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cases or 47.5 per cent caused by non-prostitute pick-ups.



"WHEN BROTHELS CLOSE V.D. RATES GO DOWN" 533

The decreasing incidence of infections coming from Juarez is
depicted in another way in Table VII. Under column IV during
June and July there has been an apparent marked drop in the number
of cases of venereal disease per 1,000 trips by soldiers to Juarez.
Repression in Juarez started on June 19, and the decreasing incidence
of venereal disease cases per 1,000 trips to Juarez also apparently
began in June. In addition since Juarez was cleaned up there has
occurred a significant increase of almost 5,000 in the number of
soldiers going to Juarez.

TABLE VII

Bole of Juarez, Mexico, in the Spread of Venereal Disease for the Entire
Fort Bliss Area from March Through July, 1942

Number

of Exposures Number of Cases

Number of Trips Subsequently of Venereal

Month of to Juarez by Developing Ve- Disease per 1,000

Exposure U. S. Soldiers nereal Disease Trips to Juarez

(I) (II) (III) (IV)

March 24,632 23 0.93

April 23,477 30 1.27

May 24,512 25 1.02

June 24,754 17 0.69

July 29,735 12 0.40

One of the standard arguments of those who oppose a policy of
repression of prostitution is that when houses of prostitution are
closed, the inmates spread all over town and consequently spread
more disease. In Table VIII data were tabulated in an effort to prove
or disprove this theory. These figures are far too few to draw definite
conclusions. However, during the period when the bridge to Juarez
was closed (December 8, 1941-February 27, 1942, Item No. 4), there
did apparently occur some increase in the amount of venereal disease
which could be attributed to the ' ' non-prostitute pick-up, ' ' and to the
"prostitute pick-up." However, when the "prostitute pick-up"
group was further analysed it was found that 23 out of 33 of these
prostitutes were picked up somewhere outside of the Juarez-El Paso
area. So far it has not been possible to demonstrate that closure of
houses of prostitution causes any widespread dissemination of these
women throughout the community. According to the statements of
prostitutes interviewed, it is claimed by them that the vast majority
leave town as soon as the "heat is turned on." They apparently go
to a community where there are "easier pickings."

Sociological studies on this class of women are needed. In the
El Paso area as repression has become better and better enforced, the
role of the prostitute in the spread of these diseases has gradually
decreased. As the prostitute group is gradually eliminated as the
predominant source of infection other groups appear to take a rela-
tively more important role in the spread of the venereal diseases.
The "non-prostitute pick-up" or "chippie" is gradually assuming
more importance as a source of infection in that area. With this in



534



JOURNAL OF SOCIAL, HYGIENE



mind an attempt is being made in El Paso to set up a redirection
program for the border line prostitute. However, this program is
still in its infancy so no further comment is warranted at this time.



TABLE VIII

The Bole of the "Non-prostitute Pick-up" and "Prostitute Pick-up" in the

Spread of Venereal Disease in the Fort Bliss Area.

March 19, 1941-August 25, 1942

Prostitute
Pick-ups

Non-prostitute Prostitute in El Paso-
Total Pick-up Pick-up Juarez Area

Number / * \ f * -, , * \

of Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
Cases ber cent ber cent ber cent
Prostitution flagrant in El
Paso and Juarez. March
19, 1941-June 30, 1941.. 369 43 11.2 16 4.3 10 2.7

Prostitution flagrant in
Juarez. Houses closed in
El Paso. June 30, 1941-
September 30, 1941 160

Prostitution flagrant in
Juarez. Houses surrepti-
tiously open in El Paso.-
October 1, 1941-Decem-
ber 7, 1941 204

International Bridge to
Juarez closed. Houses
surreptitiously open in El
Paso. December 8, 1941-
February 27, 1942 143

Prostitution flagrant in
Juarez. Houses surrepti-
tiously open in El Paso.
February 28, 1942- June
19, 1942 209

Eepression of prostitution
started in Juarez. Houses
closed in El Paso. June
19, 1942-August 25, 1942 59



29 18.1



28 13.7



15



11



9.4



5.4



42 29.4



44 21.0



47.5



Total



1,144



33 23.2



21 10.1



8.5



12



10



10



11



7.6



4.9



19.4



93



80
.



