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TRANSACTIONS



AMERICAN SOCIETY



GIYIL ENGINEEES



(INSTITUTED 1852.)



VOL. LVI.
JUNE, 1906.



Edited by the Secretary, under the direction of the Committee on Publications.

Reprints from this publication, which is copyrighted, may be made on condition that

the full title of Paper, name of Author and page reference are given.



NEW YORK :

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY,



1906.



"^G^O.a



Entered according to Act of Congress, by the American Society op Civil Engineers,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



Note.— This Society is not responsible, as a body, for the facts and opinions advanced
in any of its publications.



^



CONTENTS.

PAPERS.

No. PAGE.

1014 THE INSPECTION OF TREATMENT FOR THE PROTECTION OF TIM-

BER BY THE INJECTION OF CREOSOTE OIL.

By H. R. Stanford 1

Discussion on Paper No. 1014:

By James C. Haugh 10

J. L. Campbell 15

Cliff S. Walker 17

E. H. Bowser 18

L. J. Le Conte 23

John B. Lindsey, Jr 25

W. K. Hatt 31

H. R. Stanford 31

1015 THE CHANGES AT THE NEW CROTON DAM.

By Charles S. Oowen 33

Discussion on Paper No. 1015:

By William R. Hill 45

Frederic P.Stearns 51

Alfred Craven 52

George S. Rice 63

Edwin Duryea, Jr 65

Charles S. Gowen 66

1016 A NEW GRAVING DOCK AT NAGASAKI, JAPAN.

By Naoji Shiraishi 73

Discussion on Paper No. 1016:

By E. P. Goodrich 79

M. Otagawa 80

Charles M. Jacobs 80

R. C. Hollyday 82

L. J. Le Conte 86

Charles Albertson 87

' L. F. Bellinger 89

Naoji Shiraishi 89



§



1017 THE THEORY OF CONTINUOUS COLUMNS.

By Ernst F. Jonson 92

c

^ -1018 THE POSITION OF THE CONSTRUCTING ENGINEER, AND HIS DUTIES
{j' IN RELATION TO INSPECTION AND THE ENFORCEMENT OF

r CONTRACTS.

By Albert J. Himes 104

Discussion on Paper No. 1018 :

^ By James Smith Haring 123

C^ W. D. LoVELL 125

\ ^ Benjamin Thompson 126

0^~~'^ S. Bent Russell 128

( WiLLARD Beahan 131

^^^.^ W. A. Aiken 134

J^*^-—^ Augustus Smith 137

V A^ G. S. Bixby 139

Qj Albert J. Himes 141



IV

No. PAGK.

1019 TEST OF A THREE-STAGE, DIRECT-CONNECTED, CENTRIFUGAL

PUMPING UNIT.

By Philip E. Harroun 144

Discussion on Paper No. 1019:

By J. Richards 150

C. D. Marx 155

Arthur L. Adams 156

Joseph N. Le Conte 157

Elmo G. Harris 157

W. B. Gregory 159

H. F. Dunham 162

Clyde Potts 163

Edwin Duryea, Jr 167

Philip E. Harroun 168

1020 AN ANALYSIS OF GENERAL FLEXURE IN A STRAIGHT BAR OF

UNIFORM CROSS=SECTION.

By L. J. Johnson 169

1021 THE PANAMA CANAL.

By A. G. Menocal 197

Discussion on Paper No. 1021 :

By George B. Francis 204

Theodore Paschke 205

Clemens Herschel 206

A . G. Menocal 214

1022 THE SCRANTON TUNNEL OF THE LACKAWANNA AND WYOMING

VALLEY RAILROAD.

By George B. Francis and W. F. Dennis 219

Discussion on Paper No. 1022:

By F. Lavis 242

V. H. Hewes 248

VV. F. Dennis 249

1023 THE ECONOMICAL DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR

SYSTEMS FOR FIRE=RESISTING STRUCTURES.

