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TRAiN'SACTIOE'S



AMERICAN SOCIETY



CIYIL ENQINEEES.



(INSTITUTED 1852.)



VOL. XV.

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, lSfc6.



KE^Y YORK:

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY.



1886.



u



V OFFICERS FOR THK YEAR E^^DING DECE3IBER 31, 1886»

' Henky Flad, President.

Thoihas C. Keefee, Thomas F. Eowland, Vice-Presidents.

John Bogaet, Secretary and Librarian.

J. James R. Ceoes, Treasurer.

George S. Geeene, Je., William E. Hutton, W. Howaed White^
Heney G. Moeeis, Charles L. Strobel, Directors.



Entered according to Act of Congress, by the Amehican Societi of Civil ENGrsEERf.. in
the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.



Note— This Society ia not responsible as a body, for the facts and opinions advanced,
in any of its publications.



COjSTTEIS^TS.



PAPERS.



NO. MONTH.

318 {Januart/.)



319 {February.)



320 [do.



{do.)



321 (do.)

322 [do )

[do.)



323 (March.)

324 (do.)

325 (Ji)n7.)



PAGE.

English and American Railroads Comi)ared,

Bead at the Annual Convention, June 24, 1885.—

Edwakd Bates Doksey 1

The Disintegration of the Egyptian Obelisk in the Central Park,
New York.

Read January 20, 1886.— Thomas Egleston 79

Formulas for the Weights of Iron and Steel Railway Bridges un-
der Standard Specifications.

Presented at the Annual Convention, June 10, 1884. —

Geokge H. Pegram 85

Discussion on Weights of Bridges :

By D. J. Whiitemoee 04

By Joseph M. Wilson 95

By William R. Hutton 96

By William M. Hughes 97

By Theodoee Cooper 98, 101

By Chables Macdonald 100

By A. J. Dubois 105, 115

By J. S. Elliott U8

By W. H. Burr 121

By George H. Pegram 102, 113, 116, 120

An account of some Observations of Street Traffic.

Read December 16, 1885.— Francis V. Greene 123

Remarks on the Aeration of Water.

Read at the Annual Convention, June 26, 1885. —

Charles B. Brush 139

Discussion on the Aeration of Water :

By William E. Merrill 142, 143

By J. Foster Flagg 142

By James B. Francis 143, 145

By J. K ELSON TuBBS 143

By J . James R. Croes 144

By Emil Kuichling 145

By Ch.arles B. Brush 142, 143, 145

The Abt System of Railway for Steep Inclines.

Read October 21, 1885.— Walton W. Evans 147

Eaily Surveys and Reports in reference to the Transmission of
Trade Across the Allegheny Mountains in the State of Penn-
sylvania, known as the Allegheny Portage.

By MoNcuRE Robinson 181

Discussion on the South Pass Jetties :

By William E. Merrill 223, 321

By D. J. Whittemore 229



n 03^r2



IV

NO. MOKTH. PAGE.

325 {A})ril). Discussion on the Soiith Pass Jetties. (Continued.)

By C. B. CoMSTOCK 230

By Alfred P. Holler 232

By James C. Post 235

By Edward P. North 241

By Robert E. McMath 246

By Albert C. Savage 249

By Octave Chantjte 250

By William H. Bixby 255

By J. F. Le Baron 263

By Q. A. GiLLMOBE 266

By E. L. Corthell 269, 328

By James B. Eads 276

326 {May ) The Spongilla in Main Pipes.

Bead October 15, 1884. — Desmond FitzGerald 337

(do.) Discussion on Spongiila in Main Pipes :

By Joseph P. Davis 339

By E. B. DOBSEY 339

By J. James R. Croes 340

By Theodore Cooper 340

By John C. Campbell 340

327 (do.) On Increasing the Accuracy of a System of Magnetic Bearings of a

Siirvey.

Read November 14, 1884.— Olin H. Landreth 342

[do.) Discussion on Increasing the Accuracy of a System of Magnetic

Bearings of Survey :

By Rudolph Bering 344

By Joseph B. Davis 344

328 {do.) Mexican Bridge Construction.

Read December 17, 1884— J. Foster Flagg 345

329 {do.) Excavation and Embankment by Water Power.

Read December 17, 1884.— Edward Bates Dorsey 348

{do) Disciission on Excavation and Embankment by Water Power.

By William R. Button 356

330 (do.) Permanent Transmitting Dynamometer.