56



7.0



5.3



5.1
4.9



Conclusions

1. Open houses of prostitution located nearby appear to have
played a dominant role in the spread of the venereal diseases among
soldiers at Fort Bliss.

2. In the El Paso area including Juarez, the commercial prostitute
operating in brothels or elsewhere has been responsible for the great
majority of the venereal infections in the Army. The weekly exam-
ination of prostitutes in such houses in El Paso as a means of con-
trolling the spread of infection in the Army has not proved successful.



"WHEN BROTHELS CLOSE V.D. BATES GO DOWN" 535

3. Closing El Paso's houses of prostitution and allowing flagrant
prostitution conditions to continue in Juarez did not appear to influ-
ence the Army venereal rate. .

4. When a moderate policy of repression of prostitution in El Paso
was combined with the closure of the International Bridge to Juarez,
Mexico, the local Army venereal rate apparently dropped significantly.
When the Bridge was reopened, the venereal rate appeared to increase
again. When a policy of repression of prostitution was adopted in
Juarez and repressive measures were better enforced in El Paso, the
amount of venereal disease in the Army in that area again showed a
marked decline. In other words, in the Fort Bliss area, a significant
decrease in the Army venereal rate was apparently associated with
making the commercial prostitute in the entire area less available to
soldiers.

5. If open houses of prostitution are tolerated in the vicinity of an
Army camp they will in all probability prove to be a major source
of venereal disease infection among the troops.

6. In El Paso there has been no evidence that the closure of houses
of prostitution has been associated with the dissemination of these
women throughout the city and a consequent increase in the amount
of disease.

7. As the commercial prostitute has been gradually eliminated as
the primary source of infection in El Paso, other groups such as the
"non-prostitute pick-up" have begun to assume a relatively more
important role as sources of infection in the Army. Sociological
studies are badly needed to help health and social workers solve the
problems of the border-line prostitute.

Acknowledgment

The author wishes to express his appreciation to the Medical Staffs at William
Beaumont General Hospital, and Fort Bliss Station Hospital and to Doctor W. B.
Prothro and the Staff of the El Paso City-County Health Unit -without whose
hearty cooperation and helpful advice this study would not have been possible.

References

(1) JOHNSON, BASCOM, JR., Bole of Open Houses of Prostitution in Spread of
Venereal Disease in a Cantonment Area. (Preliminary Eeport.) Venereal
Disease Information 23:15-22, 1942.



DOES YOUR STATE NEED NEW SOCIAL
HYGIENE LAWS? .

GEORGE GOULD, M.A., L.L.B.
Legal Consultant, American Social Hygiene Association

In today's "home front" battle against syphilis and
gonorrhea as threats to the health of soldiers, sailors and war
industry workers and, in fact, of the whole nation and in
the campaign against commercialized prostitution as a main
source of spread of these diseases, good laws are among our
strongest weapons.

Federal and state laws and city ordinances have enabled
law enforcement officials to close over 350 "redlight districts"
hot-beds of venereal infection in the last year and. a half.
Other laws strike directly at the " third party" interests, who
get most of the money made in the prostitution "racket."
Some laws provide for helping women and girls arrested and
convicted on charges of prostitution, to turn back toward
normal and useful lives.

Through state laws passed in the last few years, to protect
marriage and babies against syphilis by requiring premarital
and prenatal examinations for this disease, many infections
which might otherwise run their courses undiscovered until
too late, are being found and checked.

Twenty-two states now have good laws against prostitution,
thus cutting down opportunities for exposure to venereal
diseases. Twenty-six states have laws requiring examinations
for syphilis before marriage licenses are issued. Twenty-six
states require physicians to examine expectant mothers for
syphilis.



Now is the time to be thinking about legislative needs, for
legislatures will meet in regular sessions in 44 states early in

536



DOES YOUR STATE NEED NEW SOCIAL HYGIENE LAWS? 537

1943, and special sessions for war legislation may be called at
any time. If your state needs new social hygiene laws, or if
old laws need to be strengthened, you can perform a patriotic
duty by joining with other good citizens to see that good and
workable legislation against the venereal diseases and com-
mercialized prostitution is adopted as soon as possible.

