American Social Hygiene Association.

Journal of social hygiene (Volume 28) online

. (page 9 of 71)
Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 9 of 71)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


against the practice of prostitution will doubtless materially lower venereal rates
in the near future."

(4) "The venereal rate for the Division continued above the standard rate,
although the number of cases reported dropped from the previous month. It
was found that the individuals developing venereal diseases in the majority of
cases contracted the infection while on furlough, visiting localities where there
were no prophylactic stations. All organizations have been ordered to comply
with the provisions of Par. Ic, All 40-235, and to submit reports of such lectures
to Division Headquarters."

(5) "The venereal rate has been shown as high, but an analysis of this rate
indicates that the rate of the permanent post personnel was low. The high
rate is due to cases of venereal disease discovered among transients while on
this post, the disease having been contracted at some other locality and usually
outside this corps area."

(6) "Monthly examinations are given all cooks and mess personnel in the regi-
ment for infectious or contagious diseases. All members going on furloughs
or three-day passes must come by the Dispensary for a sex hygiene talk by the
Surgeon, who initials the furlough or pass to show that the man concerned will
take all precautions against catching venereal disease; all batteries were given
lectures by the Surgeon on sex hygiene."

(7) " There has been a marked increase in the number of cases of venereal diseases
during the month. Measures to combat this increase included the equipping of
two and one-half ton trucks with prophylactic supplies. These mobile prophy-
lactic stations are dispatched nightly to two towns being visited by large numbers
of soldiers from this battalion. The number of men taking advantage of this
service is gradually increasing. "

(8) "The efforts of the Medical Department to find a more suitable location for
a prophylactic station than the present one in the Enlisted Men's Service Club
have been unsuccessful up to the present time. One desirable location was dis-



56 JOURNAL, OF SOCIAL HYGIENE

covered near the bus station, but the owner wanted a prohibitive rental for the
place. The Quartermaster, who was instructed last August to find a suitable
location for a prophylactic station has not furnished any suitable building as yet."

(9) "Here as in some other localities the refusal of many Negroes to use any
form of prophylactic protection causes an excessive rate of infection among Negro
troops. Enforcement activity in the community and consequent detention or
follow-up of sources of infection of Negroes is slack, both because of an attitude
of indifference in the community toward promiscuity among Negroes and because
of inadequate detention facilities for as many as could be picked up. Since the
maneuver period, there is no state quarantine or detention facility for recalcitrant
infected individuals ; and both city and county detention facilities are inadequate for
detention of white as well as Negro women. The county has some unused space
in the jail which could fairly inexpensively be brought into use. Enforcement
staffs are without case work consciousness, police women, or matrons of jails.
Officers are likely to go clean overboard in their judgment, designating a girl
as no good or being completely roped in by a plausible story of a practiced
traveler in the profession of prostitution. But they are rather decent and can
in all probability be worked with. The City Health Department is solely
dependent upon city appropriation; and without qualifications for grants in aid
from U. S. Pubic Health Service, with coincident raising of standards, it is
archaic and inept to the present emergency. Yet the Mayor considers the city-
county combined health administration an utter impossibility. ' '

(10) "The undersigned has held thirty-one conferences with representative
civilians during the last thirteen months for the purpose of controlling venereal
diseases. These conferences have included all agencies of the government con-
cerned. Following the 29th conference which was the fourth to be held in
the office of the Honorable Mayor, it appeared that some progress had been made.
The 30th and 31st conferences included the Assistant Corps Area Surgeon, and
it would appear that further progress may be made. Based upon statements of
the legal authorities and the press, Neisserian infections (i.e., gonorrhea) are
essentially in epidemic form among the Negro women. It appears that the police
can round up hundreds of them but has no place to confine them as the jail
is too small and the Charity Hospital is essentially full. There is a Public Health
Clinic in the city, and it appears that the police are sending many infected Negro
women to that clinic for out-patient treatments. It is further reported that
many of these Negroes have come into the area from other states and from
other cities and towns in the state, that they frequently and commonly change
both their place of residence and names. It was acknowledged that the local
clinic is inadequate and it now appears that efforts will be made to increase its
facilities. ' '