Read May 21, 1884.— Charles A. Smith 357

331 {do.) Data for Flattening the Ends of Railroad Curves.

Read November 19, 1884.— Albon P. Man, Jb 359

(do.) Discussion on Flattening the Ends of Railroad Curves :

By W. Howard White 364

By A. M. Wellington 367

332 {do.) On Cranes as Labor-Saving Machines.

Read October 17, 1883.— Charles J. Appltby 369

.... {do.) Discussion on Cranes as Labor-Saving Machines :

By Charles E. Emery 376

By RoBEET Cartwright 377

By JamfsPlatt 377, 379

By Theodore Cooper 378, 379

By William G. Hamilton 379, 380

By Robert L. Harris 379

By George S. Greene, Jr 380

By C. J. Appleby 377, 378, 380



NO.

333



MONTH.

(May.)
{do.)



(June.)



(do.)



PAGE.

Thermometer Scales.

Read March 3, 188G.— Fred. Brooks 381

The Steamship America.

Read at the Annual Convention, June 13, 1884. —

Robert Gordon 384

On Specifications for Strength of Iron Bridges.

Read at the Annual Convention, June 25, 1885. —

Joseph M. Wilson 389-

Discussion on Specifications for Strength of Iron Bridges :

By Theodore Cooper 41&

By W. Howard White 420

By a. BoDSCAKEN 427

By William H. Burr 429^

By S. W. Robinson 432

By Georhe L. Vose 444

By Joseph B.Davis 445

By George F. Swain 446

By Mace Moulton 449

By Alfred P. Roller 453

By Mansfield Merriman 455

By James G. Dagron 458

By William Sellers 459

By Edwin Thacher 461

By George H. Pegram 474

By C. C. Schneider 481

By Thomas C. Clarke 483

By Joseph M. Wilson 484

Annual Address.

Read at the Convention of the Society, Denver, Colo.,

July 2, 1886.— Henry Flad 499

On the Strength of Columns : Discussing the Experiments which
have been accumulated, and proposing New Formulas.
Read at the Annual Convention, June 26, 1885. —

Thomas H. Johnson 517

Discussion on the Strength of Columns :

By James Christie 531

By Thomas H. Johnson 534

New Formula for Compression Members.

Presented April 7, 1886.— R. Krohn 53T

On the Work done for the Preservation of the Dam at Holyoke,
Mass., in 1885, and on some Studies for a New Stone Dam for
the same place.

Read February 17, 1886.— Clemens Herschel 543

340 (September.) Evaporation.

Read March 17, 1836 —Desmond FitzGerald 581

The Cause and Prevention of the Decay of Building Stone.

Read at the Annual Convention, June 21, 1885. —

Thomas Egleston eiT

Discussion on the Cause and Prevention of the Decay of Building
Stone :

By J. James R. C roes 705, 711,712, 715

By M. J. Becker 105, 709, 710



336



337



{July.)



(do.)



(do)



(do.)



339 (August.



(October.



{do.)



VI

NO. MONTH. PAGE.

341 (Ocloher) Discussion on the Cause and Prevention of the Decay of Building

Stone. (Continued.)

By J. Foster Flagg 705, 710, 711

By Francis Collingwood 706, 711

By Theodore Cooper 706

By Oberlin Smith 707

By Percival Roberts, Jb 707

By Fred. Brooks 708

By Mendes Cohen 708

By Charles B. Brush 708, 713

By William H. Bixby 709, 716

By William P. Shinn 709

By Walter Katte 710

By Thomas H. Johnson 711, 712

By D. .J. Whittemore 713

By F. G. Darlington 713, 7U

By C. J. H. Woodbury lli

By Thomas Egleston 705, 707, 708, 710, 712, 713, 715

342 (do.) Eeport of Progress by the Committee on the Compressive Strength

of Cements and the Compression of Mortars and Settlement
of Masonry.

Presented and accepted at the Annual Couveution, July

5,1886 717

343 (November.) English and American Railroads Compared. Supplementary

paper.

