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d Are school yards and equipment made available under supervi-
sion, out of school hours?

4 Public Dance Halls

a Do you have public dance halls? Taxi-dance halls?

b Are they licensed? Investigated by a responsible agency before
licensing ?

c How are they supervised? Are any cases of sex delinquency
traceable to these dance halls?

5 Motion Picture Houses

What is the character of the pictures shown ?

6 Other commercialized amusements should provoke similar questions:

Theatres Road houses within or near

Beer gardens the city limits

Parks and picnic grounds Tourist camps

Pool rooms and other gathering Street fairs

places of boys Public exhibitions such as

Restaurants beauty contests and mara-
thons

7 Sale of Indecent or Borderline Literature and Materials

& Is any local agency charged with the responsibility of control?
b Do the police make any effort toward restraint of such sale?

8 Special Population Problems

a Are there any special nationality or racial groups to be con-
sidered in civic planning of protective and recreational measures ?

b Are facilities for recreation adequately provided to meet the
special needs of all the various groups?

9 Social Opportunities

a Do your churches, and religious agencies, settlement houses, or
other private organizations provide social opportunities for
young people?

b If so, of what kind?

c Are public halls (including school buildings) made available for
neighborhood meetings for culture or recreation purposes?

10 Adult Education

What classes for craftsmanship or culture are open to adults?
Under public auspices? Under private auspices?



514 JOURNAL, OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

C. Law Enforcement Against Prostitution

1 Laws

a Have you state laws and local ordinances concerning the
following ?

Keeping a house, trailer or Soliciting on the street and in

other conveyance for pros- public places

titution Making the man customer

Living on the proceeds of equally liable with the corn-
prostitution mercial prostitute

Procuring or pandering Compulsory examination and

Go-betweens treatment of sex offenders

Impairing the morals of a
minor

b Are these laws considered adequate by your Mayor and other
city officials, the district attorney, or other officers?

2 Police

a Is any special section of the police force assigned to handle the
above cases? How is the work organized?

b What is the attitude of the police force towards repression of
prostitution, particularly its organized aspects?

c (See also III, B. 1)

3 Detention Houses

a Where are cases of women offenders detained pending trial?

b Is provision made for separating young from older and more
hardened offenders during detention?

c Are provisions for detention considered adequate?

4 Courts

& In what type of court are cases for these offenses tried?

b If such cases are not tried in a special court or division of the
court, are they tried at a separate session?

c Are records kept, showing dispositions of these cases from arrest
through trial and sentence, or discharge by the court?

5 Medical Examinations

a Is a medical examination of these cases made at some time after
arrest ?

b By whom is the examination made?

c At what stage of the court proceedings, before or after conviction f

d Is this routine or only in special cases?



SUGGESTIONS FOB SOCIAL HYGIENE PEOGBAM 515

e Are suitable tests for the discovery of syphilis and gonorrhea
included in the medical examination?

f If defendants are men, are they also examined?

g Is a diagnosis of venereal disease permitted to affect conviction
or sentence?

h If a venereal infection is found, is suitable treatment adminis-
tered?

i By whom?

j After an infected person is released from police or court custody,
are medical follow-up and treatment provided? By whom?

6 Probation

a Are women sex offenders ever placed on probation?
b Have you paid women probation officers?

c Have you voluntary probation officers or Big Sister and other
workers ?

d Are men arrested in prostitution cases placed on probation?

e What facilities exist for education, training and protection of
probation cases?

7 Reformatory or Penal Institutions

a To what types of institutions are women sex offenders sentenced ?

b Do such institutions carry on a program of modern reformatory
measures?

c To what types of institutions are men and boys in prostitution
cases sentenced? Do they receive any character-building help?



/K. Sex Instruction and Education for Human Relations.
1 Through Homes

a What are the general attitudes of parents toward sex education,
and training for marriage and parenthood, as evidenced by indi-
viduals and groups, like parent-teacher associations, women 'B
clubs, and men's clubs?

b What provisions are made for informing and training parents in
these matters? How effective is this training?

c What is the general parent attitude toward having home efforts
supplemented by those of other qualified agencies, such as schools,
churches, and service groups for boys and girls?



