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Journal of social hygiene (Volume 28) online

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and credulous.

3 Legal and Protective Activities

a To promote community environment favorable to family life,
and to safeguard children and adolescents from conditions lead-
ing to sex delinquency, including provision for wise use of leisure
time and adequate, wholesome recreation.

b To encourage sound and enforceable state laws for protection
of marriage and childhood from syphilis through premarital and
prenatal examinations including blood tests.

c To combat prostitution, particularly as a commercially organized
"racket," and to enact remedial legislation when necessary.

4 Sex Instruction and Training for Family Life

a To aid each individual to secure an adequate understanding of
his own body and emotional nature, and to develop habits likely
to insure that the functioning of sex will enhance rather than
injure his personal, family and community life.

b To train young men and women for assuming the duties and
privileges of marriage and parenthood.

e To encourage the building of families made up of healthy, intelli-
gent, and normally adjusted individuals, capable of providing
the best possible inheritance and wise parental care for their
children.



SUGGESTIONS FOE SOCIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM 501

Where the Responsibility Rests

The responsibility for Public Information rests on all agencies,
both official and voluntary, whose activities include one or more
aspects of social hygiene.

The responsibility for Medical and Public Health Activities rests
on the official health department, on private physicians, hospitals,
clinics, and other institutions where search for cases, diagnosis, treat-
ment and after care are provided, and on the voluntary health and
welfare agencies.

The responsibility for Legal and Protective Activities rests mainly
on the police, prosecuting attorneys, the courts, and official and
voluntary protective agencies.

The responsibility for Sex Education and Training for Family Life
rests mainly on the home, the school, and the church, and on organi-
zations serving children and young people.

Who Is to Take the Lead?

Most community social hygiene work begins by calling together
those interested to discuss local needs and what may be done about
them. Included in this group should be representatives of the various
agencies named above, and other men and women active and influen-
tial in civic planning. For the sake of carrying on the work success-
fully, it is well to insure that those participating are genuinely
interested and that some of them at least have time to give. The
cooperation of the official health authorities, the medical society, and
educational and religious leaders are essential assets.

Usually a small steering committee is appointed by the group to
study the situation and see what type of organization will best fit
into the community.

If it is decided to organize a special social hygiene society, a con-
stitution should be drawn up, by-laws adopted * a board of directors
and officers elected. If the work is to be carried on under the auspices
of an existing agency, such as a Health Council, a Council of Social
Agencies, a Tuberculosis and Health Association, or other suitable
organization, a permanent committee with an active chairman should
be appointed to plan and guide the activities. 2

1 The Association will be glad to provide a draft of constitution and by-laws.

2 In recent years many Tuberculosis and Health Associations have undertaken
social hygiene work through Committees of the type described. Examples are:
New York State, where most of the 52 county tuberculosis societies are now
carrying on social hygiene activities under the leadership of the State Tuber-
culosis and Health Committee of the State Charities Aid Association; New York
City, whose Social Hygiene Committee of the Tuberculosis Association has been
engaged in a city- wide program for 15 years; New Jersey, where the State
Tuberculosis League is undertaking a similar program; Philadelphia, where the
Health Council and Tuberculosis Committee is active in social hygiene.



502 JOURNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

In some cases the special committees on Social Hygiene Day,
organized to sponsor Social Hygiene Day meetings, have provided
the basis for a permanent committee.

In any of these plans, to secure the greatest benefits, it is essential to have an
office headquarters and a qualified paid executive, either full-time or part-time,
to insure continuity and guidance in development of the work. This does not
mean that the new social hygiene agency must have several thousand dollars in
the treasury in order to start. Much effective work has been done by societies
whose administrative equipment consists of a fraction of the time of a paid
worker, a part-time stenographer and a corner for desk-space, plus the correlated
efforts of dependable volunteer committee members. But to insure progress
someone whose assigned duty it is, should be regularly on the job, at a central
address and telephone number.



First Steps

Realization of the need for a community social hygiene program
often grows out of interest in some special event, as Social Hygiene
Day, or arises from some special local emergency. In any case natural
first steps of a new social hygiene group are :

1 To find out what social hygiene conditions exist in the community
what needs are being met, what only partially, and what wholly
unmet.

