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without long-time supervision. One is mentally incompetent and
has been committed to an institution for the insane. Another is
very low-grade, and efforts are being made to secure information
about her in order to arrange commitment. Four are capable of
rehabilitation. Of this number, two are seeking defense jobs.

Of the remaining forty, one is mentally incompetent, the wife of
a soldier. She is eight months pregnant, and arrangements have
been made through Red Cross for her care. Thirty are young, and
with some supervision, can be helped to make readjustment. They
need decent housing, jobs and an "even chance" to get by. The
other nine will probably require long-time services.

As the program is now "set up" the clinic is held at the City
Jail. Space for twenty-two girls and women has been assigned as
detention quarters. It is furnished with regular jail bunks, a table
and a few chairs. Until a few days ago, there were only ten sheets
now a supply of over one hundred has been received. There are no
pillow cases, towels or other toilet necessities. The food is better
than that provided for regular prisoners, and girls are permitted
to purchase cigarettes, candy, fruit, etcetera.

The Travelers Aid has provided magazines, books, games and
stationery. On the whole, the atmosphere and attitude of the girls
is good. The matrons are kindly and give the girls as much freedom
as is possible.

Girls are detained only until treatment is completed. There is no
provision for the girl to remain long enough to work out a plan.
This makes service very difficult and often impossible. The greatest



392 JOURNAL, OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

present need is to develop resources for the care of such girls for whom
rehabilitation plans are in process. When the girl is dismissed from
the clinic, there is no housing available except that obtained in
rooming houses and hotels.

The Salvation Army maintains a women's shelter. However, such
housing is of an emergency nature, and the officials complain if girls
remain there more than two or three nights. The Shelter does not
accept referrals from other agencies, but their "social worker" inter-
views each girl with generally disastrous results as far as relationship
with the girl is concerned.

The YWCA has an emergency room with two cots. There is a
three-night limit on the use of this facility for each individual girl.
The YWCA maintains no supervision over this room and does not
welcome "problem girls". The ordinary residences for girls, YWCA,
Girls' Club, Casa Regina, Catholic Women's Association have long
waiting lists and do not encourage either transient or problem girls.

There is no regularly organized and functioning Family Service
Agency. A Catholic Welfare Bureau is in the process of development
and organization. It stands ready to furnish funds for room rent
and food and to render some case work services for a limited number
of girls and women. It is under-staffed and already over-loaded.
The Catholic Welfare Bureau will assist non-Catholic as well as
Catholic girls.

The Travelers Aid stands ready to give service to non-resident girls.
Two cases have been referred to Red Cross. There is no public relief
in San Antonio for residents and no assistance whatever for non-
residents.

The study is a cooperative effort between Social Protection,
Travelers Aid and a Committee of the American Association of Social
Workers of which the director of Travelers Aid is chairman. It is
expected that the committee will act as a nucleus in an attempt to
develop local resources to aid in rehabilitation plans.

The following brief summaries illustrate some of the situations in
which the girls interviewed find themselves:

Case Number I.

Sue is one of four girls picked up by the Vice Squad in one of the better
hotels in San Antonio and held for examination in the clinic. She is discovered
to have gonorrhea and is detained for treatment. The girl gives her age as
nineteen years. She is very small, delicate and extremely pretty. Sue does
not appear to be as old as she says. The girls hitch-hiked to San Antonio
from a neighboring city to find adventure and excitement. Sue had a sergeant
boy friend at Port Sam Houston. The girls had a gay time for two days
when they were picked up by the police.

In talking with the girl, she admitted freely that she had had sexual rela-
tionship with several men, and she blamed a sailor for her present condition.
Because of her extremely youthful appearance, her home city was communicated
with by telegram, and it was ascertained that the girl's correct age is fourteen.
She was transferred to the Juvenile Bureau. Travelers Aid continued its



PLANNING FOE "THE KIND OF HELP THEY NEED" 393

contact with the social agency in the city from which the girl came, made
transportation arrangements and at the expiration of her period of treatment,
placed her on a bus for home. The girl's mother is a widow receiving A.D.C.
Supervision and guidance was promised by the agency administering the A.D.C.

