American Technical Society.

Cyclopedia of civil engineering; a general reference work on surveying, highway construction, railroad engineering, earthwork, steel construction, specifications, contracts, bridge engineering, masonry and reinforced concrete, municipal engineering, hydraulic engineering, river and harbor improvemen online

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COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
DAVIS, CALIFORNIA




Cyclopedia

of

Civil Engineering



A General Reference Work on

SURVEYING, HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION, RAILROAD ENGINEERING, EARTHWORK,

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, SPECIFICATIONS, CONTRACTS, BRIDGE ENGINEERING,

MASONRY AND REINFORCED CONCRETE, MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING,

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING, RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENT,

IRRIGATION ENGINEERING, COST ANALYSIS, ETC.



Prepared by a Corps of

CIVIL AND CONSULTING ENGINEERS AND TECHNICAL EXPERTS OF THE
HIGHEST PROFESSIONAL STANDING



Illustrated with over Two Thousand Engravings



NINE VOLUMES
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

LIBRARY

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
DAVIS

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY
CHICAGO

1920



COPYRIGHT, 1908, 1909, 1915, 1916, 1920
BY

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY



Copyrighted in Great Britain
All Rights Reserved



Authors and Collaborators



FREDERICK E. TURNEAURE, C. E., Dr. Eng.

Dean of the College of Engineering, and Professor of Engineering, Univer-
sity of Wisconsin

Member, American Society of Civil Engineers

Joint Author of "Principles of Reinforced Concrete Construction," "Public
Water Supplies," etc.



FRANK O. DUFOUR, C. E.

With Stone and Webster, Boston, Massachusetts

Formerly Structural Engineer with Interstate Commerce Commission

Formerly Assistant Professor of Structural Engineering, University of Illinois

Member, American Society of Civil Engineers

Member, American Society for Testing Materials



WALTER LORING WEBB, C. E.

Consulting Civil Engineer

Member, American Society of Civil Engineers

Author of "Railroad Construction," "Economics of Railroad Construction,
etc.



W. G. BLIGH

Inspecting Engineer of Irrigation Works, Department of Interior, Canada
Formerly in Engineering Service of His Majesty in India
Member, Institute Civil Engineers (London)
Member, American Society of Civil Engineers
Member, Canadian Society of Civil Engineers



ADOLPH BLACK, C. E.

Civil and Sanitary Engineer, General Chemical Company, New York City
Formerly Adjunct Professor of Civil Engineering, Columbia University



EDWARD R. MAURER, B. C. E.

Professor of Mechanics, University of Wisconsin

Joint Author of "Principles of Reinforced Concrete Construction"



AUSTIN T. BYRNE

Civil Engineer

Author of "Highway Construction," "Materials and Workmanship'



9671



Authors and Collaborators Continued



A. MARSTON, C. E.

Dean of Division of Engineering and Professor of Civil Engineering, Iowa

State College

Member, American Society of Civil Engineers
Member, Western Society of Civil Engineers



De WITT V. MOORE

Consulting Engineer and Architect

Formerly District Engineer Central District Division of Valuation

Interstate Commerce Commission, Chicago

Member, American Society of Engineering Contractors

Member, Indiana Engineering Society



W. HERBERT GIBSON, B. S., C. E.

Civil Engineer

Designer of Reinforced Concrete



JAMES K. FINCH, C. E.

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, and Director of Summer School of
Surveying, Columbia University, New York



HENRY J. BURT, B. S., C. E.

General Manager for Holabird and Roche, Architects

Member, American Society of Civil Engineers

Member, Western Society of Civil Engineers

Member, Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education



RICHARD I. D. ASHBRIDGE

Civil Engineer

Member, American Society of Civil Engineers



HERMAN K. HIGGINS

Civil Engineer

Associate Member, American Society of Civil Engineers

Member, Boston Society of Civil Engineers

Member, New England Water Works Association

Member, American Railway Bridge .and Building Association



ALFRED E. PHILLIPS, C. E., Ph. D.