516 JOUENAL, OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

2 Through Schools

a What is the attitude of school officials (board, superintendent,
principals) toward social hygiene education in schools! How
familiar are they with experience of other schools in this field T

b What is the extent of sex education and of training for marriage
and parenthood in the schools!

(1) In what schools and grades are such courses as nature study,
biology, physiology, hygiene, physical education, home eco-

. nomics, social sciences and literature utilized for this type
of instruction !

(2) In what schools is personal counsel given to students in meet-
ing problems arising in sex conduct!

(3) In what schools are extra-curricular activities planned to
provide social contacts between boys and girls!

c What provision do the schools make for cooperating with homes
and other agencies in the matter of instruction and guidance!
Through parent-teacher associations! Through other means!

d What is the general opinion of the community regarding the
effectiveness of these school measures!

3 Through Colleges and Universities

a What is the attitude of college and university officials toward
social hygiene education in their institutions! How familiar are
they with the experience of higher educational institutions in
this field!

b What is the extent of social hygiene education in the colleges
and universities!

1 In what institutions are courses in departments of biology,
physiology, hygiene, psychology, sociology, physical education,
home economics, education, and in bacteriology and public
health utilized for this type of instruction!

2 In what institutions is personal counsel given to students for
meeting problems in sex conduct!

3 What provision is made in these institutions for guiding the
social life of their students!

c What is the general opinion regarding the effectiveness of the
measures in colleges and universities!

4 Through Churches

a What churches give needed instruction and guidance in sex con-
duct to younger boys and girls, by means of inclusion of appro-
priate subject-matter in church-school classes or groups! By
personal contacts of pastor or leaders!



SUGGESTIONS FOB SOCIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM 517

b What churches, through lectures and discussion groups for older
boys and girls and young people, give preparation for marriage,
parenthood, and successful family life?

c What churches, through lectures and discussion groups, aid
parents to instruct and guide their children in matters of sex
conduct, and preparation for marriage and parenthood?

d What churches give personal counsel on pre-marital and marital
problems?

e What is the general attitude of parishioners toward this work
and its effectiveness?

f In what ways are the churches cooperating with other agencies in
guiding the sex conduct of children and youth?

5 Through Other Agencies

a What use is made of youth organizations (e.g., Campfire Girls,
Scouts, girls' and boys' clubs, etc.) to give needed instruction and
guidance in sex conduct to boys and girls entering adolescence?

b What instruction and guidance in sex conduct are given by those
in charge of institutions for children? By social workers? By
probation officers? Others?

c What provision is made by these or other agencies for consulta-
tion on premarital and marital problems?

d What is the general opinion as to the effectiveness of such
measures ?

e What measures for public education in the social hygiene field
are being undertaken by any other agency in the community?
(See also I.)

f Is there any evidence that these educational measures are helping
to prevent venereal disease infections and unwise sex conduct?



Y. Measures for Coordination and Correlation of Official and Voluntary
Activities in the Whole Social Hygiene Field

1 What efforts have been made to develop a balanced program of
social hygiene work in your community?

2 What are the next steps which should be taken?



SOME ASPECTS OF VENEREAL DISEASE
PREVENTION IN WARTIME *

THOMAS B. TURNER

Lieutenant-Colonel, M. C., Chief, Venereal Disease Control Branch, Office of
the Surgeon General, "United States Army

The venereal disease rates in the Army at the present time
are substantially below those for the period of World War I,
and only slightly higher than the rate for the preceding 10
years of peace. But the rate of 40 per 1,000 for 1941, and the
somewhat lower rate thus far in 1942 are still too high. Too
many soldiers are still being infected ; too many selectees are
still reporting for duty with venereal disease.