Read May 5, 1886.— Edward Bates Dousey 733

.... (do.) Discussion on English and American Railroads Compared :

By Edward P. North 745, 76G, 769

By M. J. Becker 745,747

By E. L. Corthell 745

By Walter Katte 745

By William H. Bixby 746

By Octave Chanute 746

By F. Collingwood 747,750

By William Sellers 747

By J. James R. Croes 747

By Thomas Egleston 747, 751

By Charles E. Goad 748, 750

By A. M. Wellington 748, 766, 769,771

By Oberlin Smith 748

By John Bogart 749

By Fred. Graff 749

By O. E. MiCHAELis 749

By Mendes Cohen 749

By J. J. de Kinder 751

By William P. Shinn 751

By Charles Latimer 751

By J. Foster Crowell 752

By G. Bouse AREN 753

By George Downe 759

By Robert L. Harris 766, 772

By H. Stanley Goodwin 766, 769

By W. Howard White 769, 770

By M. N. Forney 770

By Thomas C. Clarke 775

By Walton W. Evans 776

By Edward Bates Dors-ey 745, 746, 748, 759, 769, 772, 786



VII

NO. MOKTH. PAGE.

344 {November.) The .\mericau Liuo from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico via

JalaiJa: with Notes on the Best Methods of Surmounting High

Elevations by Rail.

Read at the Annual Convention, .July 3, 188G. —

A. M. Wellington 791

.... (do.) Discussion on American Line from Vera Cruz to the City of

Mexico:

By Robert Moore 830, 831, 836, 837, 840

By WiLLL\ii Watson 833, 834

By John B. Johnson 836

By H. H. Fillet 838. 844, 845

By Robert B. Stanton 838

By H. P. Taussig 838

By Mendes Cohen 839

By C. M. Woodward 839, 845, 846

By F. D. H. Lawlor 843

By A. M. Wellington 830, 833, 834, 836, 838, 840, 842,

844, 846, 847

345 [December.) European Sewage and Garbage Removal.

Read September 2, 1885.— W. How.\rd White 849

■346 {do.) A Note on the Cost of Concrete.

Read January 20, 1886.— O. E. Michaelis 873

347 (do.) The Water-works of Southington, Connecticut.

Read February 3, 188C.— Theodore H. McKenzie 885

348 (do.) Errors in Riilroad Levels.

Read March 3, 1886.— Howard V. Hinckley. .., 893

• .. . [do.) Discussion on Levels :

By L. L. Wheeler 899

By Edward P. North 900



ILLUSTRATIONS.



plate.


month.


I.


{Janicar}/.)


IL


(do)




(do.)


ni.


(do)


IV.


{do.)




{February.


V.


(March.)


VL


(do.)


VII.


(do)


vm.


(do)


IX.


{April.)


X.


{do.)


XI.


(do.)


XII.


(do.)


xm.


(do.)



paper, page

Profile of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 318 78

Profile of Pennsylvania Railroad — Pennsylvania Rail-
road Division 318 78

Section of Road Bed, Pennsylvania Railroad 318 78

Profile of Boston and Albany Railroad 318 78

Mail of Boston and Albany Railroad and Branches... 318 78
Diagrams showing Distribution of Loading on

Bridges 320 88

Pinion, Rack Rail, Chair and Switch, Abt Railway.. 323 158

Locomotive, Abt Railway 323 162

Entering Rail. Abt Railway 323 170

Profile and Plan, Harz Railway , 323 176

Entrance to Galveston Harbor, Texas. 1880 325 294

Galveston Harbor, 1883 325 298

Details of Galveston Harbor Improvement, 1880 325 300

Chart of Galveston Harbor, 1884 325 304

Comparative Map of Galveston Harbor Improve-
ment 325 306



VIII



NO.


MONTH.


XIV.


(May.)




{do.)




(do.)



[do.)



{do.)



....


{do.)




{do.)


XV.


(do)


XVI.


(do.)


XVII.


(do.)


XVIII.


(do.)


XIX.


(do.)


XX.


(do.)


XXI.


(do.)


XXII.


(do.)


XXIII.


(do.)


XXIV.


(do.)


XXV.


(do.)


XXVI.


(do.)


XXVII.


(do.)


XXVIII.


(do.)


XXIX.


(do.)


XXX.


(do.)


XXXI.


(do.)


XXXII.


(do.)


XXXII r.


(do.)


XXXIV.


(June.)


XXXV.


(d'K)


XXXVI.


{do.)


XXXVII.


{do.)


XXXVIII.


(do.)


XXXIX.


{do.)



{do.:



{do.)



(do,)



XLI.


(July.)


XLII.


(do.)


XLIII.


(do.)


XLIV.


(do.)


XLV.


(do.)


XLVI.


(do.)


XLVII.


(do.)


XLVIII.


(do.)


XLIX.


(do.)



PAPER. PAGE.