By John S. Seweli 252

Discussion on Paper No. 1023:

By Wilbur J. Watson 289

Clarence W. Noble 291

I. Kreuger 294

Richard T. Dana 296

C. A. P. Turner , . 297

Ernst F. Jonson 309

Leonard C. Wason 311

E. P. Goodrich 332

Edwin Teacher 347

H. T. Forchammer 349

Arthur W. French 360

Irving P. Church 365

B. R. Leffler 370

George Hill 372

F. P. Shkarwood 376



V

No. PAGE.

Mansfield Merriman 376

A. H. Perkins 385

Langdon Pearse 387

C. B. Wing 390

William Cain 393

John S. Sewell 396

1034 NEW FACTS ABOUT EYE=BARS.

By Theodore Cooper 411

Discussion on Paper No. 1024:

By Henry B. Seaman 429

Mansfield Merriman 429

Albert J. Himes 431

A. W. Carpenter 433

John Thomson 435

Mace Moulton 439

John D. Van Buren 439

J. W. SCHAUB 442

H. DE B. Parsons 443

Theodore Cooper 446

1025 THE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLIES AND WATER-SUPPLY
ENGINEERING. -ADDRESS AT THE ANNUAL CONVENTION, FRON-
TENAC, THOUSAND ISLANDS, N. Y., JUNE 26TH, 19o6.

By Frederic P. Stearns 451



MEMOIRS OF DECEASED MEMBERS.



Anthony Houghtaling Blaisdell, M. Am. Soc. C. E

David Maxson Greene, M. Am. Soc. C. E

Gabriel Leverich, M. Am. Soc. C. E

James MacNaughton. M. Am. Soc. C. E

William Marshall Rees, M. Am. Soc. C. E

Archer Cochran Stites, M. Am. Soc. C. E

John Walker Barriger, Jr., Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E

Van DusEN Hite-Smith, A.ssoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E

George Draper Stratton, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E



PAGE.

464
466
469
471
473
475
477
479
481



PLATES.



PLATE. PAPER. PAGE.

I. Foundations of New Croton Dam, Core- Wail. Hardpan, etc.. 1015 35

II. Plan of Site of Nagasal£i Graving Doclc 1016 75

in. Plan and Sections of Nagasal^i Graving Dock 1016 77

IV. Views of Nagasaki Graving Dock During Construction 1016 79

V. Entrance of Nagasaki Graving Dock 1016 81

VI. Pumping Plant of Nagasaki Graving Dock 1016 83

VII. View of Nagasaki Graving Dock, Completed 1016 85

VIII. Centrifugal Pumping Unit; and Weir 1019 145

IX. S-Polygons for American Standard Z-Bars 1030 193

X. Map of Panama Canal : Present Location and Proposed Change. 1021 199



VI



PLATE.
XI.



XIII.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX.

XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.

XXIV.

XXV.

XXVI.

XXVII.

XXVIII.

XXIX.

XXX.

XXXI.

XXXII.

XXXIII.



PAPER.

Profiles of Panama Canal: Present Location and Proposed

Change 1021

Plan, Elevation and Cross-Section of Viaduct-Dam-Control-
ling Works 1021

Elevation and Longitudinal Section of Viaduct-Dam-Control-
ling Works, Chagres River Crossing 1021

Map of Scranton. showing Tunnel Location 1022

North and South Approaches, Scranton Tunnel 1022

Profile. Scranton Tunnel, showing Progi-ess 1022

Profile, Scranton Tunnel, showing Lining 1022

Sections of Scranton Tunnel 1022

Sections of Scranton Tunnel 1022

Sections of Scranton Tunnel 1022

Scranton Tunnel, Timber-Lined Section and South Portal 1023

Scranton Tunnel, Hoisting Rig and Shaft-Housing 1022

Slab Construction, Warehouse, N. W. Knitting Company 102.3

Test Loads on Floor of Warehouse, Minneapolis Paper Com-
pany 1023

Types of Reinforced Concrete Beams 1023

Types of Reinforced Concrete Beams 1023

Types of Reinforced Concrete Beams 1023

Diagram of Strains in Eye-bar Head 1024

Diagrams of Strains in Typical Eye-bar Heads 1024

Northeasterly Part of Spot Pond Reservoir 1025

Dark Hollow Pond, adjoining Spot Pond Reservoir 1025

Dam No. 2 at Fells Reservoir 1025

Dam No. 4 at i'ells Reservoir 1025



PAGE.