Professor of Civil Engineering, Armour Institute of Technology



Authors and Collaborators Continued



H. E. MURDOCK, M. E., C. E.

Head of Department of Agricultural Engineering, Montana State College,

Bozeman, Montana
Formerly Irrigation Engineer, U. S. Department of Agriculture



A. B. McDANIEL, B. S.

Formerly Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois

Member, American Society of Civil Engineers

Member, Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education

Fellow, Association for the Advancement of Science

Author of "Excavating Machinery"



GLENN M. HOBBS, Ph. D.

Secretary and Educational Director, American School of Correspondence
Formerly Instructor, Department of Physics, University of Chicago
American Physical Society



THOMAS FLEMING, Jr., B. S., C. E.

With Chester & Fleming, Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineers
Associate Member, American Society of Civil Engineers
Member, New England Water Works Association
Member, Engineers' Society of Pennsylvania



CHARLES E. MORRISON, C. E., Ph. D.

Formerly Instructor in Civil Engineering, Columbia University

Associate Member, American Society of Civil Engineers

Author of "Highway Engineering," "High Masonry Dam Design"



EDWARD B. WAITE

Formerly Dean, and Head, Consulting Department, American School of Cor-
respondence

American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Boston Society of Civil Engineers



C. A. MILLER, Jr.

Associate Editor, American Technical Society
Affiliated Member, Western Society of Engineers
Member, American Association of Engineers
Member, Illinois Society of Architects



JESSIE M. SHEPHERD, A. B.

Head, Publication Department, American Technical Society



Authorities Consulted



THE editors have freely consulted the standard technical literature of
America and Europe in the preparation of these volumes. They de-
sire to express their indebtedness, particularly, to the following
eminent authorities, whose well-known treatises should be in the library of
everyone interested in Civil Engineering.

Grateful acknowledgment is here made also for the invaluable co-
operation of the foremost Civil, Structural, Railroad, Hydraulic, and Sanitary
Engineers and Manufacturers in making these volumes thoroughly repre-
sentative of the very best and latest practice in every branch of the broad
field of Civil Engineering.



WILLIAM G. RAYMOND, C. E.

Dean of the School of Applied Science and Professor of Civil Engineering in the State

University of Iowa; American Society of Civil Engineers
Author of "A Textbook of Plane Surveying," "The Elements of Railroad Engineering"



JOSEPH P. FRIZELL

Hydraulic Engineer and Water-Power Expert; American Society of Civil Engineers
Author of "Water Power, the Development and Application of the Energy of Flowing
Water"



FREDERICK E. TURNEAURE, C. E., Dr. Eng.

Dean of the College of Engineering and Professor of Engineering, University of

Wisconsin
Joint Author of "Public Water Supplies," "Theory and Practice of Modern Framed

Structures," "Principles of Reinforced Concrete Construction"



HENRY N. OGDEN, C. E.

Professor of Sanitary Engineering, Cornell University
Author of "Sewer Design"



DANIEL CARHART, C. E.

Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Pittsburgh
Author of "Treatise on Plane Surveying"



HALBERT P. GILLETTE

Editor of Engineering and Contracting; American Society of Civil Engineers; Formerly

Chief Engineer, Washington State Railroad Commission
Author of "Handbook of Cost Data for Contractors and Engineers"



CHARLES E. GREENE, A. M., C. E.

Late Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Michigan

Author of "Trusses and Arches, Graphic Method," "Structural Mechanics"



Authorities Consulted Continued



A. PRESCOTT FOLWELL

Editor of Municipal Journal and Engineer; Formerly Professor of Municipal Engineer-

ing, Lafayette College
Author of "Water Supply Engineering," "Sewerage"



IRVING P. CHURCH, C. E.

Professor of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, Cornell University
Author of "Mechanics of Engineering"



PAUL C. NUGENT, A. M., C. E.

Professor of Civil Engineering, Syracuse University
Author of "Plane Surveying"

^

FRANK W. SKINNER, C. E.

Consulting Engineer; Associate Editor of The Engineering Record
Author of "Types and Details of Bridge Construction"



HANBURY BROWN, K. C. M. G.

Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers
Author of "Irrigation, Its Principles and Practice



SANFORD E. THOMPSON, S. B., C. E.

American Society of Civil Engineers

Joint Author of "A Treatise on Concrete, Plain and Reinforced"



JOSEPH KENDALL FREITAG, B. S., C. E.

American Society of Civil Engineers

Author of "Architectural Engineering," "Fireproofing of Steel Buildings," "Fire Pre-
vention and Fire Protection"



AUSTIN T. BYRNE, C. E.

Civil Engineer

Author of "Highway Construction," "Inspection of Materials and Workmanship Em
ployed in Construction"



JOHN F. HAYFORD, C. E.

Expert Computer and Geodesist, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
Author of "A Textbook of Geodetic Astronomy"



WALTER LORING WEBB, C. E.

Consulting Civil Engineer; American Society of Civil Engineers

Author of "Railroad Construction in Theory and Practice," "Economics of Railroad
Construction," etc.



Authorities Consulted Continued



EDWARD R. MAURER, B. C. E.

Professor of Mechanics, University of Wisconsin

Joint Author of "Principles of Reinforced Concrete Construction'



HERBERT M. WILSON, C. E.

Geographer and Former Irrigation Engineer, United States Geological Survey; American

Society of Civil Engineers
Author of "Topographic Surveying," "Irrigation Engineering," etc.



MANSFIELD MERRIMAN, C. E., Ph. D.

Consulting Engineer

Formerly Professer of Civil Engineering, Lehigh University

Author of "The Elements of Precise Surveying and Geodesy," "A Treatise on Hy-
draulics," "Mechanics of Materials," "Retaining Walls and Masonry Dams,"
"Introduction to Geodetic Surveying," "A Textbook on Roofs and Bridges," "A
Handbook for Surveyors," "American Civil Engineers' Pocket Book"



DAVID M. STAUFFER

American Society of Civil Engineers; Institution of Civil Engineers: Vice-President,

Engineering News Publishing Co.
Author of "Modern Tunnel Practice"



CHARLES L. CRANDALL

Professor of Railroad Engineering and Geodesy in Cornell University
Author of "A Textbook on Geodesy and Least Squares"



N. CLIFFORD RICKER, M. Arch.

Professor of Architecture, University of Illinois; Fellow of the American Institute of

Architects and of the Western Association of Architects
Author of "Elementary Graphic Statics and the Construction of Trussed Roofs"



W. H. SEARLES, C. E.

Author of "Field Engineering" and "Railroad Spiral"

**

HENRY T. BOVEY

Late Rector of Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England
Author of "Treatise on Hydraulics"



WILLIAM H. BIRKMIRE, C. E.

Author of "Planning and Construction of High Office Buildings," "Architectural Iron
and Steel, and Its Application in the Construction of Buildings," "Compound
Riveted Girders," "Skeleton Structures," etc.



Authorities Consulted Continued



IRA 0. BAKER, C. E.

Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois

Author of "A Treatise on Masonry Construction," "Engineers' Surveying Instruments,
Their Construction, Adjustment, and Use," "Roads and Pavements"



JOHN CLAYTON TRACY, C. E.

Assistant Professor of Structural Engineering, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale

University
Author of "Plane Surveying: A Textbook and Pocket Manual"



FREDERICK W. TAYLOR, M. E.

Joint Author of "A Treatise on Concrete, Plain and Reinforced"



J. B. JOHNSON, C. E.

Author of "Materials of Construction;" Joint Author of "Design of Modern Frame
Structures"

^*

FRANK E. KIDDER, C. E., Ph. D.

Consulting Architect and Structural Engineer; Fellow of the American Institute of
Architects

Author of "Architect's and Builder's Pocketbook," "Building Construction and Super-
intendence, Part I, Masons' Work; Part II, Carpenters' Work; Part III, Trussed
Roofs and Roof Trusses," "Strength of Beams, Floors, and Roofs"



WILLIAM H. BURR, C. E.

