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Columbia. Revised, 1942. American Social Hygiene Association. 604
pages. $5.00.

Digest of State and Federal Laws dealing with Prostitution and Other Sex
Offenses, with notes on the control of the sale of alcoholic beverages as it
relates to prostitution activities. 1942. American Social Hygiene Associa-
tion. 438 pages. $5.00.



THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION

organized in 1914, is the national voluntary agency for social hygiene.

At present, with emphasis on war needs, the Association undertakes

to promote an " 8-point program on the 48 state fronts ". . .

1 . Rally more citizens to fight syphilis and best safeguard against " bad times in bad
gonorrhea and commercialized prostitution company "; to clean up community condi-
through community action. Train leaders to tions leading to delinquency; to aid victims
guide such action, and teach others. of bad conditions make a new start, particu-

_ T ,, , ., larly women, girls and young men exploited

2. Tell the great masses of the people the b Mfi ,;,*,, , o j e , e ers.
truth about these dangerous diseases now

they attack the nation's strength, how they 6. Help health officers, physicians, pharma-

may be avoided, how cured. cists, nurses, social workers and other trained

3. AV> employers and workers, especially in P er * n * to . drive out the venereal disease
war industries, to strengthen manpower and f ?* s ^charlatans; to g,ve sound counsel
stop financial loss and needless suffering by lfecfed P e "*-

striking at syphilis and gonorrhea. 7- Help parenfSi t eacner5 an j c hurch leaders

4. Lessen opportunities for exposure to ve- provide suitable sex education for children
nereal diseases by helping to enforce exist- <d youth and practical preparation for
ing laws against the commercialized prosti- marriage, parenthood and family life,
tution racket; advise and assist in securing $ rf ^.^ ^ ^^^ condifjons
better laws where needed. o/j(/ y p , ograms/ offic ; o/ OJ|rf v j un , o , y( and

5. Help communities to provide " good times keep all concerned informed regarding
in good company " for young people as the progress and results, in peace or in war.

The Association needs money to continue and enlarge these services. At a

voluntary organization, its work is supported by gifts and membership

dues. Most contributions range from $5 to $100. Annual dues

are $2.00. Please send your check to

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION
1790 Broadway, New York, N. Y.

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

Honorary President: EDWARD L. KZYES, M.D.

President: RAY LYMAK WILBUB, M.D.*

Vice-Presidents

SEWELL L. AVERY FRANK H. LA HEY, M.D.

MRS. CHESTER C. BOLTON JOHN H. STOKES, M.D.

Secretary: MAURICE A. BIGELOW *
Treasurer: TIMOTHY N. PFEIFFER
Chairman of the Executive Committee: WILLIAM F. SNOW, M.D.

Executive Director: WALTER CLARKE, M.D.
Chairman of the General Advisory Committee: THOMAS PARRAN, M.D.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

CHARLES H. BABCOCK ALAN JOHNSTONS

GEORGE BAEHR, M.D.* Boss T. MO!NTIRE, M.D.

ROBERT H. BISHOP, JR., M.D.* RT. REV. ARTHUR R. MCKINSTRY

BAILEY B. BURRITT * JAMES C. MAGEE, M.D.

ALBERT J. CHESLEY, M.D. PHILIP R. MATHER*

Louis I. DUBLIN FRED T. MURPHY, M.D.

KENDALL EMERSON, M.D.* THOMAS PABRAN, M.D.

ROBERT P. FISCHELIS PERCY S. PELOUZE, M.D.

MERRITTE W. IRELAND, M.D.* ALPHONSE M. SOHVVITALLA, S.J.

WILLIAM F. SNOW, MJX*

COMMITTEE ON WAR ACTIVITIES
PHILIP R. MATHER, Chairman

SEWELL L. AVERY FRED T. MURPHY, M.D.

MERRITTE W. IRELAND, M.D. WILLIAM F. SNOW, M.D.

* Member of Executive Committee.



CONTENTS OF RECENT ISSUES

APRIL, 1942
Social Hygiene in Wartime. I.

The Program in Action in the States and Communities, Part 1.

Editorial

Introduction

State arid Community Summaries Alabama to Kansas



MAY, 1942
Social Hygiene in Wartime. I.

