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tration which fixed the value of this property at $699 000, when the
plant was purchased by the City.

* Memoir prepared by G. R. Solomon, M. Am. Soc. C. E.


In 1911, Mr. Caldwell prepared reports and plans on a 10 000-h.p.
hydro-electric development on the Ocmulgee River, near Juliet, and
was also engaged, as Chief Engineer, on the remodeling and extension
of the water-works system of the City of Macon.

In addition to his engineering work, Mr. Caldwell was interested in
several manufacturing concerns as an officer and decorator, and his
opinion was always sought and valued because of his fair-mindedness.
He was universally liked and trusted, and his death is a decided loss
to the Profession.

He was unmarried, and is survived by one sister, Mrs. John B.
Birch, of Macon, Ga.

Mr. Caldwell was elected a Member of the American Society of
Civil Engineers, on September 5th, 1911.



Died August 18th, 1916.

Edward Canfield, son of Caleb Augustus and Sarah Withingtou
Canfield, was born at Geneva, N. Y., on May 27th, 1848. He was
graduated from Hobart College in 1869, receiving the degree of A. B.,
and, in 1874, the degree of A. M.

In 1869, Mr. Canfield began his professional career in the Engineer-
ing Corps of the Erie and Geneva Valley Railroad. From 1870 to
1872, he was Division Engineer of the Syracuse Northern Railroad;
from 1872 to 1873, Division Engineer of the Pennsylvania Petroleum
Railroad; from 1873 to 1874, Assistant Engineer, Atlantic and Great
Western Railway; from 1875 to 1878, Division Engineer of the Syra-
cuse, Geneva and Corning Railroad; from 1879 to 1881, Assistant
Engineer of the New York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad; and
from 1881 to 1882, Roadmaster of the Rochester Division of the New
York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad. While in the latter position,
he organized and carried out the work of changing the entire Rochester
Division from broad to standard gauge in one day.

On November 9th, 1882, Mr. Canfield entered the service of the
New York, Ontario and Western Railway Company, in which he
continued to the close of his life, having been first appointed Superin-
tendent of Construction of the line from Middletown to Cornwall,
N. Y., and from there to Weehawken, N. J., the latter portion being
now a part of the West Shpre Railroad, which is leased to and
operated by the New York Central Railroad Company. In 1884, on
the completion of the construction work, he was appointed Superin-
tendent of the Southern Division.

On December 1st, 1887, he was appointed Chief Engineer in
charge of new construction, maintenance of way, and bridges and build-
ings. As Chief Engineer, he had charge of locating and constructing
the branch from Cadosia, N. Y., to Scranton, Pa., which gave the New
York, Ontario and Western Railway Company entrance into the
anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania. In 1895, he was appointed
General Superintendent, having charge of all operation except traffic,
which office he held at the time of his death.

Mr. Canfield served for some years on the Board of Directors of
the Orange County Trust Company, was, at the time of his death, a
Trustee of the Middletown Savings Bank, and, at one time, a member
of the Board of Education of Middletown, N. Y.

* Memoir prepared by J. H. Nuelle, Esq.


The Board of Directors of the New York, Ontario and Western
Railway Company adopted the following minute at a meeting held
September 12th, 1916:

"This Board records its deep sense of loss in the death of Edward
Canfield, late General Superintendent, which occurred at his home in
Middletown, New York, on August 18, 1916.

"Mr. Canfield entered the service in 1882 in the Engineering De-
partment, later becoming Chief Engineer, and in 1895 General Super-

"In all his long service he displayed intense loyalty to the Company
and its interests; to his skill as an engineer is due in large part the
continued progressive advance in the physical condition of the prop-
erty, while through his good judgment and careful management a
high degree of efficiency in operation has been attained.

"His fine character, marked ability, untiring industry, absolute
devotion to duty, and unfailing justice in his relations with all in the
service, gained for him the profound respect and regard of all who
knew him.

"No better example could be found in railroad service than the
record of his life work."

He was married on September 17th, 1874, to Jane Hastings,
daughter of Major David H. Hastings, of the United States Army,
who, with their sons, David H. Canfield, Captain Edward Canfield, U.
S. A., and Eichard W. Canfield, survives him.

Mr. Canfield was a member of the Sigma Phi Fraternity, and was
elected a Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers on
December 3d, 1879.



DiKD January 13th, 191'

Andrew Chase Cunningham, the son of Thomas and Celeste (Chase)
Cunningham, was born at Mohawk, IST. Y., on February 15th, 1858.