Sketch of a Mexican Bridge built by a Common

Peon 328 346

Diagrams Illustrating Excavation and Embankment

byWaterPower 329 350'

Diagrams Illustrating Excavation and Embankment

byWaterPower 329 351

Diagrams Illustrating Excavation and Embankment

by Water Power 329 352

Diagram Illustrating Permanent Transmitting Dy-
namometer 330 358

Diagram Illustrating Flattening Railroad Curves. . . . 331 361

dj. do. do. do. 331 365

Kope and Square Shaft Travelers 332 280

do. do. do 332 380

Patent Tumbler Bearing 332 380

Movable and Floating Steam Cranes 332 380

do. do. 332 380

do. do. 332 380

do. do. 332 380

do. do. 332 380

do. do. 332 380

do. do. 332 380

Independent Hand-Power Whip Crane 332 380

Plan of Goods Shed 332 380

Plans and Sections of Steaajship America 334 388

do. do. 334 388

do. do. 334 388

do. do. 334 388

do. do. 334 388

do. do. 334 388

do. do. 334 388

Diagram of Working Stresses for Wrought-Iron

Bridge Members 335 394

Actual Ultimate Kesistance of Columns with Fixed

Ends 335 396

Actual Ultimate Resistance of Columns with Pinned

Ends 335 396

Diagram of Working Stresses by Various Formulas. . 335 398

Stress Diagrams for Iron Bridges 335 442

do do. from Wohler's Ex-
periments 335 444

Working Stresses for Wrought-Iron Bridye Mem-
bers 335 458

Diagrams Showing Distribution of Loading on

Bridges 335 476

Diagrams Showing Distribution of Loading on

Bridges 335 477

Diagram of Formula— Wrought-Iron, Flat Ends 337 536

do. do. Hinged Ends.. 337 536

do. do Round Ends . . 337 536

do. Mild Steel, Flat Ends 337 536

do. Hard Steel, Flat Ends 337 536

do. Cast-iron, Flat Ends 337 536

do. do. Round Ends 337 536

do. Oak, Flat Ends 337 536

Diagram showing relation of Wrought-Iron, Mild

Steel and Hard Steel with Flat Ends 337 536



IX



NO.
L.



LI.



MONTH.

{July )
{do.)



LII.


(August.)


Lm.


{do.)


LIV.


{do.)


LV.


{do)


LVI.


{do)


LVII.


{do.)


LVIU.


{do.)


LIX.


{do.)


LX.


{do.)


LXI.


{do.)


Lxn.


{do.)


LXIII.


{do.)


LXIV.


{do.)


LXV.


{do.)


LXVI.


{do.)


LXVII.


{do.)


LXVIII.


{do.)



LXIX.



, {do]



LXX.


{September.)


Lxxr.


{do.)


LXXII.


{do.)


LXXIII.


{do.)


LXXIV.


{do)


LXXV.


{do.)


LXXVI.


{do.)


Lxxvir.


{do.)


LXXYIII.


{do.)


LXXIX.


{do.)


LXXX.


{do.)


LXXXI.


(do.)




{October.)




{November.)




{do.)




{do.)


Lxxxir.


{do.)


Lxxxiir.


{do.)


LXXXIV.


{do.)


LXXXV.


{do.)


LXXXVI.


{do.)




{do.)



{do.)



Diagram of Actual Ultimate Besistance of Columns

with Pinned Knds

Diagram of Actual Ultimate Resistance of Columns

with Fixed Ends

Hadley Fal'.s Company's Dara, 1853

Front Face of Dam, 18fii)

Holyoke Water Power Company's Dam, 1870

Crib used in 1884

Diagram showing work done in 1885

End Piece and Cotfer Dam Used in Repairs, 1885

Section of Coffer and Planking of Dam

Buckets used to transport Gravel, Holyoke Dam

Design for a Stone Dam at Holyoke

Dam at Outlet of Croton Lake

Views of Work in Progress — Preservation of Holyoke

Dam

Views of Work in Progress — Preservation of Holyoke

Dam

Views of Work in Progress— Preservation of Holyoke

Dam

Views of Work in Progress — Preservation of Holyoke

Dam

Views of Work in Progress — Preservation of Holyoke

Dam

Views of Work in Progress — Preservation of Holyoke

Dam

Views of Work in Progress — Preservation of Holyoke

Dam

Views of Work in Progress — Preservation of Holyoke

Dam

Evaporating Pans

do.