The Program in Action in the States and Communities, Part II.
State and Community Summaries, continufd. Kentucky New York



JUNE, 1942
Social Hygiene in Wartime. I.

The Program in Action in the States and Communities, Part III.
State and Community Summaries, continued

North Carolina to Wyoming

U. S. Possessions Alaska, Puerto Rico, Hawaii
National Agencies



FUTURE ISSUES

NOVEMBER, 1942

Social Hygiene in Wartime. III.

Youth in Wartime.

Social Hygiene and Youth in Defense Communities M. A. Bigelow

Youth Standards in Wartime A Workshop Report of the
Harvard Seminar

Education in a Social Hygiene Program L. A. Kirkendall

" What She Thinks About It ". . Aimee Zillmer and Ruth Larsen



DECEMBER, 1942
Social Hygiene Day Number.



JANUARY, 1943

Social Hygiene in Wartime. IV.

The National Voluntary A policies in Action.



Vol. 28 November, 1942 No. 8

&T-<H

Journal % **

of

Social Hygiene



Social Hygiene in Wartime. II.
Youth in Wartime



CONTENTS

Social Hygiene and Youth in Defense Communities Maurice A. Bigelow 437

Youth Standards in Wartime Richard H. Anthony 448

Now Is the Time to Prepare! Lester A. Kirkendall 458

What She Thinks About It Aimee Zillmer and

Ruth Larsen 464

The NYA Health Program in Wartime Marie D. Lane 469

Straight Talk from One Wartime Generation to Another:

The Bright Shield of Continence Gene Tunney 473

A Father's Farewell to His Soldier Son W. Henson Purcell 476

To All Women and Girls Edith Livingston Smith. . 479

From the First World War Scrapbook 480

Editorials:

Who Is " Delinquent "? 481

" The Business of Youth " in Wartime 482

National Events 483

Social Hygiene Aids for Youth and Youth Leaders 492

Publications Received 495



Social Hygiene Day
February 3, 1943



The American Social Hygiene Association presents the articles printed in the
JOURNAL or SOCIAL HYGIENE upon the authority of their writers. It does not
necessarily endorse or assume responsibility for opinions expressed or statements
made. The reviewing of a book in the JOURNAL or SOCIAL HYGIENE does not
imply its recommendation by the Association.



EDITORIAL BOABD

C.-E. A. WINSLOW, Chairman

JOSEPH K. FOLSOM WILLIAM F. SNOW

EDWARD L. KIYES JOHN H. STOKES

JOHN C. WARD

JEAN B. PINNKY, MANAGING EDITOR
WILLIAM F. SNOW, EDITORIAL CONSULTANT



The JOURNAL or SOCIAL HYGIENE is supplied to active members of the American
Social Hygiene Association, Inc. Membership dues are two dollars a year. The
magazine will be sent to persons not members of the Association at three dollars
a year; single copies are sold at thirty-five cents each. Postage outside the United
States and its possessions, 50 cents a year.

Entered as second-class matter at post-office at Albany, N. Y., March 23, 1922.

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103,
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized March 23, 1922.

Published monthly (nine issues a year) for the Association by the Boyd Printing
Company, Inc., 372-374 Broadway, Albany, N. Y.

Copyright, 1942, by The American Social Hygiene Association, Inc.
Title Begistered, U. S. Patent Office.

PUBLISHED MONTHLY EXCEPT JULY, AUGUST AND SEPTIMBEB
AT 372-374 BROADWAY, ALBANY, N. Y., FOB

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION

EDITORIAL OFFICES
1790 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY



BRANCH OFFICES

CENTRAL STATES DIVISION: 9 East Huron Street, Chicago, HL
BERTHA M. SHATER, M.D., Field Consultant

WESTERN STATES DIVISION: 45 Second Street, San Francisco, CaL
W. FORD HIGBY, Field Consultant

WASHINGTON, D. C., LIAISON OFFICE : Room 609, 927 15th Street, N. W.
JEAN B. PINNEY, Associate Director in Charge
REBA RAYBURN, Office Secretary



ARMY
WEDDINGS

Photographs from the
U. S. War Department




Journal

of

Social Hygiene

VOL. 28 NOVEMBER, 1942 NO. 8



Social Hygiene in Wartime. III.
Youth in Wartime.