Professor of Civil Engineering, Columbia University; Consulting Engineer; American

Society of Civil Engineers; Institution of Civil Engineers
Author of "Elasticity and Resistance of the Materials of Engineering;" Joint Author of

"The Design and Construction of Metallic Bridges," "Suspension Bridges, Arch

Ribs, and Cantilevers"



WILLIAM M. GILLESPIE, LL. D.

Formerly Professor of Civil Engineering in Union University

Author of "Land Surveying and Direct Leveling," "Higher Surveying"



GEORGE W. TILLSON, C. E.

Past President of the Brooklyn Engineers' Club; American Society of Civil Engineers;

American Society of Municipal Improvements
Author of "Street Pavements and Street Paving Material"



CHARLES E. FOWLER

Consulting Civil Engineer; Member, American Society of Civil Engineers
Author of "Practical Treatise on Subaqueous Foundations"

*

W. M. PATTON

Late Professor of Engineering at the Virginia Military Institute
Author of "A Treatise on Civil Engineering"



For e wor d



OF all the works of man in the various branches of en-
gineering, none are so wonderful, so majestic, so awe-
inspiring as the works of the Civil Engineer. It is the Civil
Engineer who throws a great bridge across the yawning chasm
which seemingly forms an impassable obstacle to further
progress. He designs and builds the skeletons of steel to dizzy
heights, for the architect to cover and adorn. He burrows
through a great mountain and reaches the other side within a
fraction of an inch of the spot located by the original survey.
He scales mountain peaks, or traverses dry river beds, survey-
ing and plotting hitherto unknown, or at least unsurveyed,
regions. He builds our Panama Canals, our Arrow Rock and
Roosevelt Dams, our water-works, filtration plants, and prac-
tically all of our great public works.

L The importance of all of these immense engineering
projects and the need for a clear, non-technical presentation of
the theoretical and practical developments of the broad field
of Civil Engineering has led the publishers to compile this
great reference work. It has been their aim to fulfill the de-
mands of the trained engineer for authoritative material which
will solve the problems in his own and allied lines in Civil
Engineering, as well as to satisfy the desires of the self-taught
practical man who attempts to keep up with modern engineer-
ing developments.



^r Books on the several divisions of Civil Engineering are
many and valuable, but their information is too voluminous to
be of the greatest value for ready reference. The Cyclopedia of
Civil Engineering offers more condensed and less technical
treatments of these same subjects from which all unnecessary
duplication has been eliminated; when compiled into nine
handy volumes, with comprehensive indexes to facilitate the
looking up of various topics, they represent a library admirably
adapted to the requirements of either the technical or the
practical reader.

^r The Cyclopedia of Civil Engineering has for years occupied
an enviable place in the field of technical literature as a
standard reference work and the publishers have spared no
expense to make this latest edition even more comprehensive
and instructive.

^r In conclusion, grateful acknowledgment is due to the staff
of authors and collaborators engineers of wide practical ex-
perience, and teachers of well recognized ability without
whose hearty co-operation this work would have been im-
possibteo



Table of Contents



VOLUME VIII
WATER POWER DEVELOPMENT . . By Adolph Black^ Page *11

Theory of Water Power: Definitions of Terms, Flow Through Nozzles, Pressure
on Fixed and Moving Surfaces, Absolute and Relative Velocities Forms of Ap-
plication: Hydraulic Motor, Standard Water Wheels (Overshot Type), Test of
Steel Overshot Wheel, Breast Type, Undershot Type), Special Forms, Impulse or
Tangential Wheels (Horizontal Type, Vertical Type, Special Jet Types), Reaction
Wheels Water Wheels and Turbines: General Types, Estimates for Water
Power (Efficiencies, Effective Head, Measurement of Power), Testing (Holyoke
Testing Flume, Analysis of Tests), Reaction and Impulse Types (Analysis of Re-
action Turbines, Analysis of Impulse Turbines, Comparison), Turbine Accesso-
ries (Diffuser, Draft Tube, Fall Increaser, Regulating Gates, Turbine Chamber,
Bearings, Valves), Standard Machines (Leffel Types, Morgan-Smith Types, I. P.
Morris Types, Pelton Types, Allis-Chalmers Types), Speed Regulation (Equaliz-
ing Devices, Governors), Efficiency Tests, Deterioration, High-Capacity Runner,
Speed Control Conduction of Water: Control (Headrace and Tailrace, Head
Gate), Conductors (Penstock, Protective Devices, Transmission) Hydraulic .
Power Installations: Niagara Falls Development (Hydraulic Power Company,
Niagara Falls Power Company, Canadian- Niagara Power Company, Toronto
Power Company), Snoqualmie Falls Power Company, Puget Sound Power Com-
pany, White River Development, Mississippi River Power Company, Hydraulic
Plant of Vauvry, Switzerland, Pike's Peak Hydro-Electric Company), Pumping
Water to Increase Supply, Cost of Water Power



RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENT . By Chas. E. Morrison Page 345

Rivers: Items of River Survey (Watershed, Topography, Rain-Fall, Runoff), Flow
of Rivers (Methods of Measurement, Use of Formulas), Floods (Flood Control by
Cutoffs, Diversion to Tributaries, Storage Reservoirs, Artificial Outlets, Levees,
River Bank Protection, Dikes), Erosion and Transportation (Curve Action at
River Bends, Character of River) Harbors: Problems of Harbor Improvement
(Types of Harbors, Effect of Natural Forces, Tides, Currents), Breakwaters
(Vertical Types, Mound Types), Signals (Code of Regulations, Buoys, Lights,
Lighthouses, Illumination), Docks (Dry Docks, Slips, Wet Docks), Dredging,
Atlantic Coast Harbor Improvements

REVIEW QUESTIONS Page 449

INDEX Page 459



*For page numbers, see foot of pages.

t For professional standing of authors, see list of Authors and Collaborators at
front of volume.




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WATER-POWER DEVELOPMENT

PART I



THEORY OF WATER-POWER

1. Introduction. One of the fundamental teachings of science
is that all energy in the solar system is derived from the sun. Through
the agency of that luminary, water from the earth's oceans, seas, and
lakes is transformed into vapor, and in this condition is diffused
throughout the atmosphere, transported by the winds themselves
created by this same solar energy over long distances and wide
areas, and finally precipitated over land and water, hills and valleys,
mainly in the form of rain and snow. Of the total precipitation on
the continents, part is evaporated from land and water surfaces,
vegetation, etc. ; part runs off more or less rapidly as surface flow into
the nearby drainage channels, and thence, more or less directly, to
the ocean; and part sinks into the ground. Of this last, a portion
is retained by capillary attraction within reach of vegetation, to be
taken up slowly by the rootlets and transpired through the leaves;
the balance percolates downward until it reaches the surface of the
underground water flow, which it joins in its relatively slow motion
to some nearby stream, lake, or other drainage course, or directly to
the ocean. It is then again evaporated into the atmosphere, with a
continuous repetition of the cycle described above.

Thus every elevated body of water, every running stream, is a
source of power whose energy has been derived or borrowed from the
sun; and under proper conditions, a large proportion of this energy
may be transformed into useful work.

DEFINITIONS OF UNITS AND TERMS
2. Unit of Work. The unit of work in general use is the foot-
pound (ft.-lb.), representing the work of lifting a mass of one pound
a height of one foot against gravity. Since the force of gravity,
and therefore the weight of a given mass, is not constant for all points
on the surface of the earth, it follows that the foot-pound, or gramtar

11



2 WATER-POWER DEVELOPMENT

tion-measure of work, is not a constant unit. Its variation, however,
is so small as to be negligible for ordinary purposes; and, being much
simpler than the theoretically accurate units which must occasion-
ally be employed in scientific investigation, it has remained in very
general use. Thus the work done in raising 20 pounds of water
through a height of 1 foot, or 1 pound of water through a height of
20 feet, or 5 pounds of water through a height of 4 feet, or in fact
any other combination of pounds of water and feet of height making
a product of 20, is said to be 20 foot-pounds.

3. Power. In the preceding definition, the element of time was
not considered; thus, in the above example, 20 foot-pounds of work
were done, whether the indicated operation took one minute to per-
form or extended over a period of one hour, or longer. The term
power is defined as the amount of energy that can be exerted, or
work done, in a given time.

