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plan for closing the prostitution houses was worked out with the A.S.H.A. as
a participant.



WEST VIRGINIA

Population Population rank among states 26

Urban 534,292 A.S.H.A. members in state 28

Bural 1,369,682

1,901,974

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

None.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, G. Stanley Hamric, Eoom 7, State

Capitol Bldg., Charleston, W. Va.
Civitan International: Lt. Governor, North Central District, Henry Voight, 9th

and Market Streets, Wheeling, W.Va.
Kiwanis International:*
Lions International:*
Rotary International:*

United Service Organizations, Region IV: See Virginia.
West Virginia Conference of Social Work: Executive Secretary, William H.

Naggs, 1627 South Davis Avenue, Elkins.
West Virginia Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. H. S. Klein,

707 Chesapeake & Ohio Bldg., Huntington; Social Hygiene Chairman, Dorothea

Campbell, State Health Department, Charleston.
West Virginia Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs.

E. S. Hamilton, Williamson.
West Virginia Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Leonard Shawkey, 1st

Huntington National Building, Huntington.
West Virginia Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, May M. Maloney, 47

Capitol City Bldg., Charleston; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section,

Kathryn Henderson, 206 Catherine Street, Sistersville.
West Virginia State Medical Association: President, Richard O. Rogers, M.D.,

Bluefield; Secretary, Mr. Charles Lively, 1031 Quarrier Street, Charleston.
West Virginia State Teachers Association: H. D. Hazelwood, Douglass High

School, Huntingdon; Leonard Barnett, London.

West Virginia Tuberculosis and Health Association: Executive Secretary, Ed-
mund P. Wells, 330 Professional Bldg., P. O. Box 341, Charleston.
West Virginia Woman's Christian Temperance Union: President, Mrs. Ernest

Henson, 1013 Wyoming St., Bluefield.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 353

Official Agencies

National Youth Administration, Region IV: Regional Director of Youth Per-
sonnel, Theodore Keller, Atlas Bldg., Quarrier Street, Charleston.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,
Region IV: See District of Columbia.

U. S. Army Fifth Corps Area: See Ohio.

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,
3. O. Knapp ; State Home Demonstration Leader, Gertrude Humphreys, College
of Agriculture, West Virginia University, Morgantown.

U. S. Navy, Fifth District: See Virginia.

U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for
War Information Centers, Rosa Oliver, Marshall College, Huntington; Miles
M. Jefferson, West Virginia State College, Institute; W. P. Kellam, West
Virginia University, Morgantown.

U. S. Public Health Service: For Director, District II, see Maryland; for Liaison
Officer, Fifth Army Corps Area, see Ohio.

West Virginia State Council of Defense: Executive Director, Carl Bachmann,
State Capitol Bldg., Charleston.

West Virgina State Department of Education: Superintendent of Free Schools,
W. W. Trent, Charleston; Supervisor of Negro Schools, I. J. K. Wells.

West Virginia State Department of Health: State Health Commissioner, C. F.
McClintic, MJX, Charleston; Acting Director, Bureau of Venereal Diseases,
Leon Saler, MJD.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Beekley, Bluefield, Buckhannon, Charleston (2), Charles Town, Clarksburg, Clay,
East Eainelle, Elk Garden, Elkins, Fairmont, Farmington, Payetteville, Glen-
ville, Grafton, Grantsville, Hamlin, Harrisville, Hinton, Huntington, Keyser,
Kingwood, Lewisburg, Logan, Madison, Man, Marlinton, Martinsburg, Mont-
gomery, Morgantown, Moundsville, Mullens, New Cumberland, New Martins-
ville, Omar, Parkersburg, Parsons, Petersburg, Philippi, Point Pleasant, Prince-
ton, Richwood, Ripley, Romney, Shepherdstown, Spencer, Summersville, Sutton,
Union, Wayne, Webster Springs, Weirton, Welch, Wellsburg, Weston, West
Union, Wheeling, Whitesville, Williamson, Winfield.

West Virginia State Department of Public Assistance: Director, A. W. Garnett,

Charleston.
Work Projects Administration: State Director of Community Service Program,

Mrs. Irene Gillooly, Deardorf-Sisler Bldg., Huntington.

