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American Technical Society.

Cyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 1) online

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Online LibraryAmerican Technical SocietyCyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 25)
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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
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Cyclopedia



V

Engineering



A General Reference Work on

STEAM BOILERS, PUMPS, ENGINES, AND TURBINES, GAS AND OIL ENGINES,
AUTOMOBILES, MARINE AND LOCOMOTIVE WORK, HEATING AND
VENTILATING, COMPRESSED AIR, REFRIGERATION, DY-
NAMOS, MOTORS, ELECTRIC WIRING, ELEC-
TRIC LIGHTING, ELEVATORS, ETC.



Editor-in-Chief
LOUIS DERR, M. A., S. B.

PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY



Assisted by a Staff of

CONSULTING ENGINEERS, TECHNICAL EXPERTS, AND DESIGNERS OF THE
HIGHEST PROFESSIONAL STANDING



"with QIWX -fiup^ Thousand Engravings^



SEVEN VOLUMES



CHICAGO

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY
1910



51909 B - e..-



COPYRIGHT, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1906, 1907, 1909

BY

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE



COPYRIGHT, 1902, 1903, 1904. 1906, 1907. 1909
BY

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY



Entered at Stationers' Hall London
All Rignts Reserved



<J



o

Editor-in-Chief
LOUIS DERR, M. A., S. B.

Professor of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Authors and Collaborators

LIONEL S. MARKS, S. B., M. M. E,

Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Harvard University
"1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers



LLEWELLYN V. LUDY, M. E.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



LUCIUS I. W1GHTMAN, E. E.

Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, Ingersoll-Rand Co., New York



FRANCIS B. CROCKER, E. M., Ph. D.

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York
Past President, American Institute of Electrical Engineers



CHARLES L. GRIFFIN, S. B.

Assistant Engineer, the Sol vay- Process Co.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



VICTOR C. ALDERSON, D. Sc.

President, Colorado School of Mines

Formerly Dean, Armour Institute of Technology



WALTER S. LELAND, S. B.

Assistant Professor of Naval Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
American Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers



Authors and Collaborators Continued



CHARLES L. HUBBARD, S. B., M. E.

Consulting Engineer on Heating, Ventilating, Lighting, and Power



ARTHUR L. RICE, M. M. E.

Editor, The Practical Engineer



WALTER B. SNOW, S. B.

Formerly Mechanical Engineer, B. F. Sturtevant Co.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



HUGO DIEMER, M. E.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State College
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



SAMUEL S. WYER, M. E.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Author of "Gas-Producers and Producer Gas"



WILLIAM G. SNOW, S. B.

Steam Heating Specialist

American Society of Mechanical Engineers



GLENN M. HOBBS, Ph. D.

Secretary, American School of Correspondence
Formerly Instructor in Physics, University of Chicag
American Physical Society



LOUIS DERR, M. A., S. B.

Professor of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology



JOHN H. JALLINGS

Mechanical Engineer and Elevator Expert



HOWARD MONROE RAYMOND, B. S.

Dean of Engineering, and Professor of Physics. Armour Institute of Technology



Authors and Collaborators Continued



WILLIAM T. McCLEMENT, A. M., D. Sc.

Head of Department of Botany, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada



GEORGE C. SHAAD, E. E.

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kansas



GEORGE L. FOWLER, A. B., M. E.

Consulting Engineer

American Society of Mechanical Engineers



RALPH H. SWEETSER, S. B.

Superintendent, Columbus Iron & Steel Co.
A merican Institute of Mining Engineers



CHARLES E. KNOX, E. E.

Consulting Electrical Engineer

American Institute of Electrical Engineers



MILTON W. ARROWOOD

Graduate, United States Naval Academy

Refrigerating and Mechanical Engineer, with the Triumph Ice Machine Company



R. F. SCHUCHARDT, B. S.

Testing Engineer, Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago



WILLIAM S. NEWELL, S. B.

With Bath Iron Works

Formerly Instructor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology



GEORGE F. GEBHARDT, M. E., M. A.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Armour Institute of Technology



HARRIS C. TROW, S. B., Managing Editor

Editor-in-Chief, Textbook Department, American School of Correspondence
American Institute of Electrical Engineers



Authorities Consulted



THE editors have freely consulted the standard technical literature of
Europe and America in the preparation of these volumes. They
desire to express their indebtedness, particularly to the following
eminent authorities, whose well-known treatises should be in the library of
every engineer.

Grateful acknowledgment is here made also for the invaluable co-opera-
tion of the foremost engineering firms, in making these volumes thoroughly
representative of the best and latest practice in the design and construction
of steam and electrical machines; also for the valuable drawings and data,
suggestions, criticisms, and other courtesies.