Case Number II.

Mary is the wife of a soldier stationed on the Pacific Coast. She is nineteen
years of age, and her husband is only one week older. They were married when
they were both fifteen years old. The girl's mother urged the marriage because
Mary did not get along with her step-father and ' ' was only a source of trouble
at home." Mary has two babies, one three years of age and the other eleven
months. The couple came to San Antonio from a rural community in Texas
six months ago. The boy walked the streets for two weeks looking for work.
He was only eighteen and had no work experience except that in the fields.
Mary has picked cotton and pulled corn since she was six years of age, "old
enough to stand on her feet and hold a bag. ' ' Finally the boy, in desperation,
joined the army. Mary got a job in a dance hall and honky-tonk at $7.00 a
week. The soldier was transferred away from San Antonio almost immediately.

Mary tried to find a boarding place for her babies. She could find nothing
cheaper than $5.00 a week payable in advance. The first time Mary took a
soldier to her room was when she had to have $5.00 the following morning to
pay board for her babies. She says she "will never forget that first time".
Since then, Mary has regularly supplemented her earnings by prostitution. She
contracted gonorrhea, and a soldier turned her in. She says she "doesn't
blame him because she might have infected many others and she is glad to
receive treatment".

The soldier's mother has come to San Antonio to help maintain a home for
Mary and her babies. In addition the soldier's sister, also married to a service
man stationed on the Pacific Coast, has brought her baby to become members
of the family. She, too, works in a honky-tonk and makes $7.00 a week and
supplements her income in the same way that Mary does. With the two girls,
the mother and the three babies, there are six in the family. They pay $7.00
a week for two miserable rooms in the rear of a house. The combined earnings
of the two girls is not sufficient for the barest necessities. Both girls need to
have clothing in which to be presentable on their jobs.

Mary informed interviewer that almost immediately after her husband enlisted,
he made application for dependency discharge. The interviewer referred this
situation to the Bed Cross. She learned that a dependency investigation had
been made and that no recommendation for this man's release was made due
to the fact that he had been unemployed before he enlisted and had not been
taking care of his family. Another inquiry had been received from the boy's
Commanding Officer asking for another investigation and report. The boy has
been talking to his chaplain as well as the Eed Cross at his camp in an endeavor
to secure a discharge. Because of pressure of work, the local Eed Cross has
not been able to make the second investigation but promises to do so. The
situation was explained to the Eed Cross, and they promised to help relieve
the present emergency.

During the time Mary was confined to the clinic, a period of almost two weeks,
she received no earnings to contribute toward the support of the family. When
the family was visited, their rent was in arrears over two weeks, and they
had been having great difficulty in providing sufficient food for the children.

Case Number III.

A tall, thin, blond girl, almost emaciated in appearance, is referred. She
says that she is nineteen years old. Her employment history for the past year
includes the names of fifteen beer joints, honky-tonks and taverns in and
around San Antonio where she has worked from a few days to a month at a
time. In addition, during this period, Helen has visited neighboring cities and
army camps. She complains that she has changed employment so frequently
because she does not feel well enough to work. There were several weeks



394 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

during the year in which she was actually ill, and a "boy friend" paid her
expenses while she rested. Helen has a health card which permits her to work
as a waitress and cafe worker. Physical examination revealed advanced tuber-
culosis. Boarding care was arranged and steps taken to secure admission to a
tuberculosis sanatorium.

According to the girl's story, she is an orphan with no relatives. She gives
the name of an Indian orphanage in Oklahoma where she lived and went to
school. With the name of this school as the only clue in regard to the girl's
background, the interviewer wrote a letter and received an immediate reply.
Helen is discovered to be a runaway from the orphanage, who disappeared two
years before at the age of thirteen. She is now fifteen years of age and has
been roaming around the country on ,her own for two years. Within two weeks
Helen was admitted to a tuberculosis sanatorium for Indians in Oklahoma and
is now undergoing treatment.

Case Number IV.