State Department of Health, Charleston:

Venereal disease control activities in West Virginia during the fiscal
year 1941-2 were handicapped due to the continued vacancy of
three key positions the Director of the Bureau of Venereal Diseases ;
Consultant, Bureau of Venereal Diseases; and Director of the Logan
Field Demonstration, all due to the war. In addition to these, four
health officers and nine venereal disease clinic directors entered the
army or navy during the year. Only 22 of the 59 free venereal
disease clinics in the state were operated under the supervision of a
full-time qualified health officer. It is expected that the loss of per-
sonnel will continue and the operation of the venereal disease control
program will be necessarily handicapped as time goes on.

All venereal disease clinic facilities, including personal services, quarters, and
equipment, were made available to the local Selective Service boards in the various
counties in order to facilitate the blood testing, examination, and classification
of Selective Service registrants. The greater proportion of blood tests performed
on Selective Service registrants are now performed by health department per-
sonnel in health department quarters.



354 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

In order to maintain present services, nurses serving in venereal disease clinics
were authorized to take blood specimens and to administer intravenous and
intramuscular treatments provided the physician in charge was present in the
quarters. This action was made necessary through the removal of doctors from
many clinics.

Education:

a. Professional. In addition to lectures concerning venereal disease given
before several medical societies, 2,600 supplements and reprints to Venereal
Disease Information were distributed to West Virginia physicians during the year.

Ten physicians, six of whom were private practitioners were given 30 days
venereal disease training at the United States Public Health Service Medical
Center in Hot Springs, Arkansas.

6. Lay. Newspaper advertising was purchased in all West Virginia daily
papers and six weeklies on two occasions, in connection with venereal disease
education.

Radio broadcasts (free time) were released in connection with Social Hygiene
Week by health officers in those jurisdictions having facilities for same.

Sixty thousand (60,000) VD education pamphlets were distributed.

The pamphlet We Grow Up was distributed to all West Virginia second year
high school students and plans were formulated to repeat this distribution annually.

Treatment Facilities: Fifty-nine free clinics were operated in forty-nine of
the fifty-five counties of the state. These clinics continue to diagnose and treat
both gonorrhea and syphilis.

Diagnostic, therapeutic, and management methods conform to the recom-
mendations of the Syphilis Cooperative Clinical Group (for syphilis) and the
recommendations of the Executive Committee of the American Neisserian Medical
Association (for gonorrhea).

Due to the lack of public health nurses in practically all jurisdictions, four
untrained persons were employed for venereal disease follow-up work. Preliminary
evaluation of the effectiveness of the work performed by these persons indicates
that their employment is justifiable.

Case-finding: During the year 4,525 cases of syphilis were admitted to the
free clinics and of these 994, or 22 per cent were admitted with primary or
secondary syphilis.

2,152 cases of gonorrhea were admitted during the same period. Of the total
venereal disease admissions to free clinics, gonorrhea accounted for 32 per cent.
From the 4,530 infectious, or potentially infectious venereal disease eases admitted
(primary, secondary, early latent syphilis and gonorrhea), 2,935 contacts were
reported or a ratio of .65/1. Of 2,935 contacts reported but 767, or 26 per
cent were found infected.

The Serologic Survey operating in connection with Selective Service accounted
for 4,391 cases of syphilis of whom 1,319 were placed under treatment. Compar-
able data pertaining to gonorrhea is not available.

Of 8,345 persons examined under the marriage law, 360 were found infected.

Case-finding work in West Virginia remains unsatisfactory with regard to
both the serologie survey and epidemiological methods.

Case-holding: During the year, 9,769 patients were reported delinquent (delin-
quency 30 days absence from the clinic without permission) and 4,306, or 44
per cent returned to treatment.

Cooperation with Armed Forces: No military or naval commands of appreciable
strength were located in the state during the year.

Morbidity Reporting and Cooperation of Physicians in Private Practice: The



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES



355



reporting of venereal diseases by physicians in private practice was unsatisfac-
tory in all but two (Logan and Kaleigh) of the fifty-five counties.

Law Enforcement: The office of the Social Protection Section (Defense Health
and Welfare Services) detailed one of their agents to the state for the purpose
of organizing community interest in the prostitution problem. To date this
program has consisted principally of laying the groundwork for an attack on
prostitution in many West Virginia cities. It is, of course, common knowledge
that prostitution is widespread in West Virginia, as in other states. Hope is
entertained that where prostitution is particularly extensive and vicious (Wheel-
ing, Huntington and Charleston) it will be effectively repressed as a result of
the operation of this agency.