Diagram — Influence of Heat on Evaporation

Apparatus for Recording Evaporation

do. do. do

do. do. do

Diagram of Evaporation for One Week

Hourly Temperatures of Water Surfaces

do. do. do.

Profiles of Evaporation from Tanks and Reservoirs. .
Mean Curve of Evaporation compared with Mean

Curve of Temperature

Hourly Observations

Apparatus for Measuring Chauges of Dimensions

during Hardening of Cements

Sketch of Switchback

do.

do.

Profiles of Mountain Railways

Map of Region between Vera Cruz and the City of

MexiT?o, showing Lines of Railway

Map of Line from Las Vegas Summit to Jalapa

Profile from Las Vegas to Jalapa

Map of Spiral of the Barranca Blanca

Cut Illustrating Discussion on Railway Line in

Mexico

Cut Illustrating Discussion on Railway Line in

Mexico



PAPER.


P.iGE.


337


536


337


536


339


548


339


550


339


554


339


560


339


564


339


568


339


570


339


572


339


576


339


578


339


580


339


580


339


580


339


580


339


580


339


580


339


580


339


580


340


586


340


586


340


590


340


596


340


596


340


596


340


598


340


602


340


602


340


614


340


616


340


622


342


725


344


817


344


819


344


821


344


823


344


824


344


824


344


824


344


824


344


832


344


844



NO.


MONTH.


rxxxvii.


(Decembe


LXXXVIII.


{do.)


LXXXIX.


{do.)


XC.


{do.)


XCI.


{do.)


XCII.


{do.)


XCIII.


{do)


XCIV.


{do.)


xcv.


{do)


XCVI.


{do.)



X



PAPER. PAGE.

Apparatus for Regulating Sewage Overflow 345 866

Garbage Destructor at Leeds, England 345 872

do. do. 345 872

do. do. 345 872

Storage Reservoir Dam, Southingtou, Profile 347 886

do. do. do. Section 347 886

Distributing Reservoir Dam, Southington 347 892

Gate-bouse at Distributing Reservoir, Soutliington.. 347 892

Profile of Main Supply Pipe, Soutbicgton 347 892

Map of Pipe Distribution, Town of Soutbington 347 892



ERRATA.

April, 1886. — Discussion by E. L. Cokthell on tbe Soutb Pass Jetties.

Page 270, 7tb line. — Insert the word " not " after tbe words "an engineer .who bas." Tbe
sentence will tben read: "An engineer wbo has not pursued bis way through these schools
and obtained his rank, has to remain ten years, often ten or fifteen a ' Conductor,' and tben
to j)as8 an extraordinary examination in order to be titled ' Ordinary Engineer.' "

Same page, 28tb line.— After tbe words " from among tbe," insert tbe word " Conductors "
in place of the words "Civil Engineers."

Same page. — After tbe 29tb line insert tbe following paragraph (the final paragraph re-
maining as printed):

" It must be confessed that tbe high rank of tbe Corps des Fonts et Chaussees must be
attributed to tbe system of admission through tbe best schools and admitting only the best
pupils. This system is a democratic system, its positions being given not as a privilege to
rich or noble people, but to the most able young men. Nevertheless, I believe that tbe doors
are not enough open to such engineers as succeed in educating themselves in other ways
with the intention of obtaining governmental positions. In France the tendency to be an
employe of tbe government is a general one. I believe it is not so in tbe United States, and
it proves that your people have more feeling for independence, and it is better for you."

June, 1886— Discussion by Geoege H. Pegram. Page 477. In Table, for the word Mogul,
read Class M. Page 479. Table for Case 3. Third line, fourth column, for 205 414, read
295 414.

July, 1886.— Johnson on the Strength of Columns. Page 522, in equations (6), (7) and (8),
acd page 523, in equations (15), (16) and (17), instead of tbe letter I, there should be the
Hgure 1.

July, 1886.— Discussion on The Strength of Columns, by James Christie, M. Am. Soc.
C. E. Table on Page 533. The first line referring to hard steel reads:

Hardsteel | l^Xli XJJ | 42 | 1.25 | 48 300 ] 38 610 | 93

This should read as follows:

Hardsteel | IJXlj X^| | 42 | 1.25 | 48 300 | 38 610 | 114

Mr. Christie states that the error was made original y in making the report of the tests
and not discovered till in print.



AMEEICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.

INSTITUTED 1852.



T J^^iS^ S_A CTIO N S.

Note. — This Society is not responsible, as a body, for the facts and opinions advanced in any
of its publications.



318.