JAMES AMBROSE MOYER, S. B., A. M.

Member of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers; American Institute of Elec-

trical Engineers, etc.; Engineer, Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co.
Author of "The Steam Turbine," etc.



E. G. CONSTANTINE

Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers; Associate Member of the Institu-

tion of Civil Engineers.
Author of "Marine Engineers."

*^

c. w. MACCORD, A. M.

Professor of Mechanical Drawing, Stevens Institute of Technology.
Author of "Movement of Slide Valves by Eccentrics."
**

CECIL H. PEABODY, S. B.

Professor of Marine Engineering and Naval Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of

Technology.
Author of "Thermodynamics of the Steam Engine," "Tables of the Properties of

Saturated Steam," "Valve Gears to Steam Engines," etc.



FRANCIS BACON CROCKER, M. E., Ph. D.

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering:, Columbia University; Past President

American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Author of "Electric Lighting," "Practical Management of Dynamos and Motors."

%

SAMUEL S. WYER

Mechanical Engineer; American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Author of "Treatise on Producer Gas and Gas-Producers," "Catechism on Producer Gas."



E. W. ROBERTS, M. E.

Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Author of "Gas-Engine Handbook," "Gas Engines and Their Troubles," "The Automo-
bile Pocket-book," etc.



Authorities Consulted Continued



GARDNER D. HISCOX, M. E.

Author of "Compressed Air," "Gas, Gasoline, and Oil-Engines," "Mechanical Move-
ments," "Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles, and Motor-Cycles," "Hydraulic Engineer-
ing," "Modern Steam Engineering," etc.

r*
EDWARD F. MILLER

Professor of Steam Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Author of "Steam Boilers."

ROBERT M. NEILSON

Associate Member, Institution of Mechanical Engineers; Member of Cleveland Institu-
tion of Engineers; Chief of the Technical Department of Richardsons, Westgarth
and Co., Ltd.

Author of "The Steam Turbine."

ROBERT WILSON

Author of "Treatise on Steam Boilers," "Boiler and Factory Chimneys," etc.



CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ

Consulting Engineer, with the General Electric Co.; Professor of Electrical Engineering,
Union College.

Author of "The Theory and Calculation of Alternating-Current Phenomena," "Theo-
retical Elements of Electrical Engineering," etc.



JAMES J. LAWLER

Author of "Modern Plumbing, Steam and Hot- Water Heating."

WILLIAM F. DURAND, Ph. D.

Professor of Marine Engineering, Cornell University.

Author of "Resistance and Propulsion of Ships," "Practical Marine Engineering."

HORATIO A. FOSTER

Member, American Institute of Electrical Engineers; American Society of Mechanical

Engineers; Consulting Engineer.
Author of "Electrical Engineer's Pocket-book."

^-

ROBERT GRIMSHAW, M. E.

Author of "Steam Engine Catechism," "Boiler Catechism," "Locomotive Catechism,"
"Engine Runners' Catechism," "Shop Kinks," etc.



SCHUYLER S. WHEELER, D. Sc.

Electrical Expert of the Board of Electrical Control, New York City; Member American

Societies of Civil and Mechanical Engineers.
Author of "Practical Management of Dynamos and Motors."



Authorities Consulted Continued



J. A. EWING, C. B., LL. D., F. R. S.

Member, Institute of Civil Engineers; formerly Professor of Mechanism and Applied
Mechanics in the University of Cambridge; Director of Naval Education.

Author of "The Mechanical Production of Cold," "The Steam Engine and Other Heat
Engines."

^

LESTER G. FRENCH, S. B.

Mechanical Engineer.
Author of "Steam Turbines."



ROLLA C. CARPENTER, M. S., C. E., M. M. E.

Professor of Experimental Engineering, Cornell University; Member of American
Society Heating and Ventilating Engineers; Member American Society Mechanical
Engineers.

Author of "Heating and Ventilating Buildings."
V

J. E SIEBEL

Director, Zymotechnic Institute, Chicago.
Author of "Compend of Mechanical Refrigeration."
<V

WILLIAM KENT, M. E.

Consulting Engineer; Member of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, etc.
Author of "Strength of Materials," "Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-book," etc.

^

WILLIAM M. BARR

Member American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Author of "Boilers and Furnaces," "Pumping Machinery," "Chimneys of Brick and
Metal, "etc.

^*

WILLIAM RIPPER

Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the Sheffield Technical School: Member of the

Institute of Mechanical Engineers.
Author of "Machine Drawing and Design," "Practical Chemistry," "Steam," etc.