201

303

205
221
323
225
229
231



343
.345
347

445
447
457
459
461
463



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENaiNEEES.

INSTITUTED 1852.



TRANSACTIONS.



Paper No. 1014.

THE INSPECTION OF TREATMENT FOR THE

PROTECTION OF TIMBER BY THE INJECTION

OF CREOSOTE OIL.*

By H. K. Stanford, M. Am. Soc. C. E.



With Discussion by Messrs. James C. Haugh, J. L. Campbell,

Cliff S. Walker, E. H. Bowser, L. J. Le Conte,

John B. Lindsey, Jr., W. K. Hatt and

H. K. Stanford,



The principal features incident to the treatment of timber by
the creosoting process are the character and quantity of oil which
is injected. This paper treats only of the quantity of oil, and is
based upon tests and observations, made by the writer, upon yellow
pine treated for use in engineering structures in Pensacola Bay.

The depth of penetration and the quantity of injection determine
the extent to which creosote oil protects timber against both decay
and the attack of sea worms. The cost of the treatment is measured
■very closely by the quantity of the injection, the disproportionate
labor required for low treatments being largely offset by the in-
creased time required by the plant for high treatments. The usual
specification stipulates the required quantity of injection in terms
of pounds of oil per cubic foot of material.

The depth of the injection appears to be limited by the depth of
the sap wood, and the impregnation of the sap wood appears to be

* Presented at the meeting of December 20th, 1905.



2 INSPECTION OF THE CREOSOTING OF Ti:\IBER.

uniform, regardless of the quantity of oil which may be injected.
Heart wood is practically impervious to oil. Timber having a
maximum of sap wood is best suited for treatment by the creosoting
process, and uniformity in the character of all timber to be used
for any one construction is essential, in order to obtain the
uniform treatment of all members necessary for the maximum
efficiency and durability of the completed structure. Creosoted ma-
terial is poorly adapted to resist abrasive forces, as the sap wood is
soft and friable, and the heart wood readily splinters or disin-
tegrates in bundles of fibers.

The volume of the material to be treated is the accepted basis for
the determination of the quantity of oil which shall be injected.
The volume of dimension material can be obtained readily and
accurately; the volume of piling is computed after measuring the
diameters of the tips and butts, and the lengths, of the various-
piles, and assumes that the taper from butt to tip is uniform. The
actual measurement of each piece of material, and the calculation
of the actual volumes, is a rather tedious and monotonous task, and
is frequently avoided by the attendant guessing the volume, or, as
he would say, he "estimates the volume, from his experience." The
guessing method should never be permitted, as the volumes thus ob-
tained are almost certain to be in error, with the result that uni-
formity of treatment is sacrificed. The assumption that piling
tapers uniformly from end to end is not always justified; as an ex-
ample, the volume of a pile 80 ft. in length, chosen at random, was
found to be 59.0 cu. ft. if considered as tapering uniformly, whereas
it amounted to 62.7 cu. ft. when calculated from circumferential
measurements made at the ends and three intermediate points, show-
ing an excess of nearly 6.3% in the actual volume, as compared with
the theoretical volume.

The quantity of water which is mixed with the oil to be injected
is a factor which is given very little consideration by inspectors or
by the creosoting works. The oil commonly used is about 4% heavier
than water at a temperature of 100° fahr., and any water which
may be mixed with the oil can only be removed with considerable
difficulty. The oil, when delivered at the creosoting works from the
refinery, is usually carefully analyzed preliminary to acceptance,
but, afterward, the presence of water appears to be of less concern.