(11) "From observations over a lifetime spent in the South and during some
of the venereal disease programs among Negroes that have succeeded in the
past five years, I am convinced that the following factors must be recognized
before Negroes will be reached by the military and civilian protective programs:
Necessity for the simplest oral instruction; development of friendly rather
than disciplinary methods of securing compliance with instructions; overcoming
of distrust of methods not understood; counteracting age-old superstitions by
simple explanations of the principles of modern science; recognition of their
reliance upon preachers for the fundamentals of instruction in most matters of
personal conduct; special provisions for their exploitation by promoters of gam-
bling and sexual promiscuity ; love of gambling ; encouragement of hygienic habits
instead of unhygienic habits arising from a background of underprivileged
living conditions.

" Recognizing these factors and considering the experience of county demon-
strations backed financially by the United States Public Health Service, the
following program is suggested: Conduct the educational program among Negro
troops almost entirely through the Negro chaplains. With their superior educa-
tion Negro chaplains can be approached fairly easily by the medical officers
and helped to a sound understanding through frequent conferences with them.
Get the chaplains to hammer away on health as a service to God at every oppor-
tunity. If medical or military officers are to address Negro troops on the subject



SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES AND ABSTRACTS 57

of venereal disease, seat the Negro chaplain up front with them, and if it can
be arranged, let the Negro chaplain preside."

(12) "Provision of some sort of recreation program so that the colored troops
will have something to occupy their spare time at the post rather than in such
places as the colored people might naturally gravitate to in this community."

(13) "Regular monthly physical inspection of the entire enlisted unmarried
command was made on November 19th and 20th. Since the previous report of
November 4, 1941, we have had seven new eases of gonorrhea; these are under
treatment and the source of infection of five of these cases has been found and
action taken by the undersigned in cooperation with the local health authorities.
One new case of chancroid was found. In the opinion of the undersigned,
prostitution is on the decrease as renewed efforts by the city, county and state
officials to suppress prostitution have been initiated in cooperation with the
Provost Marshal of this station."

(14) "Finally, during the last two aforementioned conferences (These had dealt
with (a) finding venereal disease cases and carriers and securing treatment, and
(b) repression of commercialized prostitution), at which the state and local
liquor-control officers were present, it was also mutually agreed that these latter
officers would padlock such buildings as could not otherwise be controlled by the
Health Department, or by the police authorities, provided it were found that
these places had served as a rendezvous for venereal contacts."

(15) "There is a large influx of girls every pay day by train, bus and auto.
Many stay in hotels or rooming houses. The average age is 17, but some are
as young as 14, and they come from all parts of the United States. Recently
one girl who had not eaten in two days was found lying in a doorway. No cases
have been referred to local welfare agencies because it is understood that funds
are not available for transients. The Senior County Welfare Visitor said the
Agency could accept transient eases for temporary care, providing board and
room, pending clearance with home community. There have been no referrals
from the police. The Agency has hesitated to offer services because its staff
is too small to carry additional cases. Therefore, they serve only such cases
as directly apply for help."

(16) "The past several weeks' experience in the detention center at the Women's
State Penitentiary has done much to bring about better understanding between
Health and Welfare Departments. In this instance, a United States Public Health
Service officer was assigned to treat women detained and a thoroughly skilled
case worker was employed by the State Department of Public Welfare and
assigned to work with the doctor to provide social case work services."

(17) "A study of the reports from all available sources presents ample evidence
of the nation-wide character of this battle between the forces of health and
social protection on one side and the forces allied with disease and moral disaster
on the other. While there have been made gains and losses on both sides in
the past two years, the advantage seems clearly to lie with the public health,
law enforcement and welfare organizations. Thus far one hundred and twenty-
seven cities have secured the closure of their vice districts and are keeping them
closed ; while developing constructive welfare and preventive measures to safe-
guard girls and older women from exploitation as well as men and boys. These
cities, added to the large number which have not permitted such conditions to
arise in their midst, provide a solid basis of encouragement for accelerated and
more effective action in future."