Study the maps and chart in the next pages, and plan to
help.

And remember this ! Good laws are only the first step. To
produce results the laws must be used and enforced. Help in
your community to promote understanding and observance
of social hygiene laws, and support your police officials, your
courts and judges, and all other officers concerned, with
strong, sound public opinion and united effort of every
community agency and of every citizen.

State Laws Against Prostitution

"Fewer contacts, fewer infections" is an axiom in the campaign
against syphilis and gonorrhea, and one excellent result of good laws
and law enforcement against commercialized prostitution is at once
to reduce opportunity for exposure to these diseases. Wherever
"red-light districts" and other places where prostitution flourishes
are prevented from operating and the inmates are given social and
medical treatment, sources of wholesale infection are checked. Army
and Navy venereal disease officers find that rates for syphilis and
gonorrhea among soldiers and sailors go down rapidly when prosti-
tution is repressed in the vicinity of camps and naval bases, and
health officials in communities where "red-light districts" have existed
and have been closed, are finding fewer new infections occurring in
the civilian population.

In order to reduce prostitution in volume and accessibility by law
enforcement, however, laws must be drawn to meet and check every
form of this evil and every device of those who promote it for money-
making purposes. The laws should provide for penalties severe
enough to have a sharply deterrent effect on the racketeers and other
third parties who exploit prostitutes and their customers. Laws
should also be broad enough to encourage judges to dispose of the
cases of prostitutes in a way which will be best calculated to keep
open avenues for their return to useful lives, including the provision
of suitable quarters in which they may remain during necessary
quarantine, medical treatment and social redirection.

These and other features of effective legislation against prostitu-
tion are set forth here, with a brief "interpretation" of application.



538



JOUBNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE



ESSENTIAL PROVISIONS OF STATE LAWS FOB REPRESSION OF

PROSTITUTION WITH A BRIEF INTERPRETATIVE SUMMARY

OF THEIR USE IN DEALING WITH THIS PROBLEM



Provisions

(A) It shall be unlawful for any person: *

1. To keep, set up, maintain, or
operate any house, place, building,
other structure or part thereof, or
vehicle, trailer, or other conveyance
for the purpose of prostitution,
lewdness, or assignation;

2. Knowingly to own any house,
place, building, other structure, or
part thereof, or vehicle, trailer, or
other conveyance used for the pur- f
pose of lewdness, assignation, or j
prostitution, or to let, lease, or rent,
or contract to let, lease, or rent
any such place, premises, or con-
veyance or part thereof, to another
with knowledge or reasonable cause

to believe that the intention of the
lessee or rentee is to use such place,
premises, or conveyance for prosti-
tution, lewdness, or assignation;



Interpretation



Third parties, such as keepers and
operators of houses of prostitution,
madams, and the like, use every means
to exploit prostitutes and their cus-
tomers for profit. These legal provi-
sions penalize such persons and de-
clare their activities to be crimes.

A civil action (Injunction and Abate-
ment Law) may also be brought in a
court of equity to close a house of
prostitution as a public nuisance.



3. To offer, or to offer to secure,
another for the purpose of prosti-
tution, or for any other lewd or
indecent act;

4. To receive or to offer or agree to
receive any person into any house,
place, building, other structure,
vehicle, trailer, or other conveyance
for the purpose of prostitution,
lewdness, or assignation, or to per-
mit any person to remain there for
such purpose;

5. To direct, take, or transport, or
to offer or agree to take or trans-
port, or aid or assist in transport-
ing, any person to any house, place,
building, other structure, vehicle,
trailer, or other conveyance, or to
any other person with knowledge
or reasonable cause to believe that
the purpose of such directing, tak-
ing, or transporting is prostitution,
lewdness, or assignation;



These provisions define and make il-
legal the activities of go-betweens such
as the bell boys, taxi-drivers, and
" others who bring, for a monetary con-
sideration, the prostitute and the cus-
tomer together.