2 To devise ways and means of remedying the deficiencies revealed.

Study Methods

The questions on pages 8-17 suggest how a picture of local social
hygiene conditions may be obtained. 3 In general, a community social
hygiene study should seek to learn :

1 Are parents interested in seeing that their children receive through
the home, school and church helpful sex education? What are the
schools doing in the way of instruction and guidance for successful
family life? What are churches, and the organizations serving
children and youth doing in the same field?

This would require interviews with

Directors of organizations serving children and youth

School superintendents, principals, and teachers of biology, physiology,

hygiene and other related subjects
Pastors and religious leaders
Parent-teacher associations and other parental groups

2 What are the police and courts doing to combat the prostitution
"racket," including the activities of promoters, procurers of girls
and women, and other exploiters? What is being done to prevent
sexual delinquency among young people? What provision exists
for rehabilitation of delinquents?

The questions have purposely been made comprehensive in their scope, but
most new groups will probably want to take them up a few at a time.



SUGGESTIONS FOR SOCIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM 503

This would require interviews with

Judges Playground and Kecreation
Chief of Police associations
Prosecuting Attorney Official and voluntary pro-
Probation Officers tective agencies

3 What facilities exist to find, treat and follow up all persons infected
with syphilis or gonorrhea, and to help all other persons to avoid
infection ?

This would require interviews with

Health Officer Public health nurses

Medical Society officers Social agencies

Eepresentative private physicians Medical directors of indus-

Clinie and hospital directors trial companies and busi-

ness firms

4 What are the existing means and methods of public information
on social hygiene?

This would require, in addition to what is learned in the course
of the above interviews, talks with

Librarians to learn what literature is available for general circulation

Newspaper editors

Lecture bureaus

Radio officials

Managers of motion picture and recreation agencies

Chambers of Commerce, employers and employees in industry and business

Plan for Work

With a picture of the community's facilities and needs before them,
the working program may be outlined. In most cases the needs will
usually have been found to be great.

First efforts probably will be directed toward one or all of
three aims:

1 Meeting emergent needs

Since voluntary social hygiene groups are being urged at present to aid the
state and federal government campaign against syphilis and gonorrhea and
prostitution in every way possible it is likely that most can be accomplished
now by backing up the program which health officials, Army, Navy and
Social Protection workers approve.

2 Working on a social hygiene information program

This is the voluntary social hygiene society's greatest opportunity for service
in the present campaign to "tell all the people" the facts about syphilis
and gonorrhea. Build your informational program around some special event
such as Social Hygiene Day and keep it active throughout the year.

3 Building up a group of persons in the community ready to par-
ticipate in and support the social hygiene program

For approved groups Society membership in the American Social Hygiene
Association (annual dues $10.00) will be helpful. This makes possible, for $1
each for local members, joint membership privileges, including the JOURNAL or
SOCIAL HYGIENE, Social Hygiene News and free pamphlets. Annual dues are
payable through the local treasury.



A COMMUNITY SOCIAl

HOW IT WORKS WHA



PUBLIC
INFORMATION

AND
HEALTH EDUCATION



MEDICAL

AND

PUBLIC HEALTH
ACTIVITIES



LEGAL AND
PROTECTIVE
ACTIVITIES




NtWSPAPERS AND RADIO

USING FACTS ON HEAITH

AND GOOD LIVING




THl DOCTOR IS THt FUtSf
UNt OF DEFENSE





COURTS WAGE UNRELENTING WA8
ON VICE PROFITEERS



SEX INSTRUCTION

AND

TRAINING FOR
FAMILY LIFE






mt HtMTH OfHCH DHtECTS THt WQM

or ncviNnoN AHO CONIMI




POUCE PREVENT DELINQUENCY.
INautMNO X MUNQUENCV




TEACH THAT AU lift

COMES FROM UK



SOCIAL HYGIENE IN YOUR TOWN Wit



HYGIENE PROGRAM

DOES WHO DOES IT




All AGES SEEK THE LIBRARY 1
FOR SOCIAL HYGIENE BOOKS





BOYS AND GIRIS STUDY HEAITH





PROTECTIVE AC
HEU> BOYS AND GIRLS IN TR




FAMILY EXAMPLE AND DISCUSSION
HELP BUILD CHARACTER IN YOUTH




EhJCOURAGE BOY AND GIRL FRIENDSHIPS




TRAIN YOUTH FOR FAMILY LIFE



ELP BUILD BETTER HEALTH FOR AMERICA



Community Agencies and
Groups Concerned

(a partial list)