Statistical: The following data were submitted by venereal disease clinics to
the State Health Department on U. S. Public Health Service form 8954-A and a
comparison is shown for the past two fiscal years.



Admissions:
Syphilis


Fiscal Year
1940-41

3 910


Fiscal Tear
1941-42

4525


GC


1 528


2 152


Cured :
Syphilis


848


1 176


GC


265


475


Delinquent :
Reported


8 362


9 769


Returned


3,007


4,306


Contacts :
Reported


2,077


2,935


Infected .


753


767



Treatments :

Syphilis 153,295 158,390

GC 9,305 8,840

Visits 183,599 198,025



WISCONSIN



Population

Urban 1,679,144
Eural 1,458,443



Population rank among states 13
A.S.H.A. members in state 81



3,137,587

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

None.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, G. H. Stordock, 225 E. Michigan St.,

Milwaukee.
Civitan International: Lt. Governor, North Central District, Harvey Hartwig,

2028 E. Park Place, Milwaukee, Wis.
Kiwanis International:*
Lions International:*
Rotary International:*

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



356 JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

State Medical Society of Wisconsin: President, Gunnar Gundersen, M.D., La-
Crosse; Secretary, C. H. Crownhart, 110 E. Main Street, Madison.

United Service Organizations, Region VI: See Illinois.

Wisconsin Anti-Tuberculosis Association: Executive Secretary, Dr. Oscar Lotz,
1018 N. Jefferson Street, Milwaukee.

Wisconsin Conference of Social Work: Secretary, Frank M. Vicroy, 313 Uni-
versity Extension Bldg., Madison.

Wisconsin Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. Eoger Scott,
Route 5, Box 367, Waukesha; Social Hygiene Chairman, Aimee Zillmer, State
Board of Health, Madison.

Wisconsin Council of Church Women: President, Mrs. L. B. Moseley, 1819
Keyes Avenue, Madison.

Wisconsin Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. E. H.
Miles, 910 Whitewater St., Fort Atkinson.

Wisconsin Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Leslie J. Valleskey, 907
South 8th Street, Manitowoc.

Wisconsin Nurses Association: Executive Secretary, Mrs. C. D. Partridge, 3727
E. Layton Avenue, Cudahy; Secretary, State Organization for Public Health
Nursing, Phoebe Brown, 710 N. Plankinton Ave., Milwaukee.

Wisconsin Woman's Christian Temperance Union: Headquarters, 1127 W. John-
8t., Madison. In charge, Mrs. J. W. Landsdowne; President, Mrs. Emma
Mielke, 525 Ransom St., Ripon.

Official Agencies

National Youth Administration, Region VI: See Illinois.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,

Region VI: See Illinois.
U. S. Army, Sixth Corps Area: See Illinois.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,

W. W. Clark; State Home Demonstration Leader, Blanche L. Lee, College of

Agriculture. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
U. S. Navy, Ninth District: See Illinois.
U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for

War Information Center, Dean Frank O. Holt, University of Wisconsin,

Madison.
U. S. Public Health Service: For Director, District III, and for Liaison Officer,

Sixth Army Corps Area, see Illinois.
Wisconsin Council of Defense: Executive Secretary, Seth Pollard, 110 East

Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee.
Wisconsin State Board of Health: State Health Officer, C. A. Harper, M.D.,

Madison; Venereal Disease Control Officer, Milton Trautman, M.D. ; Social

Hygiene Lecturers: Aimee Zillmer, Dwight Warner.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:

Beloit, Green Bay, Janesville, Kenosha, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee (5),
Oshkosh, Racine, Superior, Waukesha, Wausau.

Wisconsin State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion, John Callahan, Madison.

Wisconsin State Department of Public Welfare: Director, Frank C. Klode,
Madison.

Work Projects Administration: State Director of Community Service Programs,
Mrs. Harriet G. Deuss, 149 Wilson Street, Madison.

State Board of Health, Madison: "At the time the venereal disease
program was originated cooperative arrangements were made
between the State and a number of cities in Wisconsin for the estab-
lishment of venereal disease clinics. Such clinic services are in
existence in Beloit, Janesville, Kenosha, LaCrosse, Madison, Osh-
kosh, Racine, Superior, Green Bay, Waukesha, Milwaukee, Wausau.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 357

The object of establishing these clinics is to provide treatment
facilities to those who cannot afford the services of a physician,
or are referred by a physician. In addition the State Health Board
distributes arsenicals, bismuth, and mercurials to physicians without
charge for the treatment of indigent syphilis patients. This service
has been increased during the past year.