DOES YOUR STATE NEED NEW SOCIAL HYGIENE LAWS? 539



6. To procure a female inmate for
a house of prostitution ; or to cause,
induce, persuade, or encourage by
promise, threat, violence, or by any
scheme or device, a female to be-
come a prostitute or to remain an
inmate of a house of prostitution;
or to induce, persuade, or encour-
age a female to come into or leave
this State for the purpose of pros-
titution, or to become an inmate in
a house of prostitution; or to re-
ceive or give, or agree to receive or
give any money or thing of value
for procuring, or attempting to pro-
cure any female to become a pros-
titute or an inmate for a house of
prostitution ;

7. Knowingly to accept, receive,
levy or appropriate any money or
other thing of value without con-
sideration from a prostitute or
from the proceeds of any woman
engaged in prostitution;



Provisions dealing with the activities
of panderers and procurers of women
for the purpose of prostitution are
commonly called "white slave" laws.
The penalties should be severe if the
I traffic in women and girls is to be
curbed. These provisions attempt to
attack this vicious racket at its heart.



8. To engage in prostitution, lewd-
ness, or assignation;

9. To solicit, induce, entice, or pro-
cure another to commit an act of
lewdness, assignation, or prostitu-
tion, with himself or herself;

10. To reside in, enter, or remain
in any house, place, building, or
other structure, or to enter or re-
main in any vehicle, trailer, or
other conveyance for the purpose
of prostitution, lewdness, or as-
signation ;



Activities of the prostitute are made,
by these provisions, unlawful and
illegal.



11. To aid, abet, or participate in "\ This provision makes it possible to deal
the doing of any of the acts enu- Lwith many technical evasions of re-
merated above. I sponsibility for the acts enumerated.



(B) The term "prostitution" shall be
construed to include the giving or
receiving of the body for sexual in-
tercourse for hire, and shall also
be construed to include the giving
or receiving of the body for indis-
criminate sexual intercourse without
hire. The term "lewdness' shall be
construed to include any indecent
or obscene act. The term "assigna-
tion" shall be construed to include
the making of any appointment or
engagement for prostitution or
lewdness or any act in furtherance
of such appointment or engagement. __



Tinder this provision, the male custo-
mer who has intercourse with a pros-
titute can be punished as well as the
prostitute herself. Another important
principle is that it places the clandes-
^tine prostitute or sexually delinquent
girl, especially a serious problem at
this time, under the control of the
courts which can use custodial powers
for the redirection or rehabilitation
and retraining of such women and
girls.



540



JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE



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DOES YOUK STATE NEED NEW SOCIAL HYGIENE LAWS? 541



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542



JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE




DOES YOUE STATE NEED NEW SOCIAL HYGIENE LAWS? 543

Twenty-two states, as indicated in the map and chart on pages
540-2 include most of these provisions in their laws against prostitu-
tion. If your state is not among these, there is no time like the
present to improve the situation.

Other state laws besides those directed immediately against com-
mercialized prostitution have provisions which may be invoked to
aid in the campaign. For instance, in local situations where enforce-
ment authorities are incapable or unwilling to deal with this problem
the State Attorney General in some states has been authorized or
directed to supervise or supersede local officials. In many states
Alcoholic Beverage Boards or Commissions have been given the
power to make rules and regulations regarding the operation of
places where alcohol is sold. Such boards also have found it useful
in some states to have power to suspend or revoke licenses for places
where prostitution conditions exist or are permitted.



State Laws to Guard Family Health against Venereal Diseases *

Dr. R. A. Vonderlehr, Assistant Surgeon General of the U. S.
Public Health Service, recently said: "In the national campaign
against syphilis and gonorhea, as in any other effort to control disease
which spreads from person to person, the first move is to find the
people who are infected and keep them from infecting others. The
new state legislation requiring expectant mothers and persons about
to be married to undergo examinations for syphilis is aimed straight
toward that mark. While few of the laws have been operating long
enough to permit extensive measurement of results, we know that
many babies' lives are being saved and the health of young people
protected. In certain states for example in Connecticut, New
Jersey and New York definite proof has been obtained that many
syphilis infections which otherwise might have run their destructive
course, have been discovered as a result of such legislation. Eventu-
ally, if this method of safeguarding family health becomes general,
the premarital and prenatal laws should rank high among the prac-
tical and effective ways of finding venereal diseases and preventing
their spread."