During the past two and a half years a number of important steps
have been taken to mobilize the health forces of the country, both
military and civilian, to meet this problem. In 1940 the so-called
Eight Point Agreement, which promised close cooperation between the
armed forces, the United States Public Health Service, state health
departments and the American Social Hygiene Association, was
signed. In the same year arrangements were made whereby the
Public Health Service assigned a liaison officer to the headquarters of
each service command to assist with extra-cantonment sanitation,
including venereal disease control. In April, 1941, the Social Protec-
tion Section, Defense Health and Welfare Services was organized,
and later the Interdepartmental Liaison Committee on Venereal
Diseases was created. This committee, comprising representatives of
the Army, the Navy, the Public Health Service, the Social Protection
Section and the American Social Hygiene Association, meets at fre-
quent intervals to discuss matters of policy and procedure. Early in
1942 authorization was given for the assignment of specially trained
venereal disease control officers to the major headquarters of the
Army, and more recently law enforcement agencies, notably the
Federal Bureau of Investigation and the International Association
of Chiefs of Police, have been brought into the picture.

I think it fair to say that never before in the history of the country
has the stage been set so well for a concerted attack on these diseases.
I have just come from an important conference at Hot Springs on
venereal disease control. I was deeply impressed with the potential
influence of the well trained and enthusiastic men and women

* An address delivered at a Regional Meeting of the American Social Hygiene
Association, held in St. Louis, Missouri, in cooperation with the Missouri Social
Hygiene Association and other state and community agencies, October 25, 1942.

518



VENEREAL DISEASE PREVENTION IN WARTIME 519

gathered there, some in uniform, some not, but all with one objective,
and a determination to work together to achieve that objective. Again
tonight under the auspices of the American Social Hygiene Associa-
tion and the Missouri Social Hygiene Association is presented tangi-
ble evidence of the resources in man and woman power available to
deal with the problem of venereal disease.

If we have learned anything from the experience of the past two
years it is that the control of venereal disease among troops must be
a collaborative effort between military and civilian authorities. 1 In
this effort the American Social Hygiene Association is playing an
important role. From the Army 's viewpoint the Association is making
two significant contributions.

First, its trained investigators are making careful studies, of a
confidential nature, of vice conditions in communities adjacent to
camps, and where camps are to be established. Made as they are by
experienced representatives of a voluntary organization, these studies
are regarded alike by military and civilian authorities as objective
and accurate, and the reports are widely used as a basis for social
action. We hope that they will be continued.

Secondly, I believe that through its central organization and its
affiliated societies, the Association can take a major part in inter-
preting to local communities the objectives and the procedures of
the control program in which we are all collaborating.

It must be kept constantly in mind that we are here dealing
primarily with a problem in preventive medicine; the immediate
task is to keep our soldiers and workers well and effective. But as
one charged with a measure of responsibility in this respect, I am
deeply conscious of the complex social and ethical aspects of this
problem. We all agree that commercialized prostitution is a breeder
of venereal disease and should go. I believe it is no exaggeration to
say that remarkable progress has been made during the past two
years in suppressing the most obvious and perhaps the most dangerous
type of prostitution, namely the red-light district and the brothel.

But now the evidence points to the fact that other forms of social
misbehavior are beginning to play a prominent role in spreading vene-
real disease, and hence must assume a place in our preventive program.
An increasingly larger proportion of soldiers are being infected by
pick-up, tavern and dance hall girls and the like. It is often difficult
to know just who is and who is not a prostitute. In any case the
important element in this picture is not the individual girl, but the
business structure that makes it possible for a girl to expose numerous
contacts. To express this idea, Dr. Donald Williams, of British
Columbia, has coined a new phrase, "the facilitation process." He
maintains, and rightly, I believe, that we should cease speaking of
prostitution in this connection, and concentrate our social and legal
efforts on finding and suppressing the "facilitators" the tavern
keepers, the bell boys, the taxi drivers and the owners of these busi-
nesses who facilitate the spread of venereal disease.



520 JOTJBNAL OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

This approach appeals to me strongly, for I have been disturbed by
the tendency in some places for law enforcement officials, often at
the prodding of those concerned with venereal disease control, to
engage in a determined hunt for young girls to the exclusion of the
more important job of getting 'at the facilitators.