SOCIAL HYGIENE AND YOUTH IN DEFENSE
COMMUNITIES *

MAUEICE A. BIGELOW
Special Consultant, American Social Hygiene Association

In the early days of the current emergency, with its neces-
sary emphasis on an enlarged military establishment, a great
deal of thought was given to plans for the provision of whole-
some environment and recreational facilities for young
soldiers on weekend leaves in towns near training centers.

But during all this worrying about what the communities
should do for the visiting trainees, there was no public atten-
tion given to the question as to how, for good or bad, the
trainees might affect the numerous adolescent boys and girls
who live and belong in these communities adjacent to training
camps. These were * 'forgotten youth" until the autumn of
1940, when many parents and teachers began to call attention

* In this report covering some of the educational and social problems that
aft'ect youth in certain new situations connected with our national defense
activities, the phrase "defense communities" is used to include towns and
cities which are closely connected with army and navy training camps and
with various defense industries. The ' ' community youth ' ' referred to in
this report are the boys and girls of the usual high school years, fourteen to
twenty, who live in homes in any "defense community." And "social
hygiene" is used in its larger sense as including the physical, mental and
social relations of the sexes and is not intended to be a euphemism for
venereal disease control.

437



438 JOUBNAL, OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

to the fact that the training camps were bringing some serious
problems for local young folks of high school age. Then the
United States Public Health Service and the American Social
Hygiene Association jointly planned to look for an answer to
the following question: How far are the youth problems
reported by parents and teachers in training-camp communi-
ties related to the larger field of social hygiene and how can
the problems be attacked by planned education through home,
school, church and other agencies which affect youth? This
report attempts to outline some preliminary answers to these
important questions, which are essentially the questions of
the larger social hygiene education needed by the vast
majority of the youth of all America.

Most of the communities selected for study directed at obtaining
an answer to this question were in the areas of fourteen major train-
ing-camps in the ten southeastern states and in Louisiana, Arkansas
and New Jersey. Later, industrial centers in West Virginia and
Pennsylvania were visited. Most time was given to conferences with
leading citizens of the communities which are commonly visited by
trainees on leave from the camps nearby.

In planning a reconnaissance of "defense communities" with ref-
erence to the educational and social activities which look towards
helping local youth adjust to changing conditions, it was agreed that
as a first step there should be consultations with leading citizens
representing the homes, the schools, the churches, the health and
social agencies, and any others organized to deal with youth. In
general, it was found necessary to confer with individual citizens,
especially educators, ministers and health officers; but some small-
group conferences were very useful when they were led by citizens
with organizing ability.

Citizens in all communities visited had previously been challenged
(especially by the U. S. O. movement) as to their responsibility for
the young men from the training-camps ; but in the confusion incident
to building large camp cities on rush orders, the youth of the defense
communities had been almost forgotten except by a few educators,
some parents and some ministers. It was therefore an awakening
when the United States Public Health Service and the American
Social Hygiene Association indicated that these were jointly inter-
esting themselves in the question : "How are the men from the train-
ing-camps influencing boys and girls who belong in the communities
which the trainees visit when on leave?" Here was a brand new
proposition which aroused much interest and discussion in every
community visited. It especially appealed to every parent who had
boys and especially girls of high school age.

It is apparent that the relations of young people of a community
to the visiting trainees from the camps are much affected by the



SOCIAL HYGIENE AND YOUTH IN DEFENSE COMMUNITIES 439

size of the community. The educators, ministers and parents in
towns and small cities know that many of their boys and, especially,
girls of the teen age are more or less acquainted with the visiting
trainees. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in cities
whose populations exceed that of accessible camps. Many interviews
with high school educators and parents in large cities to which large
numbers of trainees come for recreation make it clear that in such
cities there is little traceable influence on community youth, though
it is so evident in small cities and towns, swamped by the masses of
trainees on leave from near-by camps. Large cities quickly "absorb"
thousands of visitors. Several school officials in large cities stated
that the high school youth in general showed little interest in the
weekly visits of thousands of trainees, and that the boys and girls
carried on their own affairs as is characteristic of students of big
high schools in normal times. The consensus seems to be that the
addition of a large training camp to the area of a large city has no
traceable mass effect on the permanent complicated social environ-
ment of the youth living in any large city.