* Since most states now have reasonably satisfactory laws and regulations
dealing with reporting, treatment, quarantine, and other established public health
and medical measures for cure of persons infected with venereal diseases, these
laws are not discussed in this statement, because of lack of space. However,
the American Social Hygiene Association will gladly supply information on such
laws on request. See also reading list on page 547. Please note particularly
Pub. No. A-152, State Laws and Regulations of State Boards of Health which
Deal with the Venereal Diseases, by Bascom Johnson. For a comprehensive list
of publications on this and other phases of social hygiene, ask for free folder
A Classified List of Social Hygiene Pamphlets, Pub. No. A-444.



544



JOUBNAL OF SOCIAL HYGIENE



Laws to Protect Marriage from Syphilis

The first such law, requiring a blood test for syphilis as a marriage
license prerequisite, was passed in 1935 in Connecticut; five states
adopted a similar law in 1937 ; four more states were added in 1938 ;
nine more in 1939, one more in 1940, and in 1941 six more states
passed laws. The purpose of most of these laws though there are
some variations is not to prevent the marriage, but to ensure ade-
quate examination and to encourage postponement of marriage if one
of the partners has syphilis in an infectious stage, thus breaking the
chain of infection. Some states also require medical examination
including appropriate tests for gonorrhea. A few states require
examination for some other communicable diseases and conditions, but
such requirements have apparently not been found very practicable
as yet.

Does your state have a law requiring a physical examination of
both bride and groom before a marriage license is issued ? If so, does
the examination include a blood test for syphilis?



PROTECTING MARRIAGE FROM SYPHILIS
Legislative Status of Premarital Health Examinations, 1942




26

ttatet

4
itates

3

states

15

stairs



Map by the American Social Hygiene Association, 1942



MB Require examination by physician of both bride and groom, including blood

HH test for syphilis

HH||sj Require examination by physician of groom only, for freedom from venereal

wrim* diseases

feggia.'l Prohibit marriage of persons with venereal diseases; some require personal

ww a a affidavit of freedom from venereal diseases, no examination specified

I Grant marriage licenses without regard to venereal disease infection



DOES YOUR STATE NEED NEW SOCIAL HYGIENE LAWS? 545

Laws to Protect Babies

Twenty-six states have passed laws requiring that prenatal blood
tests for syphilis be part of examination of expectant mothers. New
Jersey, New York and Rhode Island were the first states to pass such
laws, in 1938; 14 more states adopted similar legislation in 1939,
two more in 1930, and seven states were added in 1941. Most of
these laws require that the physician or other qualified attendant
upon a pregnant woman should be responsible for arranging for the
serological test. Where infection is discovered early in pregnancy
and treatment is given regularly, the chances for a healthy baby are
very good about 95 out of 100.

Does your state require such prenatal blood tests?



PROTECTING BABIES FROM SYPHILIS
Legislative Status of Prenatal Health Examinations, 1942




26
states

22
states



Map by the American Social Hygiene Association, 1942
jgjf Require prenatal examinations for syphilis

Do not require prenatal examinations for syphilis



Another example of what laws requiring preventive medical treat-
ment can do to insure the health of babies is seen in the great reduc-
tion of "babies' sore eyes" and infant blindness. Nearly every
state now requires a specified, scientifically prepared and standardized
solution to be dropped into the baby's eyes immediately after birth.
Since this has become an established medical practice, gonorrheal
blindness has become a rarity.



546 JOURNAL, OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

Tour Part in the Legislative Campaign

If your state is one in which new social hygiene laws, or amendment
of old laws, is needed, plans for action in 1943 cannot begin too
early. Forty-four of the state legislatures meet this winter. Possibly
some qualified organized group is already planning to introduce
legislation. If so, they will welcome your interest and support.
Programs of action which have often been successful in securing sound
social hygiene laws have included activities like the following :

1. A social hygiene society, medical society, bar association, parent-
teacher association or similar interested group studies the require-
ments of existing laws and the needs to be met. Sometimes two or
three groups will make this a joint project, but responsibility for
carrying out the details of the program usually must be delegated to
one group or a central joint committee, with all other interested
agencies constantly consulted and kept in touch.



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