III. ARMY AND NAVY ORDERS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS.

Circular WAR DEPARTMENT,

No. 170 Washington, August 16, 1941.

Section

Eations I

Prohibition of prostitution within reasonable distance of Military Estab-
lishments

Addenda to Ordnance Standard Nomenclature Joists Ill



58 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL. HYGIENE

/ Rations. Pending the publication of a revision of Circular No. 28, War
Department, 1941, the field ration prescribed for a trial period of three months
by that circular as amended is continued in effect. (A.G. 430.2 (8-8-41).)

II Prohibition of prostitution within reasonable distance of Military Estab-
lishments. The following procedure is prescribed in order to carry out effec-
tively the provisions of the act of Congress approved July 11, 1941 (sec. I, Bull.
No. 23, W.D., 1941) :

1. The commanding officer of each post, camp, or station is basically responsible
for determining if and when prostitution in areas adjacent to the military reser-
vation adversely affects the efficiency, health, and welfare of the personnel of the
post, camp, or station. Initially he will enlist the efforts of the local civil
authorities to remove such prostitution conditions.

2. If such local cooperative measures are not effective, the local commander
will make written request to his appropriate corps area commander for a special
report of prostitution conditions in the specific area adjacent to the post, camp,
or station. Such requests will be referred to the Defense Regional Coordinator of
the Federal Security Agency who, under existing arrangements, will cause a
special investigation and report of conditions to be made. The Eegional Coordina-
tor's report when received by the corps area commander will be referred to the
local military commander for his information.

3. If the Regional Coordinator's report transmitted through the corps area
commander to the local commander contains factual information of the existence
of prostitution, the local commander will again consult the local authorities,
inform them of the general contents of the report, and advise them of the
action in paragraph 4 which he will be required to take if the unfavorable con-
ditions are not corrected.

4. If the local authorities fail to take corrective measures within a reasonable
period of time after they have been informed of the contents of the report, the
local commander will forward a letter to The Adjutant General, through military
channels, containing the following:

a. A statement of prostitution conditions which are inimical to the
efficiency, health, and welfare of his command, based upon the Regional
Coordinator's report.

6. A narrative of the efforts which have been made to cause the local
authorities to correct conditions.

c. A recommendation as to the specific area or areas which the Secre-
tary of War shall publicly announce.

5. If the report indicated in paragraph 4, together with other available
information, indicates the existence of a condition harmful to the efficiency,
health, and welfare of military personnel at the specified post, camp, or station,
the Secretary of War shall designate and publish in War Department orders the
specific area or areas adjacent to or a limiting zone around the post, camp, or
station where it shall be unlawful to engage in prostitution or otherwise aid or
abet same as described in the act of Congress referred to above. (A.G. 250.18
(3-12-41).)

771 Addenda to Ordnance Standard Nomenclature Lists. 1. Addenda to
Ordnance Standard Nomenclature Lists are being revised. These addenda indi-
cate the quantities of parts which are estimated as required to maintain the
number of major items, usually 100, indicated by the addenda for a period of
1 year in the theater of operations.

2. These addenda, until experience indicates otherwise, should be used by
reviewing officers as the basis for checking requisitions as to quantities and
nomenclature of parts. (A.G. 062.1 (8-7-41).)

By order of the Secretary of War:

G. C. MARSHALL,

Official: Chief of Staff.

J. A. ULIO,

Brigadier General,
Acting The Adjutant General.



SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES AND ABSTRACTS 59

WAR DEPARTMENT

THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
WASHINGTON

AG 353.8 (12-5-40) MO-A-M December 16, 1940

SUBJECT: Control of the use of intoxicating beverages fey military personnel and
the improvement of moral conditions in the vicinity of camps and
stations,

To : The Commanding Generals of all Armies, Corps Areas and Departments.

1. The following instructions relative to control of the use of alcoholic bev-
erages by Army personnel are published for the information and guidance of
all concerned.