He was appointed to the United States Naval Academy from the
Twenty-first District of New York State, on June 9th, 1874, and was
graduated from that institution as a Midshipman on June 10th, 1879.
He served on the U. S. S. Shenandoah and the U. S. S. Saratoga, and
on February 1st, 1883, he resigned from the service, meanwhile having
been promoted to the rank of Ensign. Mr. Cunningham had decided
by this time that a career in the Navy was not what he desired, and,
having determined to become a Civil Engineer, he entered Kensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, at Troy, N. Y., from which he was graduated
in 1885 with the degree of Civil Engineer.

From October, 1885, to April, 1886, Mr. Cunningham occupied the
position of Topographer on preliminary and location surveys of the
Lincoln Branch of the Missouri-Pacific Railway, and from May, 1886,
to September, 1887, he served as Draftsman with the Massillon Bridge
Company, Massillon, Ohio. From September, 1887, to November,
1890, he was in charge of the inspection of iron and steel in Pitts-
burgh, Pa., and vicinity. This work consisted in the acceptance or
rejection of material for such structures as the high bridge across
the Mississippi Eiver, at St. Paul, Minn., the Ohio Connection Bridge
across the river below Pittsburgh, the New York Elevated Railway,
numerous large buildings in Chicago, 111., and bridges on the Lake
Shore and Michigan Southern Railway, the Pennsylvania System, the
Louisville and Nashville, and other railroads.

From November, 1890, to May, 1892, Mr. Cunningham was Chief
Inspector for Carnegie, Phipps and Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa., now
the Carnegie Steel Company. In this position he had charge of the
testing and inspection of steel materials, together with special inves-
tigation and special supervision of material for several structures, such
as the Memphis Bridge, the Sixth Street Bridge across the Allegheny
River at Pittsburgh, and others.

In May, 1892, Mr. Cunningham associated himself with Charles
F. Stowell, M. Am. Soc. C. E., at Albany, N. Y., under the firm name
of Stowell and Cunningham, the principal engineering business of the
company being in connection with the design, inspection, and testing
of steel bridges and steel materials. This work included materials and
bridges for the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad, and
the Central Vermont Railroad, as well as materials for the Cities of

* Memoir prepared by F. T. Chambers, M. Am. Soc. C. E.


Albany, N. Y., Waterbury, Conn., for the State Engineer of New
York, and tlie U. S. Treasury Department. In 1898, while he was a
member of this firm, the Spanish War broke out, and, as a former
officer of the Navy, he obeyed his country's call, volunteering for such
duty as he might be assigned to by the Navy Department. At that time
the Navy was by no means as large as it is now, and had almost no
auxiliary ships for the purpose of furnishing supplies to the fleet. Mr.
Cunningham, therefore, foiind himself an Ensign, on May 14th, 1898,
aboard the Collier Aharenda, a ship purchased for that use. While this
ship was moored to the wharf at the New York Navy Yard, the late L, L.
Buck, M. Am. Soc. C. E., visited* the Navy Yard for consultation work,
in connection with one of the dry docks then under repair. Some one
had informed him that Mr. Cunningham was serving as an Ensign
aboard the collier, and Mr. Buck expressed the determination to visit
him before he left the yard, adding at the same time that he considered
Mr. Cunningham one of the foremost steel experts of the country,
and that it seemed to him a waste of valuable services to have placed
him as an Ensign aboard a supply ship. Mr. Cunningham's nature
was such that he would never have sought to be transferred from this
position, but Mr. Buck felt strongly on the subject, and made it his
business to inform the Navy Department of his views, the consequence
being that on May 21st, 1898, Mr. Cunningham was transferred to the
Bureau of Ordnance, and was immediately assigned to the Washington
Navy Yard, which is the Naval gun factory. Mr. Buck and Rear-
Admiral Mordecai T. Endicott, U. S. N. (Retired), Past-President,
Am. Soc. C. E., were classmates at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,
and it was not long before Admiral Endicott, then Chief of the Bureau
of Yards and Docks, learned that an accomplished Civil Engineer was
available for naval duty, and, consequently, Mr. Cunningham was
transferred to the Bureau of Yards and Docks on June 27th, 1S98.
The Civil Engineer Corps of the Navy was then rapidly expanding and
in need of officers, and Mr. Cunningham served first on a board to
examine candidates for the position of Civil Engineer in the Navy;
before the successful candidates were appointed, however, he himself,
on September 29th, 1898, was given a permanent commission. On
October 5th of that year, he reported to the Bureau of Yards and
Docks, where he served until November 6th, 1901, being then detached
and ordered to the Naval Station, New Orleans, La. This was a new
station just being established, and Mr. Cunningham was the first
Civil Engineer officer, thus being given the opportunity to lay out
the engineering works from the start. On April 3d, 1903, he was
detached from the New Orleans Station and ordered to the Naval
Academy, where he served until June 9th, 1905, and from there he was
again ordered to the Bureau of Yards and Docks. On March 17th,


