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Entered according to act of Congress, by the American Society of Civil Engineers, in
the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Note.— This Society is not responsible, as a body, for the facts and opinions advanced

in any of its publications.









783 The Astoria City Water-Works.

By Arthur L. Adams 1

Discussion on Paper No. 783.

By KcDOLPH Bering 50

Correspondence on Paper No. 783.

By Edmdkd B. Weston 51

S. Bent Russell 52

James H. Harixjw 52

E. Sherman Gould 54

Franklin Riffle 56

David C. Uenny 58

Arthur L. Adams 62

784 The Construction of a Light Mountain Railroad in the Republic of Colombia.

By E. J. Chibas 65

Correspondence on Paper No. 784.

By Robert A. Cummings 86

E. Sherman Gould 86

Jose R. Villalon 87

E J. Chibas 89

785 The Condition of Steel in Bridge Pins.

By A. C. Cunningham 91

Discussion on Paper No. 785.

By William Metcalf 100

Correspondence on Paper No. 785.

By George T. Deforest 102

George S. Morison 102

A. C. Cunningham 104

786 Improving the Entrance to a Bar Harbor by a Single Jetty.

By T. W. STMON8 109

W Discussion on Paper No. 786.

By G. F. Allardt 125

G. H. Mendell 127

Correspondence on Paper No. 786.

By F. V. Abbot 132

Lewis M.HAurr 133

T. W. Stmons 135

787 Some General Nots on Ocean Waves and Wave Force.

r) By Theodore Coop EB 139

Discussion on Paper No. 787.

By Charles Macdonald 159

Correspondence on Paper No. 787.

V By Rudolph Hebino 159

( j^ Robert Fletcher 161

Theodore Cooper 169




788 A Waier Power and Compressed Air Transmission Plant for the North Star Min-

ing Company, Grass Valley, Cal.

By Abthur De Wint Foote 171

Discussion on Paper No. 788.

By S. S. Wheeleb 191

William Doble 191

Correspondence on Paper No. 788.

By C. G. YouNo 192

A. D. Foote 193

789 Flow of Water in Wrought and Cast-iron Pipes from 28 to 48 Ins. in Diameter.

By Isaac W. Smith 197

Correspondence on Paper No. 789.

By Abthub L. Adams 212

L.J. Le Conte 212

Isaac W. Smith 214

790 The New Water- Works of Havana, Cuba.

By E. Sherman Gould 217

Discussion on Paper No. 790.

By Thomas Curtis Clabee 232

Edward Wegmann 232

E. J. Chibas 233

Correspondence on Paper No. 790.

By G. L. Chbistian 234

Emile Low , 234

L.J. Le Conte 236

E. Shebman Gould 237

791 The Suspension of Solids in Flowing Water.

By Elon Huntington Hookee 239

Discussion on Paper No. 791.

By T.C.Clarke 325

L. L. Buck 325

Fosteb Ceowell 825

Correspondence on Paper No. 791.

By Leon Pabtiot 326

A. Flamant 327

William Stabling , 328


L. J. LeConte 338

Elon Huntington Hooeeb 340

792 The Ueconstruction of Grand River Bridge.

By W. A. ROGEEs 341

Correspondence on Paper No. 792.

By Onward Bates 356

Emile Low . 356

793 Suspension Bridges. — A Study. *

By Geoege S. Morison 359

Discussion on Paper No. 793.

By T. C. Claeke 417

Joseph M ayee 420

F. Collingwood 427

Theodore Coopee 428

E. Gtbbon Spilsbuey 435

W. H. Breithaupt 437


Correspoudence on Paper No. 793.



C W. Raymond 458

g. bouscaren 462

Foster Crowell 464

J. E. Greiner 467

GusTAVE Kaufman 469

J. C. Meem 470

T. Kennard Thomson 471

George S. Morison 471

794 Experiments on the Protection of Steel and Aluminum Exposed to Sea Water.

By A, H. Sabin 483

Discnssion on Paper No, 794.

By Francis T. Bowles 494

William Barclay Parsons 495

W. M. Stiles 496

M. R. Sherrerd 496

R. D. Upham 496

Correspondence on Paper No. 795.