Considerable success has been attained in the matter of control of the
use of intoxicating liquors by military personnel through the wholehearted
cooperation of responsible citizens in the vicinity of military activities. In the
interest of temperance it is essential to use every available means to develop a
healthy and attractive environment for soldiers during their leisure hours, not
only on the military reservation but also in adjacent civilian communities; and
with this end in view, commanding officers of posts, camps and stations are
enjoined to obtain the cooperation of the authorities in the adjacent civil com-
munities to eliminate undesirable conditions wherever found and strictly to control
traffic of undesirable elements which seek entry into military reservations.

Existing rules and regulations, which require that members of the military
service must at no time do anything that will reflect discredit upon the service,
will be strictly enforced.

2. The attention of all concerned is invited to War Department letter of
September 19, 1940, subject: "Cooperation of the United States Public Health
Service in extra-military sanitation," and letter % of October 28, 1940, subject:
"Public Health Liaison Officer, Corps Area Headquarters," which were pub-
lished in. the interest of effective control to minimize the dangers of infection
from venereal diseases among the personnel of the rapidly expanded military
establishment.

3. The Army has a heavy responsibility in safeguarding the health and well-
being of its personnel. In the training camps, large numbers of the youth of
the country, in their leisure hours, will be seeking recreation in adjacent com-
munities where they will be exposed to numerous and vicious temptations. Our
responsibility for the young soldiers and to their families in this matter is para-
mount, but there is the further and more direct responsibility for creating an
efficient army of high morale.

4. In addition to the full cooperation of the Public Health Service, as indi-
cated in letter of October 28, 1940, mentioned above, the Department has received
assurance of the full cooperation of The American Social Hygiene Association
in its campaign against venereal diseases.

5. Commanding officers are enjoined to coordinate their activities concerning
the control of venereal diseases with the agents of the Public Health Service
and the agents of The American Social Hygiene Association and other similar
associations, and in addition will seek the cooperation of civil authorities in the
vicinity of their post, camp or station with the view of securing the removal
of unsatisfactory conditions. Should local authorities fail to cooperate, local
commanders will declare affected areas "off limits" for members of their
commands.

By order of the Secretary of War:
/a/ E. S. ADAMS

Major General,
The Adjutant General



60 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL, HYGIENE

1st Ind.

HQ. NINTH CORPS AREA, PRESIDIO of San Francisco, California, Dec. 28/40.
TO: Commanding Officers, All Posts, Camps and Stations, including exempted
stations.

For your information and compliance.

By command of Major General PEEK:

A. G. ELEGAR
Captain, 30th Infantry,
Actg. Asst. Adjutant General.
Distribution A. B.
S-l-2-6-7-14.



RESTRICTED

WAR DEPARTMENT
THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE

WASHINGTON
AG 250.1 (3-10-41) MM-M-M March 22, 1941

SUBJECT: Improvement of moral conditions in the vicinity of camps and stations.

To: The Commanding Generals of all Corps Areas, Departments, Armies,

GHQ Air Force, Armored Force, and GHQ; the Chiefs of all Arms
and Services, and the Commanding Officers of Exempted Stations.

1. It has come to the attention of the War Department that there is a consider-
able lack of uniformity in the service with respect to enforcing War Department
policies governing the improvement of moral conditions in the vicinity of camps
and stations. In view of this fact, and with the view of removing doubt and
misunderstanding as to the attitude of the War Department in this connection,
you are informed as follows:

a. The War Department policy concerning this matter is enunciated in letter of
The Adjutant General of September 19, 1940, subject "Cooperation with the
United States Public Health Service in Extra-Military Sanitation," file AG 334.8
U. S. Public Health Service (9-5-40) M-A-M, and in letter of The Adjutant
General of December 16, 1940, subject "Control of the use of intoxicating bever-
ages by military personnel and the improvement of moral conditions in the
vicinity of camps and stations," file AG 353.8 (12-5-40) MO-A-M.

b. In furtherance of this policy all military authorities will actively cooperate
with local health officers in an effort to enforce the law and regulations, both
State and local, in the suppression of commercialized prostitution and elimination
of segregation. Local officials will not be encouraged in any respect either
directly or indirectly in non-enforcement of these laws and regulations and under
no circumstances will military personnel or civilian personnel under military
control be permitted to make inspections of any character of houses of prostitu-
tion. The establishment of stations primarily for the administration of venereal
prophylaxis in any civilian community where the venereal exposure rate would
justify such installations, is urged upon all concerned. These stations should be
wholly under Army control, established and maintained from Army funds, and
operated by the Army Medical Department for the benefit of Army personnel.