INSPECTIOX OF THE CREOSOTIXG OF TIMBER. 3

i!nd, unfortunately, cannot be detected by either the casual inspec-
tion of the mixture before injection or of the treated timber after
injection. The writer on two occasions has found as much as 19%
of water in oil which it was proposed to use for his work, and in one
instance there was 24% of water. It is not believed that water was
deliberately mixed with the oil, but its addition was probably
gradual and a natural result due to three principal causes, namely:
leakage in the steam coils used for keeping the oil liquid while in
storage, leakage in the heating coils in the treating cylinders during
the injection of oil, and the gathering of moisture from the loads
and from the treatment cylinders by the surplus oil which is ad-
mitted to the cylinders during treatment and is afterward returned
to storage. Dilution is a feature which is not given sufficient care
by superintendents, their excuse having been that they had been too
busy to consider water.

Heat applied during the treatment appears to be the only feature
of the creosoting process which affects the strength of the timber
under treatment, and the maximum temperature should be the least
which is consistent with the required injection. The process sub-
jects the material to heat during the entire period of treatment, but
the maximum temperature occurs during the initial or steaming
process. The pressure of the steam applied determines the length
of the steaming process, also the degree to which the succeeding
vacuum extracts moisture and sap from the load, and has a direct
bearing upon the total period of treatment and the capacity of the
load to take oil. Eesults at the Pensacola Navy Yard indicate that
yellow pine piling which was subjected to a steam pressure of 40 lb.
was very much more brittle and friable than was similar piling
treated with the same quantity of oil, but which was steamed at a
pressure of 15 lb.

The method which is practiced commercially for determining
the quantity of oil injected is very crude and unreliable, and the
writer believes that it fails to give even an approximate idea of the
injection. Explained briefly, the adopted method predetermines by
calculations the volume of oil which a load will require, and reduces
the quantity to the equivalent depth, expressed in feet, subdivided
to tenths or inches, which would be contained in an elevated storage
tank about 20 ft. in diameter. The ordinary cylinder load requires



4 INSPECTION OF THE CREOSOTING OF TIMBER.

an injection wliich will measure approximately, depending upon the
size of the load and the unit injection, from 6 to 18 in. in depth in
the storage tank. The delivery from the storage tank is measured
by an index, controlled by a wire and float, which slides in gradu-
ated vertical ways attached either to the outside of the tank or
located inside the works. The defects in the method are: lack of
refinement, as the result of using a measuring tank of large hori-
zontal capacity; lack of accuracy, due to frictional resistances and
elasticity in the movement of the tank gauge, and observed to repre-
sent as much as 10% of the total injection; no possible record of
losses due to leaking pipes, valves, and cylinder heads, all of which
losses deduct from the required injection; elimination of all check
on the honest and intelligent manipulation of the complicated pipe
system, with its numerous by-passes, during injection.

Contracts for creosoted material are founded upon the weight of
oil injected per cubic foot of timber, and the creosoting process
should be conducted in such a way that the purchaser may know,
with reasonable accuracy, the weight of oil which is given him, and
the uniformity with which that weight is distributed in the various
pieces of timber. If weight is the basis for contract, then weight is
the logical basis for treatment and its inspection. Inspection upon
a weight basis requires that three unit weights be obtained : first, the
weight of the green timber; second, the weight of the timber after
the vacuiim process; and, third, the weight of the treated timber.
The difference between the first and second weights represents the
weight of sap, moisture and volatile substances removed by the
steaming and vacuum processes; the difference between the second
and third weights is the weight of oil injected. It is impracticable
to obtain the weights of entire cylinder loads, and this necessitates
the selection of representative members from each load, which may
be taken in such number as may be agreed upon by both parties to
the contract; this feature involves no material inaccuracy, as all
pieces in any one load should be similar in character and of prac-
tically the same sectional dimensions, to insure uniform injection.
To obtain the weights after the vacuimi process would require that
the cylinders be opened, causing expense for labor, and reducing the
productive capacity of the plant; to avoid these objections, the speci-
fication should stipulate a percentage of the green weight to be used



INSPECTION OF THE CREOSOTING OF TIMBER.

to represent the loss in weight of the timber resulting from the
steaming and vacuum processes, and thereby eliminate all hardship
and permit definite inspection. The loss in weight from steaming
and vacuum treatment probably varies from a minimum of 3% for
low steam pressure and heart timber, to a maximum of 15% for
high steam pressure and light timber; a little experience will enable
the engineer to determine very closely the percentage which should
be adopted for any particular treatment and timber.