By Foster Crowell 498

R. P. HOBSON 500

L. M. Hastings 504

A. H. Sabin 506

79.5 A Resurvey of the Williamsport Division of the Philadelphia and Reading Rail-
road. (Abstract.)

By George D. Snyder 509

796 The Proper Profile for Resisting Wave Action. (Abstract.)

By Robert Fletcher 514


Alexander Dallas Bache, Hon. M. Am. 8oc. C. E 522

Emile Maleziedx, Hon. M. Am. Soc. C. E 524

Joseph G. Totten, Hon. M. Am. Soc C. E 525

Squire Whipple. Hon. M. Am. Soc. C. E.. 527

William Milnor Roberts, Past-President Am. Soc. C. E 531

Job Abbott, M. Am. Soc. C. E 538

William Albert Allen, M. Am. Soc. C. E 539

James Barnes, M. Am. Soc. C. E 540

Henry Isaac Bliss, M. Am. Soc. C. E 541

Henry D. Blunden, M. Am. Soc. C. E 542

Robert Bbiggs, M. Am. Soc. C. E 542

Robert Linah Cobb, M. Am. Soc. C. E 545

Zerah Colburn, M. Am. Soc. C. E 546

Addison Connor, M. Am Soc. C. E 551

ECKLET Bhinton Coxe, M. Am. Soc. C. E 652

Horace La Fayette Eaton, M. Am. Soc. C. E 554

John Roberts GiLLiss, M. Am. Soc. C. E 655

William Harrison Grant, M. Am. Soc. C. E 667



Robert G. Hatfield, M. Am. Soc. C. E 558

Norman James Nichols, M. Am. Soc. C. E 559

Albert Franklin Notes, M. Am. Soc. C. E 560

Henry Ward Beecher Phinney, M. Am. Soc. C. E 563

Thomas Pbosser, M Am. Soc. C. E 564

Willard Smith Pope, M. Am. Soc. C. E 565

James Clarence Post, M. Am, Soc. C. E 569

Henry Frederick Rudloff, M. Am. Soc. C. E 570

Isaac Monroe St. John, M. Am. Soc. C. E 571

Howard ScnrYLER, M. Am. Soc. C. E 572

Thomas Jennings Seelt, M. Am. Soc C. E 574

Samuel Henry Shreve, M. Am. Soc. C. E 676

Frederick Ellsworth Sickels, M. Am. Soc. C. E 577

WiLMON W. C. Sites. M. Am. Soc. C. E 582

John Chambers Thompson, M. Am. Soc. C. E 584

Charles Truesdell, M. Am. Soc. C. E 585

Louis Roberts Walton, M. Am. Soc. C. E 586

Orlando Belina Wheeler, M. Am. Soc. C. E 587

John Allston Wilson, M. Am. Soc. C. E 688

Jam es Hugh Stan wood, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E 690

Charles Wood, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E 591

Frank Berebford, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E 594

William Alexis George Emonts, Jun. Am. Soc, C, E 594

Vernon Hill Gridley, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E 595

Russell Wadsworth Hildreth, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E 596

Albert Jacob Stahlbebg, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E 597

William Rowland Aspinwall, F. Am. Soc. C. E 598

George Washington Cass, Jr., F. Am. Soc. C. E 599

Thomas C. Durant, F. Am. Soc. C. E 602

Sidney Dillon. F. Am. Soc, C. E 603

Henry Farnam, F. Am. Soc. C. E 605

Alfred Krupp, F. Am. Soc. C. E 609

William C. Kingsley, F. Am. Soc. C E 612

Frederick W. Merz, F. Am. Soc. C. E 615

MoRee Swift, F. Am. Soc. C. E 616


plate. paper, page

I. Fig. 1. Apparatus for Measuring Tension in Stave Bands 783 19

" 2. View of Astoria Reservoir during Construction 783 19

It, Views on Line of Mountain Railroad 784 71

m. " " ■< " 784 83

IV. Chart of Grays Harbor, Wash 786 111

V. Views of Aqueduct at Grass Valley, Cal 788 175

VI. Water- Works and Air Compressors, Grass Valley, Cal 788 179

VII. Views of Havana Reservoir under Construction 790 223

VIII. •• " " Completed 790 229

IX. Views of Grand River Bridge 792 358

Views of Metal Plates Exposed to Action of Fresh Water 794 505





Note. — This Society is not responsible, as a body, for ttie facts and opinions advanced

in any of its publications.

No. 783.


By Akthub L. Adams, M. Am. Soc. C. E.
Pbesented May 6th, 1896.


