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American Technical Society.

Cyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 2) online

. (page 1 of 30)
Online LibraryAmerican Technical SocietyCyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 30)
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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




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Cyclopedia

of



Engineering



A General Reference Work on

STEAM BOILERS, PUMPS, ENGINES, AND TURBINES, GAS AND OIL ENGINES,
AUTOMOBILES, MARINE AND LOCOMOTIVE WORK, HEATING AND
VENTILATING, COMPRESSED AIR, REFRIGERATION, DY-
NAMOS, MOTORS, ELECTRIC WIRING, ELEC-
TRIC LIGHTING, ELEVATORS, ETC.



Edkor-in-Chief
LOUIS DERR, M. A., S. B.

PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY



Assisted by a Staff of

CONSULTING ENGINEERS, TECHNICAL EXPERTS, AND DESIGNERS OF THE
HIGHEST PROFESSIONAL STANDING



'Illustrated with over Two ^Thousand Engravings
SEVEN VOLUMES

:

CHICAGO

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY
1910



51910



COPYRIGHT, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1906. 1907. 1909
BY

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE



COPYRIGHT, 1902, 1903, 1904. 1906. 1907, 1909

BY

AMERICAN TECHNICAL SOCIETY



Entered at Stationers' Hall. London
All Rignts Reserved



Editor-in-Chief
LOUIS DERR, M. A., S. B.

Professor of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Authors and Collaborators



LIONEL S. MARKS, S. B., M. M. E.

Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Harvard University
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



LLEWELLYN V. LUDY, M. E.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



LUCIUS I. W1GHTMAN, E. E.

Electrical and Mechanical Engineer, Ingersoll-Rand Co., New York



FRANCIS B. CROCKER, E. M., Ph. D.

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York
Past President, American Institute of Electrical Engineers



CHARLES L. GRIFFIN, S. B.

Assistant Engineer, the Sol vay- Process Co.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



VICTOR C. ALDERSON, D. Sc.

President, Colorado School of Mines

Formerly Dean, Armour Institute of Technology



WALTER S. LELAND, S. B.

Assistant Professor of Naval Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
American Society of Naval Architects and Marine Enirineers



Authors and Collaborators Continued



CHARLES L. HUBBARD, S. B., M. E.

Consulting Engineer on Heating, Ventilating, Lighting, and Power



ARTHUR L. RICE, M. M. E.

Editor, The Practical Engineer



WALTER B. SNOW, S. B.

Formerly Mechanical Engineer, B. F. Sturtevant Co.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



HUGO DIEMER, M. E.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Pennsylvania State College
American Society of Mechanical Engineers



SAMUEL S. WYER, M. E.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Author of "Gas-Producers and Producer Gas'



WILLIAM G. SNOW, S. B.

Steam Heating Specialist

American Society of Mechanical Engineers



GLENN M. HOBBS, Ph. D.

Secretary, American School of Correspondence
Formerly Instructor in Physics, University of Chicago
American Physical Society



LOUIS DERR, M. A., S. B.

Professor of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology



JOHN H. JALLINGS

Mechanical Engineer and Elevator Expert



HOWARD MONROE RAYMOND, B. S.

Dean of Engineering, and Professor of Physics. Armour Institute of Technology



Authors and Collaborators Continued



WILLIAM T. McCLEMENT, A. M., D. Sc.

Head of Department of Botany, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada



GEORGE C. SHAAD, E. E.

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kar



GEORGE L. FOWLER, A. B., M. E.

Consulting Engineer

American Society of Mechanical Engineers



RALPH H. SWEETSER, S. B.

Superintendent, Columbus Iron & Steel Co.
A merican Institute of Mining Engineers



CHARLES E. KNOX, E. E.

Consulting Electrical Engineer

American Institute of Electrical Engineers



MILTON W. ARROWOOD

Graduate, United States Naval Academy

Refrigerating and Mechanical Engineer, with the Triumph Ice Machine Company



R. F. SCHUCHARDT, B. S.

Testing Engineer, Commonwealth Edison Co.. Chicago



WILLIAM S. NEWELL, S. B.

With Bath Iron Works

Formerly Instructor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology



GEORGE F. GEBHARDT, M. E., M. A.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Armour Institute of Technology



HARRIS C. TROW, S. B., Managing Editor

Editor-in-Chief. Textbook Department, American School of Correspondence
American Institute of Electrical Engineers



Authorities Consulted



THE editors have freely consulted the standard technical literature of
Europe and America in the preparation of these volumes. They
desire to express their indebtedness, particularly to the following
eminent authorities, whose well-known treatises should be in the library of
every engineer.

