale.

is Athletic equipment is purchased with appropriated funds available to unit
commanders, augmented by additional recreation funds such as post-exchange

Religion plays an important part in
Army life. In spite of strenuous
work for soldiers during maneuvers,
religious services are held every
week for every creed and sect.




One of the 604 new buildings
for Army religious services
and chaplains' headquarters.

Photographs by U. S. Army Signal Corps


A U.S.O. dance for trainees in a
southern city.

Upper right Music in the evening.

Training, discipline, education and
good times unite to build soldier
health, morale and strength. At
right is shown a pamphlet prepared
by the Army for distribution through
local draft boards to the recruits
[and their families] before induction.








i .he s0 ' .. ii R ul . < " A Si lrt

ooi ct Gove" 110 ' lhe n ' ie ^ ,j4W

i ^i M" ' h>> J * ' l " y o d rt '^oifr' scrr

A soldier and his dog.

An outdoor audience of defense industry
workers listening to an Army
medical officer. Note loud
speaker on roof of
truck cab.



En route
to construct a bridge.

chine gun crew and infantry returning
to bivouac.

Enjoying an Army

show staged and

played by


Above Venereal Disease hos
pita I ward.

Above, right Permanent sta
tion hospital.





Right In an Army laboratory.

Below, right Company head-
quarters with barracks
in background.

Below Social hygiene lecture
to a platoon.



Entertainment for the soldier at leisure in camp is another job
of the Recreation Section, and this includes not only diversions from
outside, but amusement enterprises worked up by the men themselves.

Dramatics naturally rank high. Camp Shows, Inc., 19 has been
formed as the civilian organization which arranges professional per-
formances for Army audiences. Stage and movie stars give their
services. Seven ' ' stage-trucks, ' ' mobile units complete with platforms
and scenery, have toured every camp of any size east of the Rockies.

But the soldier gets most fun, of course, from the shows he himself
puts on. The Recreation Section helps out here by using the services
of civilian dramatic advisors, from the National Theatre Conference
one for each Corps Area who go from camp to camp coaching plays
and developing dramatic organizations which carry on after the
advisor leaves. An Amateur Theatrical Manual has been prepared
especially to guide soldier Thespians, and 600 "Little Theatre"
groups around the country, working with the National Theatre Con-
ference, are helping select suitable plays for Army production.

Motion-picture programs, including the latest feature productions,
news-reels, cartoons, and other comedy films, travelogs and novelties,
are routine for Army camp evenings. The soldier pays a small
admission fee.

Music has a double role in the military. Marching cadence and
background for military ceremonies and special occasions are official
assignments, but the Army's real music is made by the soldier off
duty plunking a ukelele, blowing a harmonica, or trying barber-shop
harmonies around the barracks or in the company ' ' day-room. ' ' The
Recreation Section cherishes this mode of soldier self-expression.
Guided by a Musical Advisory Committee, whose fourteen members
are first-rank professionals in various musical fields, the Section
helps the Army to make music wherever it goes. Quartets, glee-clubs,
choral groups, mass singing, flourish under the direction of competent
leaders. A million and a half copies of the Army Song Book are
in use, including a "words book," sized to slip in blouse or shirt

On the instrumental side, a soldier may learn in his spare time
to play almost any kind of musical instrument. The Citizens'
Committee for Army and Navy, made it possible for soldiers to borrow

! The Citizens Committee for Army and Navy, forerunner of Camp Shows,
during the summer season (to October 1, 1941) by means of the mobile units
arranged 1,038 performances before 3,300,000 soldiers in eight Corps Areas.
The Ninth Corps Area, with Hollywood to draw upon, undertook to provide
its own entertainment. Camp Shows, Inc., headed by the veteran producer-actor
Eddie Cowling, is launching 12 new productions, making a total of 24 shows
to travel the ' ' Star-spangled Circuit, ' ' including a special company of the recent
Broadway success Junior Miss, with authors and management waiving remu-
neration. A tour of the Carribbean bases, via Army Transport plane, was
recently arranged for a troupe which included John Garfield, Chico Marx, Laurel
and Hardy, Bay Bolger, Jane Pickens and Mitzi Mayfair.


from Camp musical headquarters guitars, banjos, violins, and wind
instruments, as well as a variety of pocket instruments such as
harmonicas and ocarinas. The soldier likes this, and many a boy
is learning in the Army what he might never have learned at home, in
this day of radio and phonograph to make his own music, and like it. 20

It all builds morale.

"Counteracting influences of major importance in "combating the
anti-social and vicious forces which exploit the soldier, damage his
morale, and ruin his health," General Osborn recently called the
efforts of the Morale Branch. Which about sums it up particularly
in regard to the program of social protection and reduction of
venereal disease.