2. Attached hereto are excerpts from statements made at the Joint Army and
Navy Conference which was held in Washington, D. C., February 28, 1941, on
this subject.

By order of the Secretary of War:
(Signed) E. S. ADAMS

Major General

1 Inch The Adjutant General

Excerpts f r. statements
made at Joint A. & N.
Conf., 2-28-41. RESTRICTED



SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES AND ABSTRACTS 61

General Order ) NAVY DEPARTMENT,

No. 156 f Washington, D. C., Oct. IS, 1941

The Control of Prostitution in Areas Adjacent to Naval Activities

An Act of Congress approved July 11, 1941 (Public Law 163, 77th Congress),
reads as follows:

' ' That until May 15, 1945, it shall be unlawful, within such reasonable distance
of any military or naval camp, station, fort, post, yard, base, cantonment, train-
ing or mobilization place as the Secretaries of War and/or Navy shall determine
to be needful to the efficiency, health, and welfare of the Army and/or Navy,
and shall designate and publish in general orders or bulletins, to engage in
prostitution or to aid or abet prostitution or to procure or solicit for the purposes
of prostitution, or to keep or set up a house of ill fame, brothel, or bawdy house,
or to receive any person for purposes of lewdness, assignation, or prostitution
into any vehicle, conveyance, place, structure, or building, or to permit any
person to remain for the purpose of lewdness, assignation, or prostitution in
any vehicle, conveyance, place, structure, or building or to lease, or rent, or
contract to lease or rent any vehicle, conveyance, place, structure, or building, or
part thereof, knowing or with good reason to know that it is intended to be used
for any of the purposes herein prohibited; and any person, corporation, partner-
ship, or association violating the provisions of this Act shall, unless otherwise
punishable under the Articles of "War or the Articles for the Government of the
Navy, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be punished by a line of not more
than $1,000, or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by both such
fine and imprisonment, and any person subject to military or naval law violating
this Act shall be punished as provided by the Articles of War or the Articles
for the Government of the Navy, and the Secretaries of War and of the Navy
and the Federal Security Administrator are each hereby authorized and directed to
take such steps as they deem necessary to suppress and prevent the violation
thereof, and to accept the cooperation of the authorities of States and their
counties, districts, and other political subdivisions in carrying out the purposes of
this Act: Provided, That nothing in this Act shall be construed as conferring on
the personnel of the War or Navy Department or the Federal Security Agency
any authority to make criminal investigations, searches, seizures, or arrests of
civilians charged with violations of this Act."

2. When cases of venereal disease come to the attention of medical officers,
those officers will endeavor to establish the source of the disease and will at all
times keep the respective Commanding Officers fully informed as to the source
and prevalence of venereal disease. Officers in charge of Shore Patrols will like-
wise report, to the officer establishing the Patrol, such information as to prostitu-
tion which may come to their attention in the discharge of their duties. Through
the above means, and through such assistance as may be rendered by Public
Health Officers, the State or local health authorities, or by the representatives of
the Division of Social Protection of the Federal Security Agency, Commandants,
Commanding Officers, and Senior Officers Present Afloat will keep themselves
fully informed as to location and prevalence of prostitution in areas adjacent to
their respective commands.

3. The basic responsibility for determining if and when prostitution in areas
adjacent to shore activities of the Navy adversely affects the efficiency, health,



Online LibraryAmerican Social Hygiene AssociationJournal of social hygiene (Volume 28) → online text (page 9 of 71)