Grateful acknowledgment is here made also for the invaluable co-opera-
tion of the foremost engineering firms, in making these volumes thoroughly
representative of the best and latest practice in the design and construction
of steam and electrical machines; also for the valuable drawings and data,
suggestions, criticisms, and other courtesies.



JAMES AMBROSE MOYER, S. B., A. M.

Member of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers; American Institute of Elec-
trical Engineers, etc.; Engineer, Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co.
Author of "The Steam Turbine," etc.



E. G. CONSTANTINE

Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Associate Member of the Institu-
tion of Civil Engineers.
Author of " Marine Engineers."

^

C. W. MAcCORD, A. M.

Professor of Mechanical Drawing, Stevens Institute of Technology.
Author of "Movement of Slide Valves by Eccentrics."

^

CECIL H. PEABODY, S. B.

Professor of Marine Engineering and Naval Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of

Technology.
Author of "Thermodynamics of the Steam Engine," "Tables of the Properties of

Saturated Steam," "Valve Gears to Steam Engines," etc.



FRANCIS BACON CROCKER, M. E., Ph. D.

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University; Past President

American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Author of "Electric Lighting," "Practical Management of Dynamos and Motors."

V

SAMUEL S. WYER

Mechanical Engineer; American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Author of "Treatise on Producer Gas and Gas-Producers," "Catechism on Producer Gas."

^

E. W. ROBERTS, M. E.

Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Author of "Gas-Engine Handbook," "Gas Engines and Their Troubles," "The Automo-
bile Pocket-book," etc.



Authorities Consulted Continued



GARDNER D. HISCOX, M. E.

Author of "Compressed Air," "Gas, Gasoline, and Oil-Engines," "Mechanical Move-
ments," "Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles, and Motor-Cycles," "Hydraulic Engineer-
ing," "Modern Steam Engineering-," etc.

r-

EDWARD F. MILLER

Professor of Steam Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Author of "Steam Boilers."

<V

ROBERT M. NEILSON

Associate Member, Institution of Mechanical Engineers; Member of Cleveland Institu-
tion of Engineers; Chief of the Technical Department of Richardsons, Westgarth
and Co., Ltd.

Author of "The Steam Turbine."

V

ROBERT WILSON

Author of "Treatise on Steam Boilers," "Boiler and Factory Chimneys," etc.



CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ

Consulting Engineer, with the General Electric Co.; Professor of Electrical Engineering,
Union College.

Author of "The Theory and Calculation of Alternating-Current Phenomena," "Theo-
retical Elements of Electrical Engineering," etc.



JAMES J. LAWLER

Author of "Modern Plumbing, Steam and Hot- Water Heating."

WILLIAM F. DURAND, Ph. D.

Professor of Marine Engineering, Cornell University.

Author of "Resistance and Propulsion of Ships," "Practical Marine Engineering."

V

HORATIO A. FOSTER

Member, American Institute of Electrical Engineers; American Society of Mechanic

Engineers; Consulting Engineer.
Author of "Electrical Engineer's Pocket-book."

V

ROBERT GRIMSHAW, M. E.

Author of "Steam Engine Catechism," "Boiler Catechism," "Locomotive Catechism,
"Engine Runners' Catechism," "Shop Kinks," etc.



SCHUYLER S. WHEELER, D. Sc.

Electrical Expert of the Board of Electrical Control, New York City; Member America

Societies of Civil and Mechanical Engineers.
Author of "Practical Management of Dynamos and Motors."



Authorities Consulted Continued



J. A. EWING, C. B., LL. D., F. R. S.

Member. Institute of Civil Engineers; formerly Professor of Mechanism and Applied
Mechanics in the University of Cambridge; Director of Naval Education.

Author of "The Mechanical Production of Cold," "The Steam Engine and Other Heat
Engines."

V

LESTER G. FRENCH, S. B.

Mechanical Engineer.
Author of "Steam Turbines."

y

ROLLA C. CARPENTER, M. S., C. E., M. M. E.

Professor of Experimental Engineering, Cornell University; Member of American
Society Heating and Ventilating Engineers; Member American Society Mechanical
Engineers.

Author of "Heating and Ventilating Buildings."
^

J. E SIEBEL

Director, Zymotechnic Institute, Chicago.

Author of "Compend of Mechanical Refrigeration."

V
WILLIAM KENT, M. E.

Consulting Engineer; Member of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, etc.
Author of "Strength of Materials," "Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-book." etc.

*

WILLIAM M. BARR

Member American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Author of "Boilers and Furnaces," "Pumping Machinery," "Chimneys of Brick and
Metal," etc.