Unit of Power. For industrial purposes, the unit most com-
monly employed is the horse-power (h.p.), which represents the
capacity to perform 33,000 foot-pounds of work in one minute, or
550 foot-pounds of work in one second; it thus indicates the rate of
work.

Example. A pump raising 7,500,000 gallons of water* in 10 hours tc an
elevated tank 50 feet high, is performing:

7,500,000 X 62.5 X 50

7>5 = 3,125,000,000 ft.-lbs. of useful work; or,

3,125,000,000

10 x 60 = 5*208,333 ft.-lbs. per minute,

which is equivalent to :

5,208,333
33,000 = 157 ' 8h -P-

This amount of horse-power is the rate of work which, in the ex-
ample above, must be continued for 10 hours in order to raise the
total quantity of water. The entire problem may be conveniently
performed in one operation, thus:

7,500,000 X 62.5_X 50
7.5 X 10 X 60 X 33,000 ~~ 7 ' 8 P *

4. Energy. The amount of energy existing in any agent is
measured by the quantity of work it is able to do; energy and work

*One cubic foot of water weighs 62.5 Ibs. and contains 7.5 gallons (approximately).

12



WATER-POWER DEVELOPMENT 3

are therefore measured by the same unit. "When energy is exerted,
work is done against resistance." As usually stated in Theoretical
Mechanics, energy may exist as potential energy energy of position;
or kinetic energy energy of motion; or partly in one form, and partly
in the other. Thus (see Fig. 1) a cannon-ball weighing W pounds,
located in an elevated position h feet above any plane of reference,
possesses Wh foot-pounds of potential energy with respect to that
plane, by virtue of its position. If it be allowed to fall to the plane,
it will, at its lowest point, theoretically have acquired a velocity of
c( = \/2gh) feet per second, and will therefore, at that level, possess

v 2
kinetic energy to the amount of W~ - ( = Wh) foot-pounds by reason of

i/

its motion. Further, if we analyze the conditions at some inter-
mediate plane h^ feet below its original position, and h 2 feet above
the lower level, we
shall find that the
ball has acquired
at this point a
velocity of v l ( =
feet per




h




-WT


i




i


1






1
t


v=^gK


h2
i

i


.JL.


./AAMl


. jr



F1 &- * Illustrating Relation between Potential and
Kinetic Energy.



y

second, and there-
fore possesses ki-
netic energy to the

v 2
amount of W - 1 -

c7

- Wh } foot-

pounds due to its

motion; but, by reason of its position h 2 feet above the lower plane,
it still possesses Wh 2 foot-pounds of potential energy; consequently,
with respect to the lower plane, the ball possesses a total energy rep-

resented by W (- + h 2 ) = W (^ + h 2 ) = Wh= PF^-foot-pounds.

fy *9

Thus potential and kinetic energies are mutually convertible,
theoretically without loss; practically, more or less energy will be
transformed into heat during the conversion, and dissipated. But
the great principle of the Conservation of Energy teaches that the
total quantity of energy existing, or stored in the ball in any position,
is theoretically a constant quantity.



13



4 WATER-POWER DEVELOPMENT

5. Pressure=, Velocity=, and Qravity=Head. In hydraulic work,
because of the nature of the medium dealt with water being con-
sidered in this connection a perfect fluid, and incompressible and
because of the character of the problems presented, it is customary
and convenient to consider the energy of water as capable of existing
in three forms Pressure, Velocity, and Gravity. Thus, in Fig. 2,
with the conditions as represented (see also "Hydraulics," page 34),
if the valve at D be closed, the water will rise in tube CC (called a
piezometer tube) to the same level EF as that existing in the reservoir,
and the pressure in the pipe at C will be represented by the head h



Online LibraryAmerican Technical SocietyCyclopedia of civil engineering; a general reference work on surveying, highway construction, railroad engineering, earthwork, steel construction, specifications, contracts, bridge engineering, masonry and reinforced concrete, municipal engineering, hydraulic engineering, river and harbor improvemen → online text (page 1 of 32)