1906, he was commissioned with the rank of Lieutenant in the Corps
of Civil Engineers.

Mr. Cunningham continued to serve in the Bureau of Yards and
Docks as Principal Assistant to Admiral Endicott until April 6th,

1907, when he was ordered to the Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va., as Senior
Civil Engineer Officer, and on November 18th, 1909, he was commis-
sioned with the rank of Lieutenant Commander. On February 20th,
1910, he was detached from the Norfolk Navy Yard, and ordered to
the Navy Department, Washington, D. C, as Inspector of Public
Works for the entire Navy, This duty required great tact and diplo-
macy, and it was on this account that Mr. Cunningham was selected
for the work, which necessitated his maintaining headquarters in
Washington, and visiting the various Navy Yards, keeping the De-
partment informed as to the status of the various public works, and
co-ordinating the ideas of the Yards with those of the Department.

On July 10th, 1913, Mr. Cunningham left headquarters at Wash-
ington to assume the duties of Public Works Officer of the Navy Yard,
Portsmouth, N. H. Shortly afterward he had a severe nervous break-
down, and on November 17th, 1913, was ordered to sick leave, and did
not return to actual duty until Jime 16th, 1914. He never fully re-
covered from this illness, although he performed lighter duties prac-
tically up to the time of his death, his principal assignments after this
being at the Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, 111., and the Naval
Radio Station, Point Isabel, Tex., at both of which places he erected
large steel towers for radio-telegraphy.

While on duty in the Bureau of Yards and Docks of the Na\'y
Department, and previous to his detail as Civil Engineer Officer at
New Orleans, Mr. Cunningham had supervised the construction of
the 16 000-ton steel floating dock for the New Orleans Station. He
became much interested in docks of this type, and, at a later date,
obtained letters patent on a floating dock of his own invention. He
was, indeed, of an inventive turn of mind and secured patents on
several of his ideas, one of the best known in the Navy being that for
a coal-tar paint.

Mr. Cunningham was affectionately known as "Andy" by his friends
and associates, and was universally liked. His genial nature, combined
with his diplomatic spirit, caused him to be much in demand on boards
of officers for the adjustment of disputes or for changes in contracts.

While at the Naval Academy, he was the champion fencer of his
time, and he maintained his interest in this sport up to the time of his
severe illness. While in Washington he was a member of the Wash-
ington Fencers Club, and when he was at the Navy Yards he stirred
the younger men to a revival of the fencing game. He was looked on
by the entire Navy as an authority on this subject, and was also con-
sulted by the Army at one time, in connection with the modification


of the Army saber. As a fencer, lie was also interested in singlestick,
and was the author of a book entitled "The Cane as a Weapon." Fenc-
ing was a considerable feature of his recreation; he was also very fond
of writing, and contributed various articles to the press, among them
being several on naval matters published by the Naval Institute.

Mr. Cunningham was married, at Middleville, N. T., on June 18th,
1879, to Miss Jessie E. Thomas. He is survived by his widow and two
sons: John Howard Cunningham of Grand-Mere, Canada, and George
Thomas Cunningham, of Washington, D. C.

Mr. Cunningham was elected an Associate Member of the American
Society of Civil Engineers on September 2d, 1891, and a Member or
October 3d, 1894.



Died May 11th, 1916.

David West Cunningham, the son of Andrew and Abigail Leonard
(West) Cunningham, was born on December 24th, 1829, in Boston,
Mass. He was educated at Chauncy Hall School and the Lawrence
Scientific School of Harvard University.