J. FISHER-HINNEN

Late Chief of the Drawing Department at the Oerlikon Works.
Author of "Continuous Current Dynamos."



SYLVANUS P. THOMPSON, D. Sc., B. A., F. R. S., F. R. A. S.

Principal and Professor of Physics in the City and Guilds of London Technical College.
Author of "Electricity and Magnetism," "Dynamo-Electric Machinery." etc.



ROBERT H. THURSTON, C. E., Ph. B., A. M., LL. D.

Director of Sibley College, Cornell University.

Author of "Manual of the Steam Engine." "Manual of Steam Boilers." "History of the
Steam Engine," etc.



Authorities Consulted Continued



JOSEPH G. BRANCH, B. S., M. E.

Chief of the Department of Inspection, Boilers and Elevators : Member of the Board of

Examining: Engineers for the City of St. Louis.
Author of "Stationary Engineering," "Heat and Light from Municipal and Other

Waste," etc.

*

JOSHUA ROSE, M. E.

Author of "Mechanical Drawing Self Taught," "Modern Steam Engineering," "Steam
Boilers," "The Slide Valve," "Pattern Maker's Assistant." "Complete Machinist, "etc.



CHARLES H. INNES, M. A.

Lecturer on Engineering at Rutherford College.

Author of "Air Compressors and Blowing Engines." "Problems in Machine Design,"
"Centrifugal Pumps, Turbines, and Water Motors," etc.

T?

GEORGE C. V. HOLMES

Whitworth Scholar ; Secretary of the Institute of Naval Architects, etc.
Author of "The Steam Engine."

^

FREDERIC REMSEN HUTTON, E. M., Ph. D.

Emeritus Professor of Medical Engineering in Columbia University ; Past Secretary

and President of American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Author of "The Gas Engine," " Mechanical Engineering of Power Plants," etc.

*>

MAURICE A. OUDIN, M. S.

Member of American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Author of " Standard Polyphase Apparatus and Systems."



WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN RANKINE, LL. D., F. R. S. S.

Civil Engineer ; Late Regius Professor of Civil Engineering in University of Glasgow.
Author of "Applied Mechanics," "The Steam Engine," " Civil Engineering." "Useful
Rules and Tables," "Machinery and Mill Work," "A Mechanical Textbook."

'V

DUGALD C. JACKSON, C. E.

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology;

Member of American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Author of "A Textbook on Electro-Magnetism and the Construction of Dynamos,"

"Alternating Currents and Alternating-Current Machinery."

^

A. E. SEATON

Author of "A Manual of Marine Engineering."



WILLIAM C. UNWIN, F. R. S., M. Inst. C. E.

Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Central Technical College, City and

Guilds of London Institute, etc.
Author of "Machine Design," "The Development and Transmission of Power," etc.



Foreword



THE rapid advances made in recent years in all lines of
engineering, as seen in the evolution of improved types
of machinery, new mechanical processes and methods,
and even new materials of workmanship, have created a dis-
tinct necessity for an authoritative work of general reference
embodying the accumulated results of modern experience and
the latest approved practice. The Cyclopedia of Engineering
is designed to fill this acknowledged need.

C. The aim of the publishers has been to create a work which,
while adequate to meet all demands of the technically trained
expert, will appeal equally to the self-taught practical man,
who may have been denied the advantages of training at a resi-
dent technical school. The Cyclopedia not only covers the
fundamentals that underlie all engineering, but places the
reader in direct contact with the experience of teachers fresh
from practical work, thus putting him abreast of the latest
progress and furnishing him that adjustment to advanced
modern needs and conditions which is a necessity even to the
technical graduate.

C. The Cyclopedia of Engineering is based upon the method
which the American School of Correspondence has developed
and successfully used for many years in teaching the principles
and practice of Engineering in its different branches.

C. The success which the American School of Correspondence
has attained as a factor in the machinery of modern technical
and scientific education is in itself the best possible guarantee



for the present work. Therefore, while these volumes are a
marked innovation in technical literaturerepresenting, as they
do, the best ideas and methods of a large number of different
authors, each an acknowledged authority in his work they are
by no means an experiment, but are, in fact, based on what has
proved itself to be the most successful method yet devised for
the education of the busy man. The formula of the higher
mathematics have been avoided as far as possible, and every
care exercised to elucidate the text by abundant and appropri-
ate illustrations.

C. Numerous examples for practice are inserted at intervals;
these, with the text questions, help the reader to fix in mind
the essential points, thus combining the advantages of a text-
book with those of a reference work.