In order to re-orient thinking on this subject, thoughtful and
repeated instruction in one form or another must be given to the
responsible citizens of our communities. This is a job that the Amer-
ican Social Hygiene Association and its affiliated branches are admir-
ably equipped to do.

In closing I wish to point out that new conditions are creating
new problems in venereal disease control. Our young men and women
are finding it necessary to make rapid and repeated adjustments in
an upheaving world. It is difficult to predict what social and ethical
changes these will bring. But I do predict that our young soldiers
and our young girls as well, will work out their problems in a sane
and wholesome manner. Let us not spend too much time trying to
stem the tide of social change. Let us make it a part of our job to study
these changes in order that we may help these young men and women
to make their changing world a little safer from venereal disease.



A Memorandum from the Public Health Service

To State and Local Health Officers:

Never before in the history of America's fight against venereal disease has
there been greater need for coordinated, aggressive action on all fronts. Never
before have we been faced with greater problems or greater opportunities.

National Social Hygiene Day, February 3, 1943, thus has larger significance
than ever before. Every indication is this day will bring an inspiring display
of strength from all the elements which compose our great army of venereal
disease fighters.

Under the National leadership of the American Social Hygiene Association,
Federal, State and local organizations, community groups, and progressive indi-
viduals will meet throughout the land to review our progress, our problems, and
our strategy for the year that lies ahead.

As National co-sponsor of Social Hygiene Day, the U. S. Public Health Service,
through the Division of Venereal Diseases, calls upon its associates in State and
local health departments to cooperate in making the coming Social Hygiene Day
an aggressive, successful event. Here is our opportunity for focusing the atten-
tion of the entire Nation to our accomplishments, our problems, and our plans
for the future.

E. A. VONDERLEHR

Assistant Surgeon General, Division of Venereal Diseases



GETTING SOCIAL PROTECTION ACROSS

KAY H. EVERETT, F.A.P.H.A.

Chairman, Section on Social Protection and Venereal Disease Control,

Civilian Mobilization Division, Office of Metropolitan Area Civilian

Defense, Washington, D. C.

Within the past year many national leaders of war activi-
ties, including President Roosevelt, Secretaries Stimson and
Knox, Federal Security Administrator McNutt, and Surgeons
General Magee, Mclntyre, and Parran, have emphasized the
need for community "social protection" measures. Numer-
ous general declarations have been made regarding the
necessity for repressing prostitution, the main source of
venereal infection, and for safeguarding young people from
exposure to conditions conducive to sexual delinquency. But
responsible civic leaders have asked "What are the specific
gaps in our community's social-protective defenses, and how
can they best be remedied?" To answer these and similar
questions in Washington, the Section on Social Protection and
Venereal Disease Control, Office of Civilian Defense, District
of Columbia, voted to hold an Institute on Social Protection,
September 25-26, 1942.

In order to focus the attention of all civic welfare agencies and
organizations quickly and effectively on this field the D. C. Council
of Social Agencies was invited to sponsor the project. Accepting
the responsibility the Council's Committee on Family Welfare,
Mrs. Frank Linzel, chairman, started immediately to plan the pro-
gram, arrange for meeting places, secure speakers, and discussers,
and to enlist the attendance of persons who, because of their direct
professional or voluntary interests and contacts, would play lead-
ing parts in the resulting plans for civic betterment.

Already the success of this endeavor in the National Capitol has
inspired requests for advice on the initiation and development of
similar institutes. Hence our brief article will confine itself mainly
to the physical setup and arrangements rather than attempting to
cover the contents of the many excellent papers, addresses, reports,
and discussion included in the program.

Because of its host of Federal officials and workers, its thousands
of visiting Service men from nearby camps, its numerous attache's
and employees of foreign powers, and its vital importance as the

521



522 JOURNAL, OP SOCIAL HYGIENE

seat of government, the District of Columbia's social welfare struc-
ture is more complicated than are those of most communities. Ade-
quate consideration of Washington's social protection problems,
therefore, demanded that Federal and District official agencies be
well represented in the various sessions along with the voluntary
agencies. A glance at the following Institute program will show
how comprehensively the discussions were developed by Mrs. Linzel
and her Committee associates.