Working side by side with the Morale Branch and the Medical
Services to insure the soldier's health, welfare, and morale are the
Army Chaplains. Twelve hundred and thirty-six of them, 21 Protes-
tant, Jewish, and Catholic, in round numbers a chaplain to each
1,200 men minister to the spiritual life and moral strength of thte
men, in 604 newly built chapels like the one shown in the illustration.

The chapels are allotted on the basis of one to a regiment, so that
some of the larger cantonments have 15 or 20 churches. Like the
chaplains themselves, these churches are in action seven days a week
for services, prayer, consultation, and social events, as are churches
in any community parish. Each building is fully equipped for
worship and parish activities, including electric organs and office-study
space for chaplains of each faith. In addition, when the Army goes
into the field the chaplain goes too, with portable altar, organ and
other equipment.

Protestant, Catholic and Jewish soldiers worship at different times
in their own groups. Adjustable pulpit-altar arrangements permit
the proper setting for each faith, and chaplains are assigned in pro-
portion to each faith on the basis of a denominational census. Every
enlisted man may secure on request a Testament, pocket-size, designed
for use by his faith, with a Foreword over the signature of the
President of the United States. The Service is particularly proud
of its new six-hundred-page Hymnal, of which 50,000 copies are in
use for chapel services, and which, like the smaller Song and Service
Book for Field and Ship, contains the order of religious services and
suitable hymns for each faith. The Song and Service Book is the
first of its kind so adapted for field service that a layman may, if
necessary, conduct religious devotions. One hundred thousand copies
are in use.

20 To learn the soldier 'a tastes in this respect, the Committee, during
maneuvers of the Second and Third armies, provided a gross each of harmonicas,
ocarinas, and tonettes. The rush to buy additional pocket instruments was so
great that stores in the maneuver area were sold out.

21 As of December 1, 1941.


Brigadier General William R. Arnold, Chief of Chaplains, reporting
to the Secretary of War for the year ending June 30, 1941, stated
that soldier congregations totaled over eleven and a half million.
Fourteen thousand five hundred Bible classes were held. Individual
contacts with the men averaged over fifty per day for each chaplain,
not counting hospital and prison visits. All told, the attendance at
services and personal visitation and conferences by the chaplains
rolled up the impressive total of 29,455,902. A fair-sized record of
parish activity! And convincing evidence of chaplain popularity
and influence.

The chaplain's official duty regarding social hygiene is made
specifically clear in the Technical Manual. He must personally inter-
view or advise by public address all recruits coming into the service
in matters pertaining to morals and character. He is expected to
participate in the half-yearly instruction periods regarding sex
hygiene, presenting the moral and religious aspects of the venereal
disease problem, after a medical officer has discussed the diseases and
their effects. 22

But any soldier will be prompt to testify that this is only the
starting point of chaplain interest and aid in ethical, moral and spir-
itual problems. The chaplain is an all-round friend, a guide in
emergencies, and a counselor to the men of his station. The day the
man arrives in camp, the chaplain meets him and invites him to drop
in at the chapel-study any time. The relation grows, and the soldier
understands that he may confide his problems to his chaplain without
fear of disclosure to others, and that he will receive sound advice.
If he is sick or in trouble, the chaplain is there to listen and help.
If he has good news, the chaplain will be among the first to congratu-
late him. The chaplains' files hold many letters from and to parents
and the men, telling a story of heartaches and joys, sorrows and
happiness. Such letters never appear in the official records, nor are
they given publicity, but they add definitely to the values which are
essential to the morale, religious life and well-being of any man or
group of men, and they exist as evidence of the fine type of work
being done for soldier welfare by the Army chaplain services.

Requirements for chaplains are as strict as those for other officers
of the Army. The physical examination is the same. A candidate
for appointment must be a graduate of a four-year college and a
three-year theological seminary, and have been actively and success-
fully engaged in the ministry as his principal occupation for at least
three years. He must have been regularly ordained, duly accredited
and in good standing currently with some religious denomination
which holds an apportionment of chaplain appointments in accordance

22 Section X. Military Duties. Paragraph 76.1). "Social Hygiene. Under the
provision of AE 40-225, chaplains will participate in the instruction of the
military personnel in matters of sex hygiene. They are expected to present
this theme in its moral and religious aspects. Sex hygiene is a delicate subject
to handle, and yet chaplains who make adequate advance preparation can do
BO in straightforward and manly fashion and with such tact and dignity that
much good can be accomplished."


with the needs of the service. Age limits are from 23 to 34 for the
regular Army; for the officers' reserve 24 to 45. There are both white
and Negro chaplains.

General George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff, summarized the ideals
and aims of the Chaplain Service when he said in a radio broadcast
about the time mobilization began : 2S

"There should be no fear that any young man will suffer
spiritual loss during the period of his military service, and
on the contrary, we hope that the young soldier will return
to his home with a keener understanding of the sacred ideals
for which our churches stand."