^

WILLIAM RIPPER

Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the Sheffield Technical School; Member of the

Institute of Mechanical Engineers.
Author of "Machine Drawing and Design," "Practical Chemistry," "Steam." etc.



J. FISHER-HINNEN

Late Chief of the Drawing Department at the Oerlikon Works.
Author of "Continuous Current Dynamos."



SYLVANUS P. THOMPSON, D. Sc., B. A., F. R. S., F. R. A. S.

Principal and Professor of Physics in the City and Guilds of London Technical College.
Author of "Electricity and Magnetism," "Dynamo-Electric Machinery," etc.



ROBERT H. THURSTON, C. E., Ph. B., A. M., LL. D.

Director of Sibley College, Cornell University.

Author of "Manual of the Steam Engine," "Manual of Steam Boilers." "History of the
Steam Engine." etc.



Authorities Consulted Continued



JOSEPH G. BRANCH, B. S., M. E.

Chief of the Department of Inspection, Boilers and Elevators ; Member of the Board of

Examining Engineers for the City of St. Louis.
Author of "Stationary Engineering," "Heat and Light from Municipal and Other

Waste," etc.

JOSHUA ROSE, M. E.

Author of "Mechanical Drawing Self Taught" " Modern Steam Engineering," "Steam
Boilers," "The Slide Valve," "Pattern Maker's Assistant." "Complete Machinist, "etc.



CHARLES H. INNES, M. A.

Lecturer on Engineering at Rutherford College.

Author of "Air Compressors and Blowing Engines," "Problems in Machine Design,"
"Centrifugal Pumps, Turbines, and Water Motors," etc.

GEORGE C. V. HOLMES

Whitworth Scholar ; Secretary of the Institute of Naval Architects, etc.
Author of "The Steam Engine."

^

FREDERIC REMSEN HUTTON, E. M., Ph. D.

Emeritus Professor of Medical Engineering in Columbia University; Past Secretary

and President of American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Author of "The Gas Engine," "Mechanical Engineering of Power Plants." etc.

*r

MAURICE A. OUDIN, M. S.

Member of American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Author of " Standard Polyphase Apparatus and Systems."



WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN RANKINE, LL. D., F. R. S. S.

Civil Engineer ; Late Regius Professor of Civil Engineering in University of Glasgow.
Author of "Applied Mechanics," "The Steam Engine," "Civil Engineering." "Useful
Rules and Tables," " Machinery and Mill Work," "A Mechanical Textbook."

DUGALD C. JACKSON, C. E.

Head of Department of Electrical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology:

Member of American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Author of "A Textbook on Electro-Magnetism and the Construction of Dynamos,"

"Alternating Currents and Alternating-Current Machinery."

A. E. SEATON

Author of "A Manual of Marine Engineering."



WILLIAM C. UNWIN, F. R. S., M. Inst. C. E.

Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Central Technical College, City and

Guilds of London Institute, etc.
Author of " Machine Design," "The Development and Transmission of Power," etc.



Foreword



THE rapid advances made in recent years in all lines of
engineering, as seen in the evolution of improved types
of machinery, new mechanical processes and methods,
and even new materials of workmanship, have created a dis-
tinct necessity for an authoritative work of general reference
embodying the accumulated results of modern experience and
the latest approved practice. The Cyclopedia of Engineering
is designed to fill this acknowledged need.

C. The aim of the publishers has been to create a work which,
while adequate to meet all demands of the technically trained
expert, will appeal equally to the self-taught practical man,
who may have been denied the advantages of training at a resi-
dent technical school. The Cyclopedia not only covers the
fundamentals that underlie all engineering, but places the
reader in direct contact with the experience of teachers fresh
from practical work, thus putting him abreast of the latest
progress and furnishing him that adjustment to advanced
modern needs and conditions which is a necessity even to the
technical graduate.

C. The Cyclopedia of Engineering is based upon the method
which the American School of Correspondence has developed
and successfully used for many years in teaching the principles
and practice of Engineering in its different branches.

C. The success which the American School of Correspondence
has attained as a factor in the machinery of modern technical
and scientific education is in itself the best possible guarantee



for the present work. Therefore, while these volumes are a
marked innovation in technical literature representing, as they
do, the best ideas and methods of a large number of different
authors, each an acknowledged authority in his work they are
by no means an experiment, but are, in fact, based on what has
proved itself to be the most successful method yet devised for
the education of the busy man. The formula of the higher
mathematics have been avoided as far as possible, and every
care exercised to elucidate the text by abundant and appropri-
ate illustrations.