It is therefore to the towns and small cities of training-camp areas
that this report is devoted. It happens that many of the largest
training camps are located fifty miles or more from large cities and
even most of those within easy reach of large cities are surrounded
by small communities. It is in the small community or the small
city, where thousands of weekend visitors make a marked impres-
sion, that we find parents, educators, ministers and other youth
advisers recognizing clearly that the training camps have brought
new youth problems into the home community. A very efficient
school superintendent in a city of less than 20,000 population, with
no larger city within fifty miles, summarized an interview thus:
"I must say that the near-by camp for more than 30,000 men has
made this a very undesirable place in which to bring up boys and
girls." This man, and many others with similar opinions, agreed that
educators and parents must combine to make the best possible social
and educational adjustments to the new conditions which have been
forced upon the youth of their communities.

Turning now to the new conditions that definitely affect youth in
the training-camp communities, the most important problems sub-
mitted by leading citizens may be conveniently discussed under the
subheadings (1) to (5) below:

(1) Tendency of numerous boys and girls towards less interest in
school work and other duties. Some parents and educators spoke of
"morale" as having been "lost" or "disorganized." Some said
"demoralized," but that is too strong a term for the great majority.
However, it is the opinion of many officials and teachers of high
schools,- and representative parents in towns and small cities near
large camps, that the regular weekend visits of masses of "draftees"
has a marked effect on the educational work and other duties of the
high school boys and girls. The disturbing conditions are much like
those of all "boom" towns. There are signs that the novelty and



440 JOUKNAL OF SOCIAL, HYGIENE

excitement will wear off, and many school officials expect that in
the next academic year work will go more normally. The problem
is being watched by competent educators in many schools. It is
concerned with social hygiene only in that the youngsters' neglect
of their education and other duties is often connected with undesir-
able social activities in association with trainees. This applies
chiefly to girls.

(2) Tendency of many youths in defense communities to condone
or even accept lower standards of conduct. Prominent educators,
ministers, and parents in many towns and small cities are most con-
cerned lest some boys and girls accept without question, or even
with tacit or open approval, the lower standards of conduct which
are so conspicuous in the areas around most training-camps and
other defense communities. And under "lower standards" is included
everything from disapproved public behavior to drunkenness and
loose sexual conduct. The possible influence of soldiers on leave is
probably greater than that of men who are industrial workers,
because the young folks seem to expect better conduct from men in
uniform. Many boys and girls are confused or at least puzzled by
the local attention, especially in newspapers, to prostitution and
venereal disease. (See 5 below re recommendation that these deserve
answer by discussion in high schools.)

(3) Increasing social activities of girls of high school age who are
"drafted" by local organizers for entertaining, usually at dances,
the trainees who come to town. This attempt to provide ways
and means whereby trainees may "meet nice girls" has set up an
important community problem wherever the trainees far outnumber
the local girls with desirable social connections. Considering only
the physical strain of the excessive social life for the relatively few
girls who may participate, it is obvious that the problem can be
solved only by some scheme for "importing" from the large cities
groups of girls who volunteer to take the responsibility for the
dancing and other social activities for certain weekends.

Aside from the physical strain and excessive social life, there are
numerous parents who object to involving girls of high school age
in any planned entertainment for the visiting trainees. These
parents do not fear any sequel of damage to health or morals of their
daughters, but they think they know something of the possible psy-
chology of such made-to-order and more or less promiscuous social
relations. Many parents object because the uniform is the only basis
for introduction in numerous cases. A widespread opinion is that
only girls above twenty years of age should be asked to "volunteer"
for the planned entertainment of the trainees. Still another phase
of the problem is in the social conflicts which in some communities
are developing among the boys of the regular social groups from
which the girls are frequently "drafted." The neglected local boys
have been known to find less socially desirable girls as companions
for Saturday evening. Here, again, transportation of volunteer
young women, not school girls, from large cities may avoid serious



SOCIAL HYGIENE AND YOUTH IN DEFENSE COMMUNITIES 441

upsetting of social relations of young folks who live in a relatively
small community over which is the shadow of a large training-camp
population.