From the results of various practical tests, all of which were
quite consistent, the following is cited, to afford a comparison of the
quantity of injection, as determined by the foregoing two methods:
The load to be treated consisted of yellow pine piles, each 80 ft. in
length, with points not less than 7 in. in diameter, and was to re-
ceive 20 lb. of creosote oil per cubic foot. The piling timber was of
the species known locally as branch pine. It had been cut about
one week before treatment, and had air-seasoned for that period.
Two piles were chosen, which were believed to be typical of all
others in the load; pieces 5 ft. in length were cut from butt and
tip of one of the piles and weighed; the green weight of the second,
or entire, pile was also obtained; the two pieces and the entire pile
were then placed in the load to be treated. The calculated injection
for the load was increased 6%, or 1.2 lb. per cu. ft., to allow for the
difference between the actual volume of the piles and the theoretic
volume obtained upon the assumption that the piles tapered uni-
formly from butt to tip; it was also increased 0.2 lb. per cu. ft., to
provide for the increased content of the treating cylinder when
strained by the final pressure of 125 lb. per sq. in. required to inject
the oil; and further increased 1.0 lb. per cu. ft., to provide for losses
through leaky valves, etc. ; all the additions were unusual and special,
and made the treatment what would have been considered, cormner-
cially, 22.4 lb. per cu. ft. A steam pressure of 40 lb. was main-
tained for 15 hours, then a vacuum of 25 in. for 8 hours, after which
the cylinder was opened and the butt and tip pieces removed and
weighed, to determine the loss resulting from the steaming and
vacuum processes; the pieces were then replaced in the cylinder,
the cylinder was closed, and the injection of oil was begun. The
oil pimip was worked under a pressure which was gradually in-
creased to 130 lb., and required 9i hours to remove from the storage



6 INSPECTION OF THE CREOSOTING OF TIMBER.

reservoir the quantity of oil which had been estimated as equivalent
to 22.4 lb. per cu. ft. of load. About 3 hours are ordinarily suf-
ficient to make an injection, but more than 9 hours were required in
this case, and during the last hour an equivalent of only about J lb.
per cu. ft. of load was taken from the storage tank, indicating that
the load was saturated. The records for the two pieces and for the
entire pile are given in Table 1.



TAELE 1.





Butt.


Tip.


Pile.


Diameter, large end.


15.0 in.

14.0 -
5.0 ft.
5.75 cu. ft.

301.5 lb.
273.5 "
337.5 "
9.3.5/
53.4 lb.

47.6 •'

58.7 "

11.1 '•


7.3 in.

6.7 "

5.0 ft.

1.33 cu. ft.
70.0 lb.
61.5 "

81.5 "
12.1%

52.6 1b

46.3 '•

61.3 -
15.0 "


14.6 in.


Diameter, small end


8.3 "

80.0 ft.


Volume.


62.7 cu. ft.




3520.0 lb.


" after vacuum


3133.8 " estimated.


" " injection






11.0?ir estimated.


Weight per cubic foot, green

Weight per cubic foot, after


56.11b.

50.0 " estimated.


Weight per cubic foot, after in-
jection


63.5 "

13.5 " estimated.







The method by tank measurements indicated an injection of 22.4
lb. per cu. ft., as compared with 13.5 lb. per cu. ft. determined from
weight observations.