Nancy is twenty-two. She comes from a small town in Texas and has been
living in San Antonio for eight months. She has been married and has a
little girl five years of age. She is divorced. She says that during the time
her baby was small, her husband started "running around". She divorced him
about nine months ago, and he has remarried. Nancy comes from a good
sturdy country family. She is a refined and attractive-looking girl. She finished
the tenth grade in school, and in her home town worked as a clerk in a depart-
ment store. Since coming to San Antonio, Nancy has worked at honky-tonks
and bars.

When arrested on the complaint of a soldier, she was working in the kitchen
of a cheap tavern earning $6.00 a week. Nancy says that she asked to work
in the kitchen because she "simply cannot coax men to drink". Nancy does not
like her work as cafe waitress and wants to do something else. She admits
that she has been careless and easily discouraged and has not made any great
effort to help improve her employment condition. She says that since she
started working in cafes, she has learned to drink and that when she drinks,
she is careless and reckless. Nancy appears anxious to secure some other type
of employment and needs encouragement and help. Since Nancy's discharge
from the clinic, every effort is being made to help this girl to secure a defense
job.

Case Number V.

Annie is a plump countrified girl of seventeen with a jolly smile and twinkling
brown eyes. She radiates good nature and complacency. Annie ran away
from home a year and a half ago and came to San Antonio. At that time
she had her first sex experience and contracted gonorrhea. Her mother sent
transportation money, and the Juvenile Bureau returned the girl to her home
in Ohio. She received proper treatment and remained home for a short time.

During the past nine months, Annie has been in and out of San Antonio,
sometimes staying a few months and sometimes only a few days. She has
frequented almost entirely the cafes and beer joints around the public market
where the truckers and other men connected with wholesale produce congregate.
In checking her employment, it was found that she would work a few days
or a week in first one cafe, then another. Three weeks ago Annie decided very
suddenly to take a trip to Oklahoma City with two truck drivers. After she
arrived there, she joined a carnival and traveled for ten days in Oklahoma and
Arkansas. She left the carnival at Little Eoek and returned to San Antonio.

When she went to the Health Department to get her health card, she was
found to have gonorrhea and was referred to the clinic. Annie is quite willing
to receive treatment and made a voluntary commitment. She has two soldier
boy friends in San Antonio and does not want to return to her home in Ohio.
She says that she loves her mother and her family, but she has had so much
excitement that she is not contented to remain at home under her mother's



PLANNING FOB, "THE KIND OF HELP THEY NEED" 395

supervision. Annie admits that she has been promiscuous in her relationships
with men.

The interviewer is in correspondence with the representative of the Bureau
of Aid to Dependent Children in the city in which the girl lives. Annie's
mother is a widow receiving A.D.C. Efforts are being made while Annie is
in the clinic to work out a satisfactory plan.

Case Number VI.

Agnes is seventeen years old, an attractive-looking negro girl. She works
in a laundry earning $6.00 a week. She was married when she was just a
little past fourteen and has a baby two years and six months old. Agnes was
"turned in" by a soldier. She has been found to be suffering from both
syphilis and gonorrhea and is under treatment at the venereal disease clinic.
She is a resident of San Antonio and lives with her mother, who has five
children in addition to Agnes' child between the ages of three months and
fourteen years, and supports her family working in the same laundry with
Agnes, earning approximately $10.00 a week. Agnes' mother is separated from
her second husband.

The girl is rather hard and indifferent and chewed gum noisily throughout
the interview. She is separated from her husband and is planning to secure
a divorce. Both she and her mother have to arrange for someone to take care
of the children while they are away. As they come from work at 5:30, they
pick up the children and take them home.

Case Number VII.

Carolyn is 23. She is so blond that she appears almost an albino. When
she was picked up by the police, she was in the secondary stage of syphilis
and so infectious that she remained in isolation for about a week. At that
time Carolyn was working in a well-to-do home as a nursemaid taking care of
two children, one seven years of age and the other two months. She comes
from an outlying community, is of German parentage and her father is a union
carpenter earning very good wages. Carolyn is the oldest girl in a family of
eight children. She states that she finished high school and wanted to train
for a nurse, but her mother became ill, and as she was the only girl old
enough to wait on her mother, she had to give up her idea of becoming a
nurse.