Official Agencies

Health department

Hospitals and clinics

Welfare Department

Police department, including wo-
men police

Probation officers

Courts domestic, women's, ju-
venile

Social protection worker:

Defense council

Schools and colleges

University extension services

Public playgrounds and recreation
services

Public libraries

Voluntary /Agencies

Social hygiene societies or com-
mittees

Health associations

Council of social agencies

Community chests and war chests

Medical societies

Visiting nurses' associations

Pharmacists' associations

Parent-teacher associations

Women's clubs

Chamber of Commerce, including
Junior Chamber of Commerce

Churches, church federations end
ministerial associations

Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A.

Y.M.H.A. and Y.W.H.A.

Jewish Welfare Board

Red Cross

Catholic Community Servica

Traveler's Aid Society

United Service Organization

Knights of Columbus

Civic, fraternal and patriotic
societies

Labor organizations

Health and welfare department*
of industry

Marriage counsel services

Boys' and girls' clubs

Grange

Newspapers and magazines

Radio stations

Motion picture theaters



American Social Hygiene Association
1790 Broadway, New York



506 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE



QUESTIONS SUGGESTING TO LOCAL GROUPS How A PICTURE MAT BE
OBTAINED OF SOCIAL HYGIENE CONDITIONS.

In studying these questions it is generally best to set up committees
for each of the special fields of work, each committee including
members especially qualified by training and interest to guide the
inquiry. That is, physicians and nurses on the health and medical
committee; lawyers, police and court officers and social workers on
the legal and protective committee; parents and teachers on the sex
education committee, and librarians, health educators and publicity
workers on the public information committee.

I. Public Information and Education

1 Health agencies

a Do your local health authorities carry on a public health educa-
tional program?

Is instruction included regarding prevalence, gravity, prevention
and the need for diagnosis and medical care of syphilis and
gonorrhea ? Relation of commercialized prostitution to the spread
of venereal disease?

b Do voluntary organizations or institutions provide such
instruction ?

c Is special attention given to the instruction of industrial
workers ?

d What means are used in the venereal disease educational
program ?

Social Hygiene Day programs? Motion picture films?
Special meetings? Radio?

Lectures? Special exhibits?

Newspaper articles and notices ? Distribution of pamphlets or

other literature?

2 Newspapers

Do your local newspapers print news about the prevention and
control of syphilis and gonorrhea? If not, would they do so if
dependable news stories were furnished them?

3 Motion Pictures

Have your local film theatres ever shown social hygiene drama films
such as Damaged Lives f Damaged Goods f Dr. Ehrlich's Magic
Bullet f No Greater Sinf

4 Radio

Are social hygiene talks including syphilis and gonorrhea given
from your local stations? Regularly? Occasionally?



SUGGESTIONS FOB SOCIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM 507

5 Public Libraries

a Are authoritative books and pamphlets on social hygiene includ-
ing good recent material, in your library?

b If not, is any effort made by club or other groups to stimulate
interest in purchasing approved books?

c Is the librarian familiar with the facilities of the American
Social Hygiene Association for assistance to libraries? i.e.,
Library membership service? Package libraries? THE JOURNAL
OP SOCIAL HYGIENE? Social Hygiene Newsf

6 Pharmacies

Have pharmacists been asked to cooperate in public education ? By
distribution of literature? By window exhibits? By referring
inquiries to physicians and clinics? By refusing to sell remedies
for any venereal disease?

7 Industrial Health and Welfare Departments

Do industrial concerns give instruction to their employees con-
cerning venereal diseases through their medical, first-aid, or person-
nel departments? By distributing pamphlets? Presenting motion
pictures? Giving medical shop talks?

8 Workers' organizations

Do organizations of industrial workers make information available
to their members concerning venereal disease? By distributing
pamphlets? Scheduling informational discussions as part of their
regular meetings? By printing articles in their publications?