(Vol. XV.— Jauuary, 1886.;



ENGLISH AND AMEEICAN EAILROADS COM-
PARED.



By Edwakd Bates Dorset, M. Am. Soc. C. E.

Bead at the ANNUAii Convention, June 24th, 1885.

With Additions Bead October 7th, 1885.



Perhaps the first thing that strikes an American engineer in railroad
traveling in England * is the inconvenience of the English * passenger
car. It should, however, be considered that this style of car suits the
exclusive and retiring character of the English; and also that very
long journeys, such as we ai'e accustomed to make, are impossible in
such a small island ; moreover, the English do not travel nearly as
much as we do, consequently the conflnemetit in a small, locked-up

* Explanatory Note. — In this paper, unless otherwise stated.

The words England or English will represent the United Kingdom, i. e., England, Scot-
land, Wales and Ireland.

The pound sterling will be considered equal to five dollars .American money.
■ The American ton contains 2 000 pounds.

The English ton contains 2 210 pounds.

The data used in this paper relating to the English railroads, were taken from the

orts of the Board of Trade of the United Kingdom, or from the reports of the different
!>oad companies.

The data relating to the American railroads were taken from the reports of the Railroad
Commissioners of the different States, Poor's Manual, and the reports of the different rail-
road companies.

For some unexplained reason, these different authorities do not always agree, conse-
quently there may be apparent errors in this paper, when comparison is made with
authority different from that from which it was originally taken.




2 DORSEY ON" ENGLISH AND AMERICAN RAILROADS.

comijartment is uot so much felt as it woiikl l)e with us in our long
journeys.

Much allowance must be made for the modern English railway
engineer. Whatever faults he may have seen in the passenger cars, lie
has been jjowerless to make any important change, except at an un-
justifiable cost. Stephenson and his colleagues mounted the old stage-
coach body on car wheels, which became the type of the i^assenger
cars ; and coal wagons that were then in use in the collieries were i)ut
on the railroad, and became the type of freight cars; and before the
conservative English character thought that they ought to be improved,
and should be changed, the trunk lines had been built, adapted to this
narrow^ and low type of rolling stock; to have made it wider and higher
later would have required the removing and reconstruction of the
masonry jjlatforms, the raising and widening of bridges and tunnels — in
fact, almost a reconstruction of the road. This will prevent the use of
our high, wide and pleasant cars. It is uot fair to blame the modern
English engineer for continuing the use of this description of cars,
which he cannot change at any justifiable expense.

Ow'ing to the extent of the United States and the apparent isolation
of our early railroads, or separation from each other (at the beginning
Ave did not think as much of continuous connections, and not breaking-
bulk as we do noAv), our engineers were comparatively free to invent
and adopt the best system according to their judgment, and later, Avhen
it became necessary to consolidate, the fittest has survived in our
2)resent system. Perhaps, OAving to our bad roads, the American stage-
coach did not come up to the American engineer's idea of hixurious or
comfortable traveling ; hence he kejjt on imjiroving, and develojied
the Pullman hotel train as run between New York and St. Louis or
Chicago, while on the good English roads this stage-coach came up to
Stephenson's ideas of comfort and luxury.

Engineering, Locating, etc.

It is evident that the English engineer was not obliged to study
economy so closely as the American in locating or constructing; judging
by the work, the former has always had at his disjiosal abundance of
time and money. The roads built by him could not have been built, as
some of onr American roads have been, at the rate of over five miles per
day; or, as some were done, by laying the rails first and afterwards



DORSET ON EXGLISH AND AMERICAN RAILROADS. 3

building the road. The English engiueer seems to have the idea that
the railroad should be built as uear a straight line and level as jjos-
sible. and is willing to spend a much larger amount to approach this
ideal iierfeetiou than the American engineer is. Consequently the Eng-
lish railroad is located much straighter, with easier curves and grades
than the American location would have been over the same ground, but
at greatly increased cost in money and time required for construction.
Kecently English engineers have introduced on their new roads curves
and grades that would have been considered impracticable by Steplien-
son and his contemporaries.

In locating railroads in England, the engineer derives much assist-
ance from the maps of the Ordnance Survey, which are so i^erfect that
the route and approximate location can be determined before going on
the ground in all the counties; while some counties are so perfectly
contoured that a location and profile could be made without a survey,
Avhich would be correct enough for preliminary jiurposes.

Special Acts of Parliament must be obtained for every new road or
branch. Before this can be applied for, much less obtained, there must



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