C. The Cyclopedia has been compiled with the idea of making
it a work thoroughly technical yet easily comprehended by the
man who has but little time in which to acquaint himself with
the fundamental branches of practical engineering. If, there-
fore, it should benefit any of the large number of workers who
need, yet lack, technical training, the publishers will feel that
its mission has been accomplished.

C. Grateful acknowledgment is due the corps of authors and
collaborators engineers and designers of wide practical expe-
rience, and teachers of well-recognized ability without whose
co-operation this work would have been impossible.




Table of Contents



VOLUME



CONSTRUCTION OF BOILERS . . . . By W. S. Newell} Page *11

Materials of Construction Rivets Flanging Plates Welded Joints Staying-
Tubes Furnace Flues Calking Boiler Design Horse- Power Grate Area
Chimney and Forced Draft Heating Surface Water- Level Strength of Boilers
Riveted Joints



TYPES OF BOILERS Page 69

Boiler Attachments Stationary, Marine, and Locomotive Boilers Flue, Fire-
Tube, and Water-Tube Boilers External and Internal Firing Haystack and
Wagon Boilers Cornish, Lancashire, and Galloway Boilers Multitubular Boilers
(Horizontal, Vertical) Return-Tube and Through-Tube Boilers Fire-Box
Boilers Horizontal Water-Tube Boilers Vertical Water-Tube Boilers (Wickes,
Cahall, Stirling, Milne) Peculiar Types (Hazelton, Harrison)

BOILER ACCESSORIES By W. S. Leland Page 143

Boiler Setting Supports Furnaces Grates Bridge Smoke Prevention Down
Draft Hollow Arch Fuel Economizers Mechanical Stokers Fusible Plugs-
Natural and Forced Draft Steam, Vacuum, and Water Gauges Try-Cocks
Gauge-Glasses Valves Check- Valves Safety- Valves Reducing Valves-
Evaporators Feed-Water Heaters Steam Separators Steam Traps Calori-
meters Piping Lagging Horse-Power Corrosion and Incrustation Explo-
sions Fuel Boiler Trials

STEAM PUMPS By A. L. Rice Page 263

Principles of Action Lifting and Force Pumps Jet, Rotary, Centrifugal, and
Reciprocating Pumps Valves 'Flexible, Hinged, Poppet, etc.) Single, Duplex,
and Triplex Pumps Condenser Pumps Air-Pumps Steam Valves Compound
Pumps Testing

REVIEW QUESTIONS Page 363

INDEX Page 371



* For page numbers, see foot of pages.

t For professional standing of authors, see list of Authors and Collaborators at
front of volume.




Si



Z is
11



CONSTRUCTION OF BOILERS.



A steam boiler, or steam generator, consists of a vessel to
contain the water and the steam after it is formed ; a fire-box to
contain the fire ; tubes, flues and uptake to transmit heat and con-
duct the hot gases from the fire to the chimney, and various fittings
to facilitate the safe and economical operation. Boilers are often
classified according to their uses and conditions ; thus we have
stationary, marine and locomotive boilers. Boilers having a shell
partially filled with tubes, through which the hot gases pass, are
called tubular, fire- tube or shell boilers; and those having a large
flue in which is placed the fire, are called flue boilers. If the tubes
are filled with water and the hot gases are outside, the boiler is
called a water-tub'e boiler.

Steam boilers are made in a variety of shapes, according to
the type, uses and conditions. Let us first consider boiler con-
struction in general, leaving out the peculiarities of marine, loco-
motive and water-tube boilers.

MATERIALS.

The materials of which boilers are constructed are exposed
to conditions which weaken them and shorten the life of the boiler.
Among these conditions are corrosion, both external and internal,
high pressure, and expansion and contraction, due to varying tem-
perature and pressure.

Cast iron was the material of which the earliest forms of
boilers were made, but on account of its low tensile strength audits
unreliable nature, it is now but little used, except for parts of water-
tube boilers, and sometimes for the ends of low-pressure cylin-
drical boilers and for fittings. It is cheap and resists corrosion
but on account of its unreliability and brittleness, the parts must
be made thick and therefore heavy.



CONSTRUCTION OF BOILERS.



Wrought iron, up to about 1870, was the principal material
used for boiler plates. It is a pure iron prepared from pig iron
by a process called puddling, described in " Metallurgy." Wrought
iron is well adapted for use in boiler construction, as it is strong,
tough and fibrous, and combines high tensile strength with ductil-
ity and freedom from brittleness. When the properties mentioned
are well combined, wrought iron will resist strains due to unequal
expansion. Boiler fastenings, stays and other parts made by
welding are sometimes made of wrought iron. It is customary to
consider that a bar loses about one-quarter of its strength by weld-
ing, although it is often stronger in the weld, owing to the working
of the metal during the welding process.