It is an attractive feature of the engineer's vocation that each
engagement presents for solution new and often interesting problems
which tax both skill and ingenuity, and it is seldom that the results
when carefully observed and properly recorded, are not of both interest
and profit to others in the profession. The author proposes to make
brief mention of the old water-works of Astoria, Ore. , and to present
a description of the works just comjaleted, and to accompany it with
such notes and observations incident to construction, cost and final
determination of results as many engineers in charge of work record
in their private note-books, but, at the expense of the profession at
large, often fail to make a matter of public recital. In the amount of
expenditure involved these works are in no way excejjtional, but in
variety of work and consequent interest, it is believed that they have not
been often exceeded, even by works of considerably greater magnitude.


The OiiD Works.

The city of Astoria, first established in 1811 by John Jacob Aster,
and made memorable by Washington Irving's "Astoria," is situated
on the south shore of the Columbia Eiver, here 7 miles in width, about
12 miles above its mouth, and occupies a much broken peninsula
rising to a height of 600 ft. between the Columbia River and Yoiing's

In 1883-84, the Columbia Water Company, a private corporation,
built a system of works utilizing Bear Creek, a small mountain stream
flowing into the Columbia about 7 miles above the town, as a source of
sujjply. The water was conducted by gravity to the town through a
line of lap-welded wrought-iron pipe of the following sizes and
lengths: 1 825 ft. of 10-in., 2 275 ft. of 8-in., 59 000 ft. of 6-in. The
line terminated in a reservoir of 500 000 galls, capacity biiilt at a flow-
line elevation above mean low tide of 166 ft., from which the water was
distributed over the town through pipes ranging in size from 6 ins. to
1 in., the smaller sizes largely predominating. No provision was made
for fire protection from these works. No especial interest attaches to
them other than as showing a remarkable example of how works may
be built by so-called jjractical men without incurring any expense for
engineering supervision; 140 000 galls, in 24 hours is all that the pipe-
line could ever be made to deliver into the reservoir, not over 60 or 70%"
of what might reasonably have been expected if properly built. The line
was laid from the source immediately to tide water in the Columbia,
without recourse to instrumental work, and thence down the tide flats
to town, thus subjecting the entire line to the greatest pressure pos-
sible, and to the destructive action of the salt water, which in the
course of a very few years so thoroughly honeycombed the pipe as to
render it a very serious question from day to day whether or no water
could be supplied to consumers on the morrow. In addition to this
the pipe was laid without regard to either alignment or grade, and
with so little cover that the lateral components of the thrust at sharp
angles frequently pulled the joints entirely ai>art.

This train of evils consequent upon stupid work led in 1891 to an
agitation on the part of the citizens which culminated in the appoint-
ment by an act of the State Legislature of a Board of Water Commis-
sioners, authorized to purchase the works of the Columbia Water
Company, to reconstruct the same, or to build new works with a view


to greater efficiency and supply, and to issue municipal bonds in an
amount not exceeding ^500 000 necessary for tlie accomplishment of
these ends.

Shortly after its organization, the Commission purchased the old
works for the sum of $75 000. Some effort was then made to secure an
imjirovement of the sei-vice without resorting at once to entire recon-
struction, but without any satisfactory results being attained, while
repeated interruptions in the water supply by failure in the gravity
line, the insufficiency of the supply, and the inability of the system as
built to afford water to any of the higher elevations of the city, all
rendered apparent the necessity for speedy construction of new works.

The New Works.

In November of 1893 the author reported for the Commission on an
increased water supply, and recommended the construction of a new
system substantially as has been subsequently carried out. During
the following spring a beginning was made on the preliminary sur-
veys and plans, but the general business depression of 1893 influenced
the Commission to suspend operations indefinitely. In July, 1894,
however, matters were again taken up with the intention of getting
construction under way the following spring. In order to meet in a
measure the pressing public demand for more water pending the con-
struction of the new works, the old gravity line was parted at tide-
water elevation, about 8 000 ft. distant from the reservoir, and diverted
into a tank, thereby securing about 160 ft. more fall in the pipe line
and an increase of one-half in the discharge. From the tank the water
was pumped to the reservoir by arrangement with the electric street
railway company to supply the power. The plans for the new works
were completed and the i:)rogramme for construction carried out as
previously purposed.

Water Supply. — The water sujiply is derived from Bear Creek, the
diversion being made about 1 mile farther up the stream than was se-
lected in the construction of the old works. This is a beautiful
mountain stream having a drainage area above the diverting jsoint of
4.82 square miles, all of which is heavily timbered and covered with a
dense growth of moss and ferns. During the rainy season the run-off
varies from 10 000 000 to 30 000 000 galls, in 24 hours, and the dense
vegetation serves to retain and prolong the supply during the few


weeks of dry weather in August and September to an extent very un-
usual in a stream having so limited a drainage area. The yield of
this area was materially increased by diverting into Bear Creek above
the head works another stream, Cedar Creek, which originally en-
tered a mile farther down, this work being accomplished at almost no
expense. Careful weir measiirements of the flow of the stream during
the lowest stages show the following resiilts:

1890 5 118 000 galls, in 24 hours below mouth of Cedar Creek.