Except for one brief experience of two weeks, Carolyn has never worked in
a night club. Her employment has consisted mainly in housework and taking
care of children. The girl's sister is also working in San Antonio and plans
to take Carolyn home after she is dismissed from the clinic.

Case Number VIII.

Hazel is forty. She is tall, thin and partially paralyzed. At the time of
the interview, she had sprained her ankle and was hobbling around on one foot.
She is dressed in a pair of dirty blue slacks and a ragged blouse and looks
very unkempt and uncared for. Hazel is being treated for syphilis and has
been in and out of jail many times on charges of being drunk. She has been
married four times and had one child who is dead.

For the last five years Hazel worked in a cheap beer joint in one of the
poor districts in the city where she earned 5c commission on each drink sold.
She had a bed in a back room of the cafe. These drinks were a mixture of
coca cola or soda water with a little wine on top. The place could not compete
with other cafes, and at the end the girl was not earning enough to buy
cigarettes or have her laundry done. The owner finally closed up the cafe, and
Hazel was thrown out on the street. When she is not in jail, she lives with
another woman also a drunkard. She has no relatives other than distant
cousins in Tennessee and Kentucky.



396 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

Case Number IX.

Betty is twenty-six and a prostitute of ten years experience. She wandered
into San Antonio with some soldiers and was picked up in one of the cheap
hotels. She was found to be about seven months pregnant and so mentally
upset that it was necessary to transfer her to a cell where the insane women
prisoners are kept. The county physician who has charge of commitment
refused to commit the woman to the insane asylum because she was a non-resident.
He ordered her released from the jail. The sheriff refused to release the girl
because of her physical and mental condition.

Travelers Aid talked with Betty and on the strength of very meager informa-
tion was able to identify her in an eastern city. Her residence was established
and authorization received for her return. Because of the woman's mental
condition, it was impossible for her to travel alone. With the financial assistance
of the Catholic Welfare Bureau, an attendant was provided, and the girl was
returned to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where she was committed to a hospital
for the insane.



II. A PRELIMINARY STUDY IN ANOTHER CITY

Thirty-seven girls were interviewed at the quarantine hospital in
connection with the social protection study. Returns of medical
diagnosis have not been received for all cases, but preliminary tabula-
tions have been made from the original interview outlines. The
data represent, in large part, unverified statements of the girls inter-
viewed. In most tables, white and Negro eases are shown separately
although it is recognized that valid comparisons between the white
and Negro groups cannot be made because of the small number of
cases involved.

Type of Infection

Medical diagnosis received on 30 cases show that 26 girls were
found to be infected with venereal disease, seven having multiple
infections. Four were found to be free from venereal disease. All
eight Negro girls diagnosed were found to have syphilis and four of
them had other, infections as well. Among the white girls, gonorrhea
was more common than syphilis.

Diagnosis of

type of infection Total White Negro

Gonorrhea 9 9

Syphilis 10 6 4

Combinations

Gonorrhea and Syphilis 7 3 41

Not infected 4 4

Not available 7 6 1

Total 37 28 9

1 One Negro case shown to have syphilis and granuloma inguinale

Age and Race

The ages of the girls admitted to the quarantine hospital ranged
from 12 to 32, with concentrations of cases occurring in the 15-19
and the 20-24 year age groups. The youngest case involved a Negro
girl of apparent subnormal mentality.



PLANNING FOE "THE KIND OF HELP THEY NEED



> J



397



Age
Under 15


Total
2


15-19


15


20-24


15


25-29


4


30-34


1


Total .


37



White

1

10
13

3

1

28



Negro
1
5
2
1


9



Marital Status

Only six of 37 girls claimed to be married at the time of the
interview, but an additional 19 girls indicated marriages which had
been terminated either through divorce proceedings, desertion, or
other separation. One of the girls has two children, and ten others
have one each.



Single

Married ....
Divorced ....
Deserted . . . .
Deserting . . . .
Separated . . .

Total .



Total
12
6
6
5
5
3

37



White
6
6
6
4
4
2

28



Negro
6


1
1
1

9



Place of Residence

Most of the girls interviewed were found to be natives of the state
studied. Several others claimed Texas as their residence. Four of
the seven girls from other States had come to the area concerned
to be near husbands stationed in army camps there.