The record of the creosoted piling driven for the support of a
wharf at the Pensacola Navy Yard is of interest, as illustrating the
uncertainty of the protection afforded by the creosoting process
against the attack of sea worms. The timber is of the southern
yellow pine variety, and was treated at a plant located in West
Pascagoula, Miss., under a contract which required an injection
of 20 lb. of creosote oil per cu, ft. The piles were driven during
February and March, 1902, in about 26 ft. of water, and were cut
off about 4 ft. above mean low-tide level. Inspection of the piling
made in July, 1905, showed that, out of a total of 198 support and
fender piles, five were worm-eaten, two of them being so reduced in
section as to require their renewal. One of the defective piles was
broken off at the ground line, and the part above the break was cut



INSPECTION" OF THE CREOSOTING OF TIMBER. 7

into sections of about 4 ft. each for examination. There appeared to
be a sector of the pile of about 90°, and extending the entire length of
the piece, which had been penetrated by the worms and from which
the sap wood was almost entirely removed. The heart wood was
eaten away to a degree varying quite uniformly from about 100%
at the water line to 25% at the bottom, 26 ft. below. Above the
high-water line the pile was perfectly preserved, but the sector in
the sap wood above the worm-eaten portion was ranch lighter in
color than the remainder of the section, and did not appear to con-
tain much oil. Diametrically opposite to the large defective sector,
and for a length of about 5 ft. at about the middle of the piece, was
a second defective sector of about 30° which was badly worm-eaten,
and through which the worms had penetrated to the heart. All sap
wood, to its entire depth, appeared to be saturated with oil except in
the defective sectors. The other four piles seemed to have defective
sectors, similar to those in the first pile, one pile to an equal extent;
but in the other three the defects were apparently just beginning to
develop.

The following specification is proposed, to govern the creosoting
of green stock:

1. Treatment. — Timber shall be subjected to preliminary steam-
ing and vacuum treatments, to obtain the removal of water and sap,
and to open the pores of the wood, and shall then receive an in-
jection of — lb. of oil per cu. ft. of stock, which shall be forced into
the wood under pressure.

2. Steam Pressure. — The maximum steam pressure during the
steaming process, as recorded by a steam gauge, shall not exceed
2 lb. for each pound of oil which is to be injected per cubic foot of
stock.

3. Oil. — The oil shall be a dead oil of coal-tar, commonly known
as creosote oil. Its specific gravity shall be not less than 1.04 at
35° cent. It shall not contain more than 2J% of water. It shall
yield not more than 10% by weight when distilled up to 210° cent.
Between 210° and 235° cent., the distillate by weight shall not be less
than 25 nor more than 30%, and at least 30% by weight shall not
distill below 260° cent. A sample of oil for test shall be taken from
the side and near the middle of the treating cylinder after the
pump has begun the injection of oil. During the analysis of the



8 INSPECTION OE THE CEEOSOTING OF TIMBER.

oil, the thermometer bulb shall be kept about | in. above the surface
of the oil in the retort.*

Jf. Loading. — All pieces treated in any one cylinder load shall be
uxiiform in character and practically uniform in sectional dimen-
sions.

5. Injection. — The quantity of injection in each load which is
treated shall be determined from the relative green and treated
weights of one or more full-sized pieces contained in the load, and
the determined quantity shall be the difference between the treated
weight and the green weight after reducing the latter by two-thirds
of 1% for each pound of injection required by contract per cubic
foot of load; the number of pieces in excess of one shall be subject
to the desire of the contractor. The quantity of injection will be
satisfactory if it is within 5% of the quantity required by the con-
tract; no deduction will be made in the contract price for shortage
in injection within the 5% above allowed, and no additional compen-
sation wiU be allowed for injection in excess of the contract require-
ment, regardless of the amount of such excess.

Air-seasoning is preferable to artificial seasoning, but is usually
impossible to obtain, because of limited storage space and lack of
time. If timber is air-seasoned, a corresponding reduction should
be made in the permissible steam pressure and in the percentage of
reduction to be allowed in the green weight when determining the
quantity of injection. The percentage of water in the oil can
readily be kept within the proposed limits by the exercise of reason-
able care.

The tests upon which the foregoing opinions are based were
necessarily limited in number. The quality and character of yellow
pine varies between such wide limits, even in pieces which are ap-
parently the same, and which have been cut from adjoining stumps,
that general conclusions can be safely formulated only after much



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