Steel has entirely displaced iron for boiler-shell work. Boiler
steel is made by the open-hearth process, and contains for ordinary
thickness of 1 or 1| inches 0.25 per cent carbon, while thinner plates
of | inch should not contain over 0.15 per cent carbon. Larger
percentages of carbon, while accompanied by an increase in tensile
strength, lessen the ductility. The following properties show
steel to be the best boiler material at present : great tensile
strength, ductility, homogeneity, toughness, freedom from blisters
and internal unsoundness. Blisters and unsoundness are faults
sometimes met with in wrought-iron plates.

Copper in many respects is superior to wrought iron for boiler
construction. It is homogeneous, resists oxidation (the corrosive
action of most feed waters) and incrustation. It is more ductile
and malleable and a better conductor of heat, which not only gives
it a higher evaporative power, but also enables it to last longer
under the intense heat of the furnace. Its disadvantages are its
low tensile strength, about 30,000 pounds per square inch, and its
decrease of strength with an increase of temperature. In heating
from the freezing point to the boiling point it loses 5 per cent of
its strength, and at 550 F. it loses about one-quarter of its strength.
For these reasons and on account of its high price, it is now seldom
used in boiler work.

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc in which the proportions
of each vary considerably. The red color comes from a larger per
cent of copper. Red brass is better and more expensive than yel-
low brass. Brass is used for valves, gauges and other fittings.



.CONSTRUCTION OF BOILERS.



Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, and is advantageously used
for valves and seats of safety valves where the wear is great.




TESTING MATERIALS.



In order to determine the strength and the other qualities of
the materials, specimens are tested. The results of these tests
show the ultimate tensile strength, elastic limit, contraction of area
and elongation.



13



CONSTRUCTION OF BOILERS.



The simplest way to test a piece of iron bar or plate would
be to fix it firmly at the upper end and hang weights on the other
end, adding other weights until the bar is broken. This is but a
crude method, and in order that the elastic limit and elongation
may be determined at the same time, testing machines are used.
There is a large variety of testing machines, adapted for various
materials, but the general principles are the same.

Testing Machines. The testing machine consists of a frame
and two heads, to which the ends of the test piece are fastened by
wedges or other devices. By means of steam or hydraulic power
one head is drawn away from the other for tensile tests. The pull
is transmitted to some weighing device, usually levers and knife
edges like the beam of ordinary platform scales. In small machines
the pull may be applied by a lever.





E


3








vf




^/ st


o




o






J S^cvi


T




J> T



Fig. 2.

Testing machines are made for all varieties of testing: tensile,
compressive and shearing stresses. Also for deflection of beams
and for strength of wood, cement, brick and stone. Fig. 1 shows
an Olsen testing machine designed for tensile and compressive
tests of iron and steel.

In order to test materials, test pieces or specimens are pre-
pared. For testing iron plate the test piece should be at least 1
inch wide, about 2 feet long and planed on both edges. Many
engineers recommend these dimensions. According to the Board
of Supervising Inspectors of Steam Vessels, the test piece should
be 10 inches long, 2 inches wide and cut out at the center.

To ascertain the tensile strength and other qualities of steel,
a test piece should be taken from each plate. These test pieces
are made in the form as shown in Fig. 2. The straight part in



CONSTRUCTION OF BOILERS.



the center is 9 inches long and 1 inch wide ; and to determine
elongation it is marked with light prickpunch marks at distances
1 inch apart, the marked space being 8 inches in length. The
ends are 1^ inches to 2 inches broad and 3 inches to 6 inches long.
As has been explained in " Mechanics," the force necessary to
break the piece is the proportionate part of the tensile strength
per square in h. Thus if the test piece having a reduced section
of .4 square i ch is broken at 19,200 pounds, the tensile strength

19 200
of the plate is - ! = 48,000 pounds per square inch.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

1. If a piece of boiler plate breaks at 33,500 pounds and the
reduced section is 1|- inches by ^ inch, what is the ultimate ten-
sile strength?

Ans. 59,555 pounds.

2. A boiler plate is claimed to be of 64,000 pounds tensile
strength. If the section is 1 inch wide and .63 inch thick, what
should be the reading of the testing machine when the specimen
breaks ?

Ans. 40,320 pounds.

3. A test piece of the form shown in Fig. 2 measured 8
inches between the prickpunch marks before testing and 9.56
inches after testing. What was' the per cent of elongation ?

Ans. 19-1 per cent.

4. If the area of section before breaking is .4825 square inch



Online LibraryAmerican Technical SocietyCyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 25)