//. Provision of Adequate Health and Medical Services

1 Health Officers

a Have you a local health officer?

b Does he serve part-time or full-time?

c Does he have an adequate staff?

2 Health Department

a What division or bureau in the Health Department is specifically
charged with control of syphilis and gonorrhea?

b What are its activities in regard to these diseases?
c What did it accomplish during the year past?
d Is there a special budget for venereal disease control ?
e How much does it provide per capita of population?



HOW SYPHILIS AND GON

From "A" Transmissio

Usually by direct sexual contact (bo
Frequently by prenatal infection of chi
Sometimes from mother to baby's ey



The infected person
with the disease in an



Occasionally by non-genital direct contac
infectious stage

Rarely by contacts with intimate person

contaminated with the germs of tl



How a Community Social Hygiene Program Work

Conserve America

For "A" The Infectious Individual Medical and
Public Health Measures

1. Diagnosis and advice for the individual who may have become infected

2. Treatment for the benefit of the infected individuals and protection of
the public

3. Personal instruction regarding the seriousness of the disease and ths
protection of others against infection

4. Social-service follow-up for keeping the individual under treatment, and
for tracing family and other contacts and the possible sources of infection

5. Confidential reporting of cases to the health authorities for further assist-
ance in caring for the infected individuals and protecting the public

6. Isolation or quarantine measures when necessary because of inability, failure,
or refusal of the individual to carry out instructions

For All Long-rang

1. Provision of ample and widespread information for the public concerning
syphilis and gonorrhea and all the facilities and influences which may be
enlisted in combating them

2. Requirement of premarital health examinations by physicians, including
practical tests for syphilis, and provision for guidance, treatment or control
of those infected

3. Requirement of prenatal examinations of all pregnant women, including
tests for syphilis; and use of standard silver nitrate drops in all newborn
babies' eyes to prevent gonorrheal ophthalmia

4. Development of family consultation services and centers through which
advice regarding marriage, health, medical, and other assistance can be
secured



>RRHEA ARE TRANSMITTED



ccurs

philis and gonorrhea)
f mother (syphilis)
jring birth (gonorrhea)

>oth syphilis and gonorrhea)

infection

slongings or common utensils freshly
isease (both syphilis and gonorrhea)



To "B"



The non-infected per-
son susceptible to



o Break the Chain of Infection and to Improve and
amily Life

For "B" The Susceptible Individual Education and
Environmental Measures

1. Sex education as a factor in influencing character and conduct

2. Wholesome recreation and community-supervised recreation and entertain-
ment facilities

3. Environmental safeguards designed to prevent sexual promiscuity and
delinquency

4. Police and court action in the repression of the " business " of prostitution
and exploiting of men and women

5. Legal action and custodial care of individuals when necessary to protect
the community and its citizens

6. Education and provision for adequate prophylactic treatment for individuals
who may be exposed

Community Measures

5. Promotion of parental, school, and church instruction in relation to sex
knowledge and conduct which is best for the individual and society

6. Promotion of measures for limiting use and controlling the abuse of alcohol,

and for the effective control of habit-forming drugs

7. Encouragement of further research on the nature and prevalence of syphilis
and of gonococcal infections, and medical and public-health measures for
dealing with them

8. Encouragement of all general efforts to safeguard the family and enable
individuals to provide food, shelter, working and recreation conditions con-
ducive to healthier and happier people living under conditions favorable
to attaining the normal satisfactions of family life and upbringing of
children



510 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

3 Reporting

a Are syphilis and gonorrhea cases reported to the local or state
Health Departments?

b Do local ordinances supplement state requirements as to
reporting ?

c How many cases of each of these diseases were reported during
the year past? By physicians? By clinics and hospitals?

d Are case reports for these diseases increasing or decreasing?
Any change is attributed to what reasons?

e What does the local Health Department do with the reports
received ?

4 Diagnostic Facilities '

a Where can an individual possibly infected go for diagnosis?
Private physician? Local clinics?

b Where do social agencies send cases for diagnosis?

c Are laboratories readily available for performing proper tests
for syphilis and gonorrhea? Local health department? State
health department? Private laboratories? What, if any, charge
is made for tests by tax supported laboratories?