1891 4 763 000

1892 4 280 000

1893 2 646 000

1894 2 400 000

1893 718 000


in Cedar Creek.

From these results and because of the ease with which about
50 000 000 galls, can be stored just above the diverting weir, it was as-
sumed that a daily supply of 4 000 000 galls, could be made available
from this source with a reasonable degree of certainty. It was accord-
ingly determined that this figure should be made the basis for all
computations of capacity in the new works. The construction of the
storage reservoir was, however, to be deferred until the demand for a
supply in excess of that afforded by the stream direct should necessi-
tate its construction. This determination as to capacity in the con-
struction of the new works was also influenced by the rapid growth of
the town, now having a population of fully 10 000, and by the fact
that the large and available sources of supply for the future city will
all be brought in over the same general route adopted for the new

General Arrangement. — Briefly outlined, the new works consist of
the following structures : The head works on Bear Creek, a small ma-
sonry diverting weir with a crest elevation of 589.35 ft., diverts the
water through a head gate into a small receiving basin, from which ii
is led through an 18-in. wood-stave pipe to a masonry settling basin
1 000 ft. distant, where it is screened and weired. The water is then
conducted through pipes of the following character and ox'der: 11 956
ft. of 18-in. wood-stave pipe, 1 239 ft. of 16-in. riveted steel pipe,
10 450 ft. of 18-in. wood pipe, 2 413 ft. of 16-in. steel pipe, 3 606 ft. of
18-in. wood pipe, 12 776 ft. of 16-in. steel pipe, and 13 082 ft. of 18-in.


wood pipe — in all a little over 10.5 miles, to an elevation within the
city limits of 425.75 ft. Thence it passes hy a rapid descent through
5 574 ft. of 14-in. steel riveted pipe to the power and gate hoi;se at the
new reservoir. The elevation of the water surface of the reservoir
when full is 282.4 ft., and of the point of power development 289.00 ft.
The reservoir has a capacity of 6 250 000 galls, and is located on the
Young's Bay side of the peninsula, while the city is situated princi-
pallv on the Columbia side. From the reservoir the water is conveved
to the distributing system through an 18-in. pipe laid in a tunnel
1 200 ft. long, passing through the divide. The distribution is di-
vided at present into a low and high service, the lower being supplied
from the small reservoir previously connected with the old works, and
the high service from the new reservoir. These two services, in case
of fire, are thrown together, the lower reservoir cut out by the opera-
tion of a check valve, and the pressure secured from the upper reser-
voir. This end is accomjilished by the operation of two hydraulic lift
gates which are both opened and closed from the central fire station
by means of a special hydraulic gate governor designed for this jjur-
pose. Two other services of greater elevation will eventually be
added, three of the four being sujiplied by gravity. The fourth will
be supplied by pumping with water power at the new power house.

Construction. — It was expected that by letting all contracts for
materials and construction during the winter months, the contractors
would be able to comjilete the work during the dry season, usually
lasting in this locality from June 1st to October 1st. Accordingly
advertisement was made in December, and bids opened on January
10th, 1895. Proposals wei-e invited on the work divided into seven
divisions, each being segregated into the different items entering into
it, and a percentage of reduction from the aggregate amount of the
proposal asked in consideration of the entire seven divisions being
awarded to the same person. The divisions referred to were as follows:

Fh-st. — Clearing and grubbing the conduit right of way and grad-
ing the road alongside it; making necessary bridges and culverts;
constructing a telephone line; excavating and refilling the conduit
trench, and excavating the reservoir.

Second. — Head works, diverting weir and settling basin.

Third. — Lining reservoir, erecting gate and power house, including
the furnishing and placing of all gates, fittings and aijpliances in it.


Fourth. — Wooden stave conduit, furnishing and laying.

Fifth. — Riveted steel conduit, furnishing and laying.

Sixth. — Distributing system.

Seventh. — Tunnel.

Eighth. — All cement required on the work.