Lined up with the Army Medical Department, the Morale Branch
and the Corps of Chaplains in the War Department program for
soldier health and welfare is the Provost Marshal General, who
supervises the establishment, training and conduct of the Army's
Corps of Military Police. Since July 31, 1941, when Major General
Allen W. Gullion was assigned to develop a program and Corps
consistent with the rapid growth of the Army, these activities have
been greatly increased. 24

"Guidance and protection of the individual soldier" constitutes
an important item in the list of responsibilities placed upon the sturdy
shoulders of these "cops in khaki," who are hand-picked for their
intelligence and resourcefulness, and who are especially trained in
all phases of military police duties. Through its Military Police
Division, the office of the Provost Marshal General has recently
established at Arlington, Virginia, a school where this training is
given to groups of approximately 100 officers and 100 enlisted men
in an eight to ten weeks' course. 23

The trained military policeman must be a specialist not only
in all of the usual functions of civil police, but he must also be
proficient in the many special duties connected with controlling
Army traffic, Army criminal investigation, the processing and guard-
ing of prisoners of war and alien enemies, the protection of Army
and other national defense installations. He must be prepared to
deal promptly and effectively with problems of military law and
order involved in these assignments; and equally important is his
ability to comprehend and interpret the human problems and values

23 National Broadcasting Company network, Friday, November 29, 1940.

24 In addition, the Office of the Provost Marshal General has charge of prisoners
of war and alien enemies interned for the duration of the war and for the
protection of national defense installations, and conducts certain investigative
activities relative to the armed forces. The military police must be equipped to
deal with all of these problems, in accordance with the policies and instructions
of the Department.

25 The first few courses will be given only to officers, approximately 200 each
eight weeks.




which inevitably arise out of such affairs. Fundamental require-
ments are that he be "considerate, courteous, just and firm."

"The military policeman is far more than a guard swinging a
night-stick," said Colonel Archer L. Lerch, Deputy Provost Marshal
General, recently, in discussing the responsibilities of the office at a
meeting of Corps Area Provost Marshals. These officers are respon-
sible for carrying out the policies and plans of the Provost Marshal
General in their respective areas.

To which statement many civilians men, women and children to
whom the military police have ministered in flood or disaster or
personal difficulty, will heartily subscribe, as well as the soldier who
looks to them for help "in a jam" or out of one.


General John J. Pershing, commander in chief of the
American Expeditionary Force in the First World War, and
now at the age of 81 still on the active list as General of the
Armies, offered his services to President Roosevelt when war
was declared against Japan on December 7th last, with
these words :

''All Americans today are united in one ambition to take
whatever share they can in the defense of their country ..."

The account of the social hygiene activities of the United
States Department of War presented here aims to summarize
how one extremely important lot of Americans are doing
their share, to the end that all who read may better under-
stand and make common cause.

The Women's Interests Section, U. S. War Depart-
ment Bureau of Public Relations, has published a
condensed version of the article Fit to Fight . . . and
Fit for Life, as one of seven pamphlets for use by clubs, schools, church groups,
libraries and other organizations. The complete kit may be obtained upon
request to the Bureau at Washington.



"Fighting a successful war takes more than mere courage.
Most men have courage. It takes training; it takes morale;
it takes resourcefulness; it takes subordination to authority,
and finally it takes that determination which carries men to
their objective at whatever cost. . . . Today it is not enough
for you to be officers and gentlemen. You must be good
citizens as well. ..."

These were the words with which Secretary Frank Knox,
war-time chief of the United States Navy Department,
recently sent into service a class of midshipmen graduated
from the Naval Academy at Annapolis. They may serve as
a summary of the social hygiene program of the Navy.

In like manner, the story of recent Navy exploits in the
Pacific sums up the results of this program in action for
nearly a century and a half of American naval history. In
official accounts of individual daring and mass bravery at
Pearl Harbor, Wake Island or in the Philippines, the words,
"best traditions of the service," stand forth again and again,
testifying vigorously to the value of Navy training, discipline
and to the qualities which in times like these make heroes in
the armed forces, and in civilian life represent the highest
type of citizenship.

Since 1798, when the United States Department of the Navy was
established as a separate entity, 1 these traditions have been building.
They are the foundation on which, through education of enlisted
personnel, through provision for their welfare and recreation, as well
as for their religious and spiritual needs, and through physical con-
ditioning and medical care, have been raised the magnificent morale
and the high degree of technical ability needed for victorious military
achievement on the seas. Today, with Navy personnel reaching
quadrupled strength, this program becomes more than ever important
and necessary.

1 Prior to April 30, 1798, naval activities were conducted under the Department
of War.

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