In 1848, Mr. Cunningham received an appointment in the Engi-
neering Corps of the Boston Water-works, then building the Cochituate
Aqueduct. In 1849, he was on railroad work on the Manchester and
Lawrence Eailroad and the Sullivan Railroad of the Connecticut
River, from which he was transferred to the Ogdensburg and Lake
Champlain Railroad. He was stationed first at Moline and afterward
at Lawrenceville on the Moira Sub-division, and rode on the first
locomotive through to Ogdensburg, which was driven by Mr. Charles
L. Schlatter, then Chief Engineer. He was then employed on railroad
work in Canada. The eastern half of the Ogdensburg and Lake Cham-
plain Railroad at that time ran through primitive forest, and while
at this work, he contracted inflammatory rheumatism which affected
his eyes, and he was compelled to give up engineering work for the
time being. In 1851, he joined a friend who was a merchant at Cien-
fuegos, Cuba, and sailed from Boston for Spain early in June, arriving
at Cadiz in 24 days.

After 6 months' travel in Europe, Mr. Cunningham entered the
Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard, for a course in Civil Engi-
neering, and was graduated as a Civil Engineer.

Mr. Cunningham spent six years in Chili, on railroad and govern-
ment work, but left to be married. He never returned to that country,
on account of his wife's preference for the United States. After
leaving Chili, he operated a plantation in Texas.

After the Civil War Mr. Cunningham was engaged in the construc-
tion of the Charleston, Mass., Water-works, the Lowell Water-works,
and the sewerage systems of Lowell, Mass., and Stillwater, Minn. He
was Chief Assistant Engineer for the Boston Water-works. He built
the Tarkio Valley (Missouri) Railroad, and later was Consulting Engi-
neer for the Minneapolis Water-works.

Mr. Cunningham then worked a large wheat farm in North Dakota
until 1894, at which time he removed to California.

He was married in 1859 to Mary B. S. Fuller, of Boston, who
died in 1869. In 1873, he was married to Caroline Smith Thomas, who
died at Los Angeles, Cal., in 1910. In 1913, he was married to Minnie
A. Holderbaum, at Santa Ana, Cal.

* Memoir prepared by Frank H. Olmsted, M. Am. Soc. C. E.


Mr. Cunningham was a man of high scientific attainments, and
naturally a builder. He was favorably known wherever his duties car-
ried him. He was genial in disposition, loved his friends, and had
few, if any, enemies. He could without doubt have reached a high
position had he remained in the Profession and not digressed at one
or two periods in his career to other kinds of work. He was a re-
markably well read man, and spoke and wrote fine English. He was
also an excellent Spanish scholar, and a valued member of the various
scientific bodies to which he belonged.

Mr. Cunningham was a member of the Architects and Engi-
neers' Association of Southern California. He was elected a Member
of the American Society of Civil Engineers on May 7th, 1873.



Died January 31st, 1917.

Edmund Hazen Drury was born at St. John, New Brunswick, on
July 31st, 1859. He was graduated with honor from the Royal Military
College, Kingston, Ont., in June, 1881, and immediately joined the
Engineering Staff of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, con-
tinuing thereon until 1888, first as Rodman and finally as Division

From 1889 to 1890 Mr. Drury served as Assistant Engineer on rail-
way surveys for the Dominion Government in New Brunswick, and
from 1890 to 1893, he was Division Engineer and Acting Chief Engi-
neer on the McLeod Branch of the Calgary, Edmonton, and McLeod

From 1893 to 1906, he held the following positions : Chief Engineer
and Manager of Construction for the contractors of the Quebec Central
Railway, 1893-95; Division Engineer on the Canadian Northern Rail-
way, 1895-97; Division Engineer on the Bangor and Aroostook Rail-
way, 1897-98; Assistant Chief Engineer on the Canadian Northern
Railway, 1898-1900; Assistant Chief Engineer, Cuba Company Railway,
Cuba, 1900-02; Assistant Chief Engineer, Algoma Central Railway,
1902-03; Division Engineer, Crow's Nest Pass Branch, Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, 1903-05; and Division Engineer, Canadian
Northern Manitoba South Eastern Railway, 1905-06.

Mr. Drury then went to Mexico where he was employed as Auditing
Engineer and Assistant Chief Engineer in charge for the Mexican
Light and Power Company, Mexico, in Necaxa and the City of Mexico,
from 1906 to 1908.

In the autumn of 1908, he was appointed, by the Department of
Railways and Canals of Canada, Engineer in charge of exploration and
the reconnaissance survey of alternative routes to Port Churchill and
Port Nelson on Hudson Bay. His report, which was an able and
comprehensive one, was concluded and handed in toward the end of 1909.