"With the establishment of the clinics referred to above the State Board of
Health employed seven clinic nurses. Their function is to assist the physician
in the clinic, inquire into the financial status of the patient, visit courts and
jails for the discovery of cases, and to follow up delinquents in treatment.
The services of these clinic nurses have been offered to local physicians for
follow-up of their patients. As the clinics treat all forms of syphilis the
follow-up work is extended to non-communicable cases also. The constancy
of attendance at clinics often depends on the follow-up work of these nurses.
Cities served by these state clinic nurses are Beloit, Janesville, Kenosha, La
Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, Racine, Superior, Waukesha, Green Bay.

"The law empowers an agent of the State Board of Health to investigate
any reasonably suspected case of venereal disease for which no treatment is
given by a physician licensed to prescribe drugs. In some of the larger cities
the reports are referred to the venereal disease clinic nurses employed by the
State Board of Health. By an enabling act, a physician health officer may
also investigate in any specific case referred to him by the state health officer,
and in many instances reports are referred to such health officers. Throughout
the greater part of Wisconsin, however, delinquent reports are turned over to
the various deputy state health officers. Every part of the state, both urban
and rural, is thus reached by these arrangements. Success in getting delin-
quents back under treatment has been remarkably good. If the delinquent
can be located, he generally complies with the demands of the law. If he
neglects or refuses treatment, he may be brought into court and committed to
an institution for treatment. Every year a number of persons of both sexes
are committed to institutions for such treatment, the great majority going
to the Mendota State Hospital or the Wisconsin Industrial Home for Women
at Taycheedah.

"Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid, in the communicable form, must be
reported by the physician in charge of the case directly to the State Board of
Health and not to local health officers. The superintendent of an institution
is also under legal obligation to report such cases. Reports bear a serial
number instead of the name of the patient, but if the patient is delinquent in
treatment while in the communicable stage, the name and address must then
be reported to the State Board of Health.

"From the beginning of the venereal disease control program it was realized
by the health agencies concerned that prevention through education was a vital
factor to its success. Hence for the past 18 years the State Board of Health
has employed lecturers in social hygiene for duty in public schools throughout
the state and for other appearances before groups of both children and adults.
At present two women and two men are thus employed. Beaching Wisconsin
children at the age of adolescence, these four counselors, through group talks
and personal conferences, are in a position to do immeasurable good, and the
state's recent determination to bring the venereal disease problem squarely
into the open is tending to make their efforts still more fruitful."

The State Board of Health also distributes pamphlets on sex hygiene as
part of its educational program. A small library of books on social hygiene is
kept for loan to individuals. Most newspapers and one local broadcasting
station cooperate in the campaign against venereal disease.

The Wisconsin state laws in regard to venereal disease were amended in
1937 to provide that both parties to a proposed marriage be given a Wassermann
test for syphilis. The law in its earlier form called for the examination for
venereal diseases of male persons only. The provision whereby male persons
applying for a license to marry must be examined for gonorrhea still stands.



358 JOURNAL, OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

Outstanding activities for 1941 have included:

Facilities for finding and treating of cases of syphilis have been increased by
the addition of new clinics as mentioned above. In addition clinics are in the
process of establishment for certain defense areas. The clinic program appears
adequate at the moment. The department has had a complete program since
1919, and is receiving adequate appropriations and public support. State and
local pharmaceutical societies are cooperating in a campaign against quackery.

Newspapers and other publications cooperate very well in the campaign against
venereal diseases. State radio station WIBA is used by the state in this connec-
tion. Other channels of information and education are: Newspaper releases, dis-
tribution of U.S.P.H.S. posters and pamphlets, the use of films, and the quarterly
bulletin of the State Board of Health.

At present no facilities are available for the rehabilitation of women and girls
who have been engaged in prostitution.

Since 1938 the premarital law has been revised so that the State Health
Officer can permit the county clerk to issue a marriage license in cases of non-
infectious syphilis. Premarital Wassermann tests are required of both applicants
for marriage.

There are many activities of this nature in the state with which the State Board
of Health is promoting education, diagnostic, and treatment programs.