5 Local Treatment Facilities

& Is there in your community a clinic for the treatment of indi-
gents having syphilis or gonorrhea?

b If not, what provision is made for treatment of these diseases,
particularly of those unable to pay the full fees of competent
private physicians?

c For both clinic and private patients

(1) Does your community provide or assist in securing com-
petent personnel to follow up :

Lapsed and irregular attendance cases?

Contacts, including sources of infection, of patients
among families and intimates?

(2) What percentage of patients remain under treatment until
permanently noninf ectious ? Until cured or discharged ?

d Does the county, state, or federal government supplement in
any way the local provisions for treatment?

e What measures have been instituted by the local medical society
to aid in the control ot syphilis and gonorrhea?



SUGGESTIONS FOE SOCIAL HYGIENE PKOGRAM 511

f What is the local consensus of opinion as to the adequacy of
treatment facilities for all classes of patients, paying, part-
paying, and indigent cases?

g Do relief agencies cooperate with medical and health agencies
in providing medical care for those recipients of relief who are
infected with syphilis or gonorrhea?

h Are there facilities for the hospitalization or isolation of cases
of syphilis or gonorrhea requiring such care? Little girls having
vaginitis? Infectious cases of syphilis or gonorrhea which may
be a menace to the public health ?

6 Prophylaxis

a Are prophylactic stations or other methods available for treat-
ment to prevent infection if exposure to syphilis and gonorrhea
accurs ?

b Does your state law require treatment of all newborn babies'
eyes with standard silver nitrate drops to prevent eye infections
particularly gonorrheal ophthalmia? Is the law generally
observed? What are the statistics for blindness from this cause
in your community and state? Do they compare favorably with
the statistics of other states?

7 Prenatal Care

a Is attention paid in your public health work to the prevention
of prenatal syphilis by the treatment of syphilis in pregnant
women ?

b Are all pregnant women given suitable tests for the discovery of
syphilis? By hospitals? By clinics? By private physicians?

c Does your state law require birth certificates to show whether or
not the mother was examined for syphilis?

d If a pregnant woman is found to be infected, is she given suit-
able treatment in order to ensure the birth of a healthy baby?

e Are husbands and previous children of pregnant syphilitic women
brought under medical observation for the discovery of possible
syphilitic infection?

8 Quacks

a Do your local papers carry advertisements of remedies for
syphilis and gonorrhea, "blood diseases," "female troubles,"
"lost manpower," "discharges"?

b Do the papers advertise the treatment of the conditions by indi-
viduals calling themselves "doctors," "men's specialists," etc.?

c What are the health and medical authorities, pharmaceutical
societies and other agencies doing to suppress the activities of
these persons?



512 JOUBNAL OF SOCIAL, HYGIENE

///. Legal and Protective Measures

A. Protection of Marriage and Childhood from Syphilis and Gonorrhea

1 Premarital Examinations

Does your state have a law requiring that applicants for marriage
license have an examination for syphilis by a qualified physician,
including a blood test? Under what circumstances does the law
provide that license shall be refused, or provisions waived?

2 Prenatal Examinations

Does your state have a law providing that expectant mothers shall
be tested for syphilis? What are the provisions of the law in case
syphilis infection is found?

3 Other Protective Legislation

What other state laws exist for protection of marriage and babies
from venereal diseases? Such as provisions for reporting cases,
tracing sources of infection, or requiring quarantine and treatment?

B. Prevention of Delinquency

1 Policewomen

a How many, if any, women police officers does your community
have?

b What qualifications are required in policewomen appointees?
c What are their duties?

(1) Do they patrol public places, with the object of safeguarding
women and children?

(2) Do they investigate complaints involving sex offenses by or
against women and children?

(3) Do they supervise and attend women held in detention for
sex offenses?

(4) Do they assist in preventing street soliciting?

2 School Social Service

a Are there visiting teachers? Attendance officers?
b What are their duties?

3 Playgrounds

a What proportion of children is provided with playgrounds in
your community?

b How are they supervised ?



SUGGESTIONS FOE SOCIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM 513

c Are vacant lots available which might be converted into play-
grounds ?



Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 65 of 71)