9 A.M. September 25, 1942. United States Chamber of Commerce Building.
Presiding: Mrs. Frank Linzel, Conrad Van Hyning.

Speakers: J. A. Nolan, Ph.D., Washington Criminal Justice Association: Sum-
mary of recent study of 2,559 arrests of prostitutes in the District on charges of
soliciting, fornication, disorderly conduct; investigation. Evaluation of laws
against soliciting; owning and operating a house; taxicab operations; hotels, etc.
Evaluation of present facilities. Recommendations.

Alvin Griesedieck, Chairman, Board of Directors, Brewing Industry Foundation:
Present program; difficulties in operation; coordination with other programs.
Recommendations.

Thomas E. Lodge, Chairman, A.B.C. Board: District laws and regulations, en-
forcement, cooperation with other programs inclusive of military services; regu-
lations of dine and dance places, etc. Recommendations.

R. A. Vonderlehr, M.D., Director, Division of Venereal Diseases, U. S. Public
Health Service: Evaluation of existing health laws in the District; of present
venereal disease program ; of existing facilities for quarantine. Recommendations.

Discussion: Representatives from the D. C. Medical Society and the Medico-
Chirurgical Society.

Major William A. Brumfield, Chief, Civilian Collaboration Section, Venereal
Disease Control Branch, Surgeon General's Office, U. S. Army: Venereal disease
in a war program; the relationship of the District situation to the Army needs
in this area.

Harvey C. Callahan, Ass't Supt., Metropolitan Police Department: Police policies
and practices where prostitution is concerned; need for coordination with other
agencies; evaluation of police program. Recommendations.

General Discussion and questions. (Bascom Johnson of the ASHA staff was a
discusser).

12:30 P.M. Luncheon Meeting Young Women's Christian Association.
Speaker: Senator Robert M. LaFollette, Introduction by Judge Fay Bentley.

2:15 P.M. Chamber of Commerce Building.

Speakers: Eliot Ness, Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health and
Welfare Services: Rehabilitation in a Social Protection Program.

A. Madorah Donahue, Chief, Protective Services for Children, Board of Public
Welfare: Relation of the social work program to the emergency needs of the
present where prostitution and sex delinquency is concerned; how the practices
can be sharpened or programs intensified to help in the protective and treatment
programs that are needed.

Francis McPeek, Director, Social Welfare Department, Washington Federation of
Churches: Summing up of all papers. General discussion.



GETTING SOCIAL PROTECTION ACROSS 523

September 2610:00 A.M.-12:30 P.M.

Sound Table: Reverend Thomas E. Mitchell, STD, Dean, School of Social Work,
Catholic University of America: Discussion Leader. (Open to all social case
workers and group workers.) Role of the social worker in prevention and treat-
ment of social protection problems.

The Committee on Institute Planning was: Mrs. Frank Linzel, Chairman; Cap-
tain Rhoda Milliken, Women's Bureau; A. Madorah Donahue, Protective Services
for Children; Marie Duffin, Social Protection Section, Office of Defense Health
and Welfare Services; Alice Padgett, School of Social Work, Catholic University;
Lucia Murchison, Health Department; Edward L. Ackerman, Council of Social
Agencies; Ray H. Everett, D. C. Social Hygiene Society.

Inasmuch as the Social Hygiene Society of the District of Colum-
bia has been for a quarter-century the voluntary agency dealing
specifically with the problems of prostitution and venereal disease
control in Washington, most of the Institute findings were based
on needs and policies enunciated by that Society over the course
of years. These findings resulted in recommendations which included :

1. An increase in the number of police available for prostitution
control.

2. More case conferences among agency workers in rehabilitative
fields.

3. Provision of indeterminate sentences for misdemeanants in
order that the sentence fit the needs for treatment and service.

4. Distinct lines of demarcation be maintained between the legal
phases of prostitution and the medical treatment of venereal infec-
tions, the first being a law-enforcement problem, the second a public
health problem.

5. Provision of quarantine facilities open to both voluntary and



Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 66 of 71)