The only army establishment in Wisconsin is being enlarged, and a special
program has been provided for diagnosis, treatment, and education. A military
zone has been declared by the State Board of Health in an area within 40 miles
of the borders of the camp.



WYOMING

Population Population rank among states 48

Urban 93,577 A.S.H.A. members in state 6

Rural 157,165

250,742

Social Hygiene Societies and Committees

None.

Other Voluntary Agencies

American Legion: Department Adjutant, George F. Storey, P. O. Box 555,

Cheyenne.

Kiwanis International:*
Lions International:*
Rotary International:*

United Service Organizations, Region XI: See Missouri.
Wyoming Conference of Social Work: President, Harry Breitenstein, County

Welfare Director, Rawlins.
Wyoming Congress of Parents and Teachers: President, Mrs. Fred J. Peterson,

1207 Cosgriff Court, Cheyenne; Social Hygiene Chairman, Margaret H. Jones,

M.D., State Department of Health, Capitol Bldg., Cheyenne.
Wyoming Federation of Women's Clubs: Chairman Public Welfare, Mrs. Harry

Trembly, Eiverton.
Wyoming Junior Chamber of Commerce: President, Jack B. Hufford, c/o

Sheridan Meat Company, Sheridan.
Wyoming Nurses Association: Secretary, Jennie Hautala, Memorial Hospital,

Eawlins; Chairman, Public Health Nursing Section, Eileen Goodall, 606 S. 10th

Street, Laramie.
Wyoming State Medical Association: President, B. H. Beeve, M.D., Casper;

Secretary, M. C. Keith, M.D., Capitol Bldg., Cheyenne.

* See page 239 for national headquarters.



STATE AND COMMUNITY SUMMARIES 359

Wyoming Woman's Christian Temperance Union: President, Mrs. Nellie Lewis,
Box 487, Torrington.

Official Agencies

National Youth Administration, Region XI: See Colorado.

Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,

Region XI: See Colorado.

U. S. Army, Seventh Corps Area: See Nebraska.
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service: State Extension Director,

A. E. Bowman; State Home Demonstration Leader, Mary G. Collopy, College

of Agriculture, University of Wyoming, Larumie.
U. S. Navy, Thirteenth District: See Washington.
U. S. Office of Education, Civilian Morale Service: To receive material for

War Information Center, O. H. Rechard, University of Wyoming, Laramie.
U. S. Public Health Service: For Director, District VIII, see Colorado; for

Liaison Officer, Seventh Army Corps Area, see Nebraska.
Wyoming State Board of Health: State Health Officer, Marshall C. Keith, M.D.,

Cheyenne; State Epidemiologist, N. H. Savage, M.D.

Clinics or Cooperating Clinicians at:
Casper, Cheyenne, Laramie, Rock Springs.

Wyoming State Council of Defense: Executive Vice-chairman, Col. R. L.
Esmay, State Capitol, Cheyenne.

Wyoming State Department of Education: Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion, Esther L. Anderson, Cheyenne.

Wyoming State Department of Public Welfare: Director, Samuel S. Hoover,
Cheyenne.

Work Projects Administration: State Director of Community Service Program,
Miss Virgil Payne, 600 East 25th Street, Cheyenne.

State Board of Health, Cheyenne. " Free anti-syphilitic drugs are
furnished to any doctor requesting them.. Free laboratory services
are provided as an aid to the diagnosis of venereal disease. The pro-
gram of health education and public information about syphilis and
gonorrhea is carried out by means of addresses to the public by
members of the staff of the State Board of Health and by the
distribution of literature. The press cooperates in this program.

"The state law requires any male person applying for a marriage license
to furnish the county clerk with an examination certificate from a reputable
physician stating that the applicant is free from any venereal disease."

Outstanding activities for 1941 have included the establishment of four free
county venereal disease clinics and increase in the statewide flow of free drugs
for treatment of venereal diseases. Pharmaceutical societies are cooperating in
the campaign against quackery to a limited extent. In the field of health edu-
cation and public information there is full cooperation with excellent publicity
in all state and local papers. Radio station KFBC gives good cooperation.
School officials, Parent -Teacher Associations, women's groups and other public-
minded groups are valuable allies. No new laws have been passed for the
repression of prostitution, but there is better law enforcement, especially in
military areas. There are no industrial defense activities in Wyoming. Law
enforcement authorities in the vicinity of military establishments claim that
prostitution resorts are closed. The State Department of Health supplements the



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