In 1910, he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Quebec and Sher-
brooke Railway, which position he held until 1911, when he was en-
gaged to prepare an estimate and report for a proposed railway from
Edmonton, Alberta, to Bella Coola, on the Pacific Coast of British
Columbia, via the Pine River Pass, Rocky Mountains, for the Edmon-
ton, Dunvegan, and Pine Pass Railway Company.

Mr. Drury then went to South America as Chief Engineer and
Manager of Construction of the Chili Longitudinal Railway, Chili,
from 1911 to 1913. It was while conducting this work, through the

* Memoir prepared by B. J. Walsh, Esq.


arid nitrate district of Chili, that his health became impaired. Return-
ing to Canada, in the autumn of 1913, he entered into a general con-
sulting engineering partnership (in the firm of Walsh and Drury,
Consulting Engineers), with an office at Ottawa, Ont.

From the latter part of 1914 to the time of his sudden death on
January 31st, 1917, Major Drury had served as Acting Assistant
Director General of Engineer Services, for the Department of Militia
and Defence, at Ottawa.

Major Drury stood in the forefront of the profession as a Railway
Engineer. He was a man of high character and unswerving integrity,
and neither in private nor public affairs would he deviate from the con-
scientious discharge of life's dutiesi Kindly and courteous to a degree,
he will be greatly missed by those of his confreres and others who were
intimate with him.

Major Drury was a Member of the Canadian Society of Civil Engi-
neers, and was elected a Member of the American Society of Civil
Engineers on October 4th, 1905.


AUGUSTUS JAY Dubois, M. Am. Soc. C. E.*

Died October 19th, 1915.

Augustus Jay DuBois, the son of Henry Augustus DuBois and
Catherine Helena (Jay) DuBois, who had six other children, was
born at Newton Falls, Ohio, on April 25th, 1849. His father, who was
of French Huguenot descent, received the degree of M.D. from Colum-
bia College in 1830 and spent most of his life in the practice of medi-
cine. His mother was a granddaughter of Chief Justice John Jay,
who was also of French Huguenot descent.

Mr. DuBois prepared for college at the Hopkins Grammar School
in New Haven, Conn., and then took the course in Civil Engineering
at the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University, from which he
was graduated in 1869. Continuing there in advanced studies, he
secured the degree of C. E. in 1870 and that of Ph.D. in 1873. He
then spent 18 months at the Eoyal Mining Academy in Freiberg,
Saxony, followed by a few months of surveying work in California and

During 1871-75 he made a special study of the then new science
of Graphic Statics, the results of which were published in 1875,
in two volumes, under the title "Elements of Graphical Statics
and Their Application to Framed Structures." This was the first
comprehensive work on the subject which appeared in the United States,
and it was re-issued in revised editions in 1877, 1879, and 1883.

In 1875, Mr. DuBois was appointed Professor of Civil and Mechan-
ical Engineering in Lehigh University, from which he was called, in
1877, to the chair of Mechanical Engineering at the Sheffield Scientific
School, and. in 1884, he was appointed Professor of Civil Engineering
there, a position which he filled until his death.

During his forty years of service as a teacher of Engineering,
Professor DuBois was active in enriching the theory of the subject.
He translated from the fourth edition of Weisbach's "Mechanics of
Engineering", the sections "Hydraulics and Hydraulic Motors" (pub-
lished in 1877), and "Theory of the Steam Engine" (1877); also
Weyrauch's "Calculation of Iron and Steel Constructions" (1877),
and Roentgen's "Principles of Thermodynamics" (1879). These books
were issued at a time when literature on these subjects was scanty in
the United States, and they were used extensively in engineering schools
and by engineers, each of them passing through several editions. In
1883 appeared the first edition of his "Stresses in Framed Structures,"
a book in quarto form, which gave methods of computing stresses by

* Memoir prepared by Mansfield Merriman, M. Am. Soc. C. E.


both analytic and graphic processes and also contained fifteen folding
plates of designs and working drawings of bridges. This book was
widely used as a text in engineering schools, and it passed through
twelve editions, each being revised and improved. The manuscript for
an enlarged edition was completed shortly before his death.

In 1894 and 1895 there appeared three octavo volumes by Professor
DuBois, entitled "Elementary Principles of Mechanics", one treating
of kinematics, another of statics, and a third of kinetics. In 1901,
these volumes were re-issued in revised quarto form as the first volume
of "Mechanics of Engineering", the second volume being the twelfth

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