C. Numerous examples for practice are inserted at intervals;
these, with the text questions, help the reader to fix in mind
the essential points, thus combining the advantages of a text-
book with those of a reference work.

C The Cyclopedia has been compiled with the idea of making
it a work thoroughly technical yet easily comprehended by the
man who has but little time in which to acquaint himself with
the fundamental branches of practical engineering. If, there-
fore, it should benefit any of the large number of workers who
need, yet lack, technical training, the publishers will feel that
its mission has been accomplished.

C. Grateful acknowledgment is due the corps of authors and
collaborators engineers and designers of wide practical expe-
rience, and teachers of well-recognized ability without whose
co-operation this work would have been impossible.




Table of Contents



VOLUME II
HEAT By Louis Derr\ Page *11

Thermometers Expansion of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Calorie Specific Heat

Properties of Steam Superheated Steam Thermodynamics Law of Boyle
and Charles Work Done in Expansion Carnot Cycle Steam Engine Hot-
Air and Gas Engines

THE STEAM ENGINE . By W. B. Snow and W. S. Leland Page 55

History Parts of the Steam Engine Types of Engines Simple and Com-
pound Engines Condensing and Non-Condensing Cylinder Ratios Marine
Engines Locomotive Engines Pumping Engines Condensers Cooling
Towers The Fly Wheel Governors Lubrication Steam Tables Efficiency
of Engine Multiple Expansion Jacketing Superheated Steam Cooling
Surface Corliss Valve Separator Crank Action Economy of Engine
Compounding Cut-off and Expansion Feed- Water Heaters Testing

STEAM-ENGINE INDICATORS Page 187

What the Indicator Diagram Means Types of Indicators Care of Indicator-
Attaching Indicator to Engine Reducing Motion To Take Indicator Diagrams

Mean Effective Pressure Indicated Horse-PowerPiston Speed Engine
Constants Calculations from Cards Brake Horse-Power Prony Brake
Theoretical Indicator Diagram Steam Consumption

VALVE GEARS By Walter S. Leland Page 243

Valves Eccentric Lap Admission Cut - Off Release Compression
Lead Steam Distribution Rocker Valve Diagrams Zeuner's Diagram
Design of a Slide Valve Valve Setting Piston Valve Double- Ported Valve
Trick Valve Balanced Valves Stevenson Link Gooch Link Radial Valve
Gears Double Valve Gears Corliss Valve Gears

STEAM TURBINES .... By Walter S. Leland Page 317

Introduction Advantages History Fundamental Principles Impulse and
Reaction Nozzles Compounding Types of Turbines Compound Turbines
Low-Pressure Turbines Economy Curves Tests Rateau Accumulator
Installation Performance Commercial Turbines Single-Stage Impulse Tur-
bines Compound Impulse Turbines with Velocity Steps Compound Impulse
Turbines, Pressure Stages Compound Impulse Turbines with Pressure Stages
and Velocity Steps Reaction Turbines Governing (Throttling. Varying
Number of Open Nozzles, Varying Time of Admission)

REVIEW QUESTIONS Page 451

INDEX Page 467



* For page numbers, see foot of pages.

t For professional standing of authors, see list of Authors and Collaborators at
front of volume.




/



JSL



HEAT.



Until the time of Count Rumford and Sir Humphry Davy
the most widely accepted notion of the nature of heat was that it
was an elastic fluid, penetrating the pores of all matter and filling
the spaces between molecules. To this fluid the name caloric was
given. In order to explain the various manifestations of heat, it
was necessary to ascribe various properties to the caloric fluid,
such as indestructibility, absence of weight, differences in the
intensity of its affinity for different kinds of matter, and so on.
But these explanations were not borne out by experiment ; and in
1798 Count Rumford showed, by a series of experiments with a
blunt boring bar and a brass cannon, that the heat developed in
boring the cannon had no relation to anything but the friction
of the apparatus. He thus proved that heat could not be a material
substance, for it was produced without limit from a limited quan-
tity of matter, provided only that the motion were maintained ;
and he announced his conviction that heat was in reality a form of
motion.

Sir Humphry Davy showed that two pieces of ice might be
melted by rubbing them together. He thus proved that heat can
be produced by the expenditure of work only. This leads to the
important conclusion that heat must be a form of energy, since it
can be produced from energy, and (as we know in the case of the
steam engine) can itself be converted into well-recognized forms
of energy.

Heat-energy is now understood to lie in the rapid irregular
vibrations of the molecules of which all matter is composed. We
shall see that the idea of rapidly-moving molecules affords a ready
explanation of many of the phenomena of heat/

This motion may be communicated from one body to another ;
or, in other words, heat may flow from one body to another. The
condition that determines which way the flow will take place is
called temperature.