Residence
State studied . ,

Texas

Other States . .

Total .



Total
23

7

7

37



White
14

7
7

28



Negro
9




9



Education



Eighteen of the 33 girls who supplied information on the extent
of their formal education had not gone beyond the eighth grade.
About one-third of the group had less than sixth grade training.



Highest grade
Attended
12th. . .
llth. . .
10th
9th.
8th.
7th.
6th.
5th.
4th.
3rd.
2nd.
1st.
Unknown .



Total
5
2
3
5
1
3
3
8

1

2
4



White
4
2
2
5
1

3
7

1


3



Total 37



28



398 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

Occupation

The main occupation claimed by most of the girls involved work
of some kind in cafes and honky-tonks, waiting on table or enter-
taining. Only four girls admitted "hustling" as their principal
means of livelihood. The case records for about half the cases, how-
ever, contain evidence of prostitution. The following classification
is based on occupations claimed by the girls interviewed.

Cafe Workers 20

Domestics 5

Prostitutes 4

Other 5

Never Worked 3

Total . 37



III. AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF WOMEN HELD IN THE
TACOMA CITY JAIL AND PIERCE COUNTY

DETENTION HOME

MABJOKIE F. KENNEDY, E.N.

Supervisor, Tacoma Public Health Clinic

Tacoma City Health Department

Tacoma, Washington

The following report is an attempt to ascertain the increase or
decrease in the number of women and girls held in the city jail
and detention home in Tacoma during a seventeen month period
from January 1, 1941 to June 1, 1942. In compiling this report,
the purpose was not to do a thorough scientific study but rather
to provide a working basis which might be of assistance in dealing
with this situation.

Previous to 1941 accurate figures were not available for this study,
due to lack of examining and treatment facilities in the City clinic.
In August, 1940 clinic equipment was improved and record keeping
standardized. A part time urologist and syphilologist were added
to the staff at that time. Also clinic facilities in the women's section
of the city jail were improved. The urologist makes three visits
weekly to jail to examine and treat women held for venereal
investigation.

During the middle of the year of 1941 it seemed to be apparent
more girls and women were coming to our attention, through the
city jail and the detention home, for examination and treatment.
This coincided with the expansion of industry and the starting of the
general immigration of workers into the area. The military popula-
tion in the area had vastly increased over 1940, with the natural
following of families, wives, sweethearts, and girl friends of the
soldiers who located in Tacoma where jobs are plentiful and wages
high.

The cases included in the study are only those referred to the
clinic for examination by the Police Department and the juvenile
authorities.



PLANNING FOB "THE KIND OP HELP THEY NEED" 399

Statement of the Problem

It was found that from both these detention facilities, 278 women
and girls were referred to the clinic for examination during the
seventeen month period.

The police made 209 referrals of those held in the city jail.

The juvenile authorities and the women's protective division of
the Police Department referred 69 held in the detention home.

As indicated in Table I, during 1941 the number of women re-
ferred by the detention home and city jail was 165. In the five
month period of 1942, 113 had been referred. This indicates that
if the present rate of referral continues, there will be a 62 per cent
increase in 1942 over 1941.

The residents during 1941 were 109 and non-residents 56, showing
that 34 per cent were non-residents.

Those found with a venereal infection in 1941 were 40, and not
infected 125, showing 24 per cent infected.

In 1942 there were 29 infected and 84 not infected, showing 26
per cent infected. While these figures are based on a short period
of time and may be questioned, they seem to show an indicative
increase in trend.



TABLE I. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE YEAB 1941
AND THE FIEST FIVE MONTHS OF 1942

Number
Examined
1941 165



J-i7*J. J-Ut

Per cent 1941
1942 Five mos. 113
Per cent 1942





Non-




Not


Eesidents


Eesidents


Infected


Infected


109


56


40


125


66 per cent
63


34 per cent
50


24 per cent

29


76 per cent

84


55 per cent


45 per cent


26 per cent


74 per cent



The charges to hold these girls in jail were varied and were made
by the arresting officer of the Police Department. Arrests on 209 were



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