The almost entire absence of construction work on the Pacific Coast
at this time rendered the bidding exceedingly spirited, with the final
result that the Commission was confronted with the alternative of
awarding several important divisions of the work on jjroposals, which,
thongh formal in the last degree, and supported by contractors deter-
mined to have their rights recognized and to secure the work at any
cost, were manifestly less in amount than that for which the work could
be performed; or on the other hand, rejecting these bids and awarding
to higher bidders. The author holds, in the much-discussed question
to which this gives rise, that though a private person or company may
often, with creditable discretion, discard a bid that is too low, yet in
handling the funds of a municipality, if the proposal is strictly formal
and the sureties satisfactory, the administrator of such funds cannot
with due propriety and proper regard for the wishes of the ijublic
whom it serves discard such a bid. The subject has proved an inter-
esting one in Astoria in the light of after developments. After a care-
ful consideration of the matter, the awards were made to the lowest
bidder in each case, and divisions 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were let in accord-
ance with the above hypothesis, all biit No. 6 being united in one
award. Nos. 5, 6 and 8 were each awarded separately to different parties.
While it was to be expected that some unpleasant conflict of interest
would arise from this dividing of the work, yet the large saving to the
city thereby was considered amply compensative.

Proj)osals were invited on $200 000 of bonds at the same time that
bids were asked on the construction, but through certain unexpected
difficulties in their negotiation, the money was not realized on them
until the following May, when the contractors were immediately noti-
fied to proceed with the work. In the mean time the contracts for
construction had been held in trust by a third party, to be delivered
on the mutual consent of the princijials.

The delay in getting the work started, and the necessity of ordering
most of the steel used in the construction from the East at a time when
the suddenly increased demand made it exceedingly difficult to get


orders from a distance filled, caused it to be very Jate in the summer
before work was well started on several of the contracts.

Affairs moved along as smoothly as can be expected on work where
the majority of the contractors are losing money, until the middle of
September, when the contractor for divisions 1, 2, 3 and 7 suddenly
failed, and disappeared to escape the vengeance of some hundreds of
unpaid laboi-ers. The customary suits, attachments and injunctions
immediately followed. A few thousand dollars allowed on estimates,
still in the hands of the Commission to the credit of the bankrupt
concern, neither public fiinds nor public works being attachable in
Oregon, were by the order of the court paid over to a receiver. The
Italian element, which largely predominated among the laborers, not
being satisfied with the slow jarocess of law in the recovery of their
claims, and being incited by irresponsible and incendiary agitators,
after trying for some days to force the payment of their employer's
private debts oiit of the public funds in the hands of the Water Com-
mission by parading the streets in iull force in martial order and by
besieging the offices and residences of the members of the Commission
and of the engineer, finally inaugurated a strike against the city.
Ai'ming themselves with guns, axes and clubs they forced the suspen-
sion of all work outside the immediate confines of the town, notified
all parties that any attempt to resume, until they had been paid in
full, would be at the jaeril of their lives, and that ixnless they were
speedily settled with, the works already built would be destroyed with
giant powder. The Commission resisted the revilings and ill-con-
sidered advice of a large but misguided portion of the citizens, and
steadfastly refused to incur a single expenditure not legally author-
ized. In the mean time arrangements were made with the bondsmen
of the defunct comj^any to proceed with the work, and public senti-
ment was satisfied when all strikers were offered work, payment of
wages to be made weekly, and guarauteed by the city. As was antici-
pated, the strikers, misinterpreting these actions, attributed them to
fear instead of symjjathy, and remained as obdurate as ever, refusing
to change their position until all claims for back wages were satisfied.
This being impossible, however desirable, through lack of suitable
legislation in Oregon, and public sympathy being then largely with-
drawn, a determined effort was made to start the work, which was
without much difficulty effected by the moral suasion of 25 Winches-


ters. Most of the men returned to work in the course of a few days ;
but after trying in vain for two weeks to get decent and expeditioixs
work from this element, which, through the influence of agitators and
Italian lawyei's, constantly maintained a menacing attitude, the author
gave up in despair and had the entire force summarily removed from
the work, and new laborers employed.

The gravity line was completed, and the water formally tiirned into
the new i-eservoir on December 21st, in the presence of a large number
of enthusiastic citizens. Although this was ostensibly the first water
to enter any part of the new work, perhaps it is unnecessary to add
that everything had been very quietly but thoroughly tested be-
forehand; and any imperfections in workmanship, liable to grow into
a mountain of difficulty in the eyes of the populace, were well taken
care of in advance.

The tunnel was completed on February 22d, and water was
turned through from the reservoir into the low-service distribution
about February 10th. In the meantime, however, the city had for
some weeks been supplied from the new conduit by laying a temjjo-
rary line of pipe up over the tunnel point and down to the low-service

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