11



HEAT



Temperature, then, has nothing to do with quantity of heat.
If a spoonful of water be dipped from a full pail, it is clear that
the quantities of heat in the two masses of water are very unequal,
yet there is no tendency for heat to travel from either to the other.

Our study of the phenomena and laws of heat thus naturally
divides itself as follows:

1. The measurement of temperature, or thermometry.

2. The measurement of quantities of heat, or calorimetry.

3. The relation between heat and mechanical work, or ther-
modynamics.

Equality of temperature ma.y be estimated quite accurately
simply by touching two bodies with the hand, provided they
are of a similar nature and neither very hot nor very cold.
The power which enables us to do this is called the temperature
sense. It does not help us much, however, if the bodies are of
very different nature, nor does it tell us whether they are actually
hot or cold. The sensation really depends on the rate at which
heat is communicated to (or taken from) the hand, and this
depends on the temperature of the hand as well as on the nature
of the material tested.

A simple experiment will illustrate this. Place the right
hand in ice- water and the left hand in hot water ; after a minute
withdraw them and place them simultaneously in water just drawn
from the faucet. It will seem warm to the right hand and cold to
the left hand, because in the first case heat passes from the water
to the hand, and in the second case from the hand to the water.
Again, a stone in winter feels colder to the hand than a piece of
fur or woolen cloth. The stone conducts the heat away from the
hand faster than the fur does, and thus gives the sensation of a
lower temperature.

THERMOMETERS.

Instruments for the measurement of temperature are called
thermometers. In designing a thermometer we may use any
substance one of whose properties varies continuously with the
temperature. Among the properties most convenient for use arev

1. Expansion ; used for ordinary temperatures.

2. Change of electrical resistance ; used for very low temperatures.
8. Thermo-electric effects; used for very high temperatures.



1 2



HEAT



The first of these is discussed in this paper ; the principles
on which the others depend will be explained in the Instruction
Papers on Electricity.

Besides these, many other properties of substances that
depend on temperature are useful in special cases. For example,
when a piece of polished steel is heated its surface changes color,
each color corresponding to a certain definite temperature. The
process of tempering consists in heating the previously hardened
articles until they assume the proper temperature, as shown by
their color, and then plunging them again into cold water or oil.
In this way each piece is made to indicate its own temperature
without possibility of mistake.

Liquid Thermometers. In the most common form of ther-
mometer, temperature is measured by the expansion of mercury in
glass. On the end of a glass tube of very fine bore, Q
a bulb is blown (see Fig. 1), and the bulb and part
of the tube are filled with mercury. The whole is then
heated until the mercury completely fills the tube,
after which it is sealed and allowed to -cool. The
space in the tube above the mercury is thus entirely
freed from air. Changes in temperature cause the
mercury to expand or contract, and the liquid in the
tube will rise or fall accordingly.

But the thermometer thus made is not yet ready
for use. It must have its divisions properly spaced and
in the right places on the tube. All thermometers for
accurate work should have their scales engraved on the
tube itself, and not on a plate attached to it. Before we
can engrave the scale we must know at least two pig. 1.
points on the stem that correspond to known temper-
atures. The two points commonly taken are known as the
freezing point and the boiling point.

The freezing point can easily be found by putting the ther-
mometer into a mixture of clean pounded ice (or snow) and water.
The boiling point is found by immersing the whole thermometer in
steam from boiling water. The freezing point is always the same
under ordinary conditions, but the temperature of the boiling point
rises or falls slightly as atmospheric pressure increases or decreases.



M2
>QO

180

160

140



13



HEAT



Thermometer Scales. Two scales of temperature are in
use. On the Fahrenheit scale, devised about 1714, the boiling
point is marked 212, and the freezing point 32, there being thus
1 80 degrees between them. The Centigrade scale, which is more
convenient for scientific work, has its boiling point marked 100
and its freezing point marked 0.

We may convert Centigrade to Fahrenheit temperatures in
the following way :

Since 100 Centigrade degrees cover the same temperature
interval as 180 Fahrenheit degrees, one Centigrade degree is -i|^
or f as long as one Fahrenheit degree. Hence a temperature of
m degrees Centigrade is equal to | m Fahrenheit degrees above
the Centigrade zero. But this point is marked 32 on the Fahren-
heit scale, consequently the total reading on the Fahrenheit ther-
mometer will be

9

-," 32.



The formula for changing a temperature C Centigrade to its
Fahrenheit equivalent F, therefore, is



32;



Online LibraryAmerican Technical SocietyCyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 30)