(4) Problems of undesirable social life outside school hours. These
are times when it is even more important than usual that school
and home cooperate in supervising the activities of boys and girls
outside the school. Some high schools have had an unusual amount
of absence of girls from the afternoon sessions, and check-up has
shown that they meet trainees, often at doubtful roadhouses and
night clubs. One high school with about 400 girls cooperates with
the parents' association in employing as part time "welfare officer"
a man with a remarkable memory for names and faces and with
many years experience in social work for the Salvation Army. During
December, 1940, he learned why and where many girls played truant
in the afternoons, and in late evening hours he found more than
twenty of the school girls in disapproved night clubs in company with
trainees. The officer 's activities became well known in the school and
in January he found only three girls with trainees in night clubs.
Later, the parents voted that the officer should "keep an eye" on
the junior boys of the school. This was an exceptional school work-
ing with wide-awake parents. In most defense communities the
high school boys and girls are still more or less "forgotten." Some
schools are becoming more strict about explanations for absences,
but some principals who were interviewed confessed that they had
paid no attention to increased absences of girls and had not mentioned
the fact to the parents' association. The general opinion or "guess"
of leading parents and high school teachers in several communities
was that from one girl in ten to one in four might go to doubtful
places with chance acquaintances in uniform. It is a significant
fact that most school girls who do so are from "under-privileged"
and "broken" homes.

(5) Venereal diseases and community youth. Many physicians
and health officers consulted had no reason to expect any alarming
increase of venereal disease among youth in training-camp areas.
A relatively few new cases in several communities have been traced
to contacts with men from near-by training-camps. Physicians in
industrial defense areas are on the lookout for more venereal infec-
tions in the youth of their regions. Of course, every doctor of
medicine or public health knows that testing in recent years has
shown some cases of venereal disease in youth groups in most com-
munities under normal conditions. Some increase should be expected
under the peculiar conditions imposed upon communities by sudden
development of the training-camps, large and small. However, it
is the consensus of opinion of many persons competent in health
matters that probably it is not necessary to take extraordinary pre-
cautions guarding "community youth" against spread of the venereal
diseases. It was pointed out by several local health officers that men
in training usually acquire the venereal germs not from girls who
belong to the "community youth," but from invading prostitutes.
This general statement must be qualified by the fact that there are



442 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

local situations which include few prostitutes and many reckless
girls. The problem, as in normal times, is to keep at a minimum the
number of reckless local girls who may acquire and transmit venereal
disease germs in their relations with trainees or other young men
of their own group.

While many careful parents and school officials on the basis of
the first six months experience with training-camps, refuse to get
alarmed about venereal diseases, they are nevertheless expecting
that local physicians and health officers will be unusually alert in
guarding the health of the community young folks. These citizens
recognize that inevitably there will be some increase in illicit sexual
contacts, and hence the probability of more venereal infections among
the youth of the community. I have emphasized the word some, but
it is the general opinion of those persons who best know local condi-
tions that the great majority of social relations between community
girls and trainees take place under conditions which rule out the
possibility of sexual contacts occurring then or later. Many parents
and community leaders believe this statement to be true. The possi-
bility of sexual relations is not the reason why many parents expressed
strong opposition to their daughters of high school age meeting men
introduced only by their uniforms at social affairs (especially dances)
under auspices of high schools, churches, YMCA, YWCA, USO, etc.
As stated elsewhere, there is a widespread opinion that this is psy-
chologically and socially harmful for the impressionable adolescent
girls, and that young women in their twenties should be "drafted"
for such social affairs. Among citizens, with such ideas, I found few
fathers and mothers who were worrying about the probability of
social relations under approved auspices leading to sexual contacts
at later private meetings of the young folks.

This being so, it would seem unnecessary to set up local facilities
for periodic wholesale tests for the purpose of sifting out the rela-
tively rare new cases of venereal diseases among young people. Far
more useful would be efficient education of youth regarding venereal
disease which would influence individuals to seek medical examination
if they have reason to suspect the possibility of venereal infection
in themselves. In short, there is needed by American youth in
general and especially by those in communities near training-camps
and industrial centers the special health education concerning venereal
diseases which will lead individuals to seek reliable medical advice.
Unfortunately this opportunity for teaching youth concerning the
venereal diseases is being neglected in most communities because
official pressure is wanting. Protecting trainees or industrial workers



Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 57 of 71)