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American Technical Society.

Cyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 2) online

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Online LibraryAmerican Technical SocietyCyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 2) → online text (page 30 of 30)
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tions?

23. How does the method of converting the heat units of steam
into useful work in the turbine differ from that in the reciprocating
engine?

24. Explain in what way the problem of designing a steam
turbine differs from that in the case of a water turbine.

25. How does the action of steam in the Rateau turbine differ
from that in the Curtis turbine?

26. What effect does a variation of load have on the steam
economy of a turbine?

27. Explain why the reciprocating engine cannot make econom-
ical use of the lower ranges of vacuum.

28. If a turbine is compounded by velocity steps only, what
relation is there between the speed reduction and the number of
velocity steps?



464



REVIEW QUESTIONS

ON THE SUBJECT OF

STEAM TURBINES

PART II



1. In what ways may steam turbines be compounded?

2. What is meant by single stage? four stage? Name the prin-
cipal turbines of the multi-stage group.

3. To what class of turbines does the Rateau belong? the \Vest-
inghouse-Parsoris? the Terry?

4. Describe the method of governing a Curtis turbine.

5. Explain a labyrinth packing. What is a shroud ring?

6. How were rotative speeds reduced in the Riedler-Stumpf
single-stage machine? How, in the DeLaval?

7. What turbines belong to the compound-velocity step group?

8. Describe the bearings of a Curtis vertical turbine.

9. In the Zoelly turbine how are the revolutions and centrif-
ugal stresses kept within moderate limits?

10. Wliat device is employed on the DeLaval turbine to counter-
act any slight lack of balance of the rotor? How does this differ from
that employed by the Parsons designers?

11. Explain fully why no other turbines are provided with
such devices.

12. \Vhat is the usual method of lubrication on rotor shaft
bearings? Why is ring oiling unsatisfactory for rotor bearings of
the DeLaval turbine?

13. What is the function of a by-pass and how does the by-pass
operate on a Curtis turbine?

14. How does the DeLaval turbine differ from the Rateau?

15. In what way do the turbines of the compound-velocity
step group differ from one another?



465



STEAM TURBINES



16. In what particulars does the Allis-Chalmers turbine differ
from the Westinghouse?

17. How does the Terry two-stage turbine differ from a two-
stage Curtis?

18. What devices have been employed to prevent leakage from
stage to stage in the multi-stage group?

19. Explain the action of steam in the Curtis turbine.

20. What device is adopted on the DeLaval turbine to prevent
wrecking the entire machine if it approached a dangerous speed
limit?

21. How did the steam action in the Riedler-Stumpf differ from
that in the Curtis? ;

22. What distinctive features has the Kerr turbine?

23. How does the Zoelly turbine differ from others of its group?

24. What are the distinctive features of the Curtis turbine?

25. What disadvantages are connected with the DeLaval
method of reducing speeds of rotation?

26. To what group does the Curtis belong? What others
belong to the same group?

27. What is the most important factor in the economy of a
reactive turbine?

28. How does the rotor of a Parsons turbine differ from the
rotor of a Rateau ?

29. How do the turbines of the multi-stage group differ one
from the other in the matter of steam expansion?

30. What are the different methods of governing a turbine?



INDEX



Tht page numbers of this


volume will be found at the bottom of


the


pages; the numbers


at the


top refer only to the section.






Page




Page


A




Centigrade scale


14






Charles's law


134


Absolute zero


23


Clearance


66


Accumulator


356


Clearance line


222


Action of heat


129


Coefficient of linear expansion


16


Adiabatic expansion


42, 351


Combined diagrams


228


Adjustable eccentrics


294


Commercial turbines


373


Admission


249


impulse


373


Admission line


220


compound


388


Air, liquefaction of


51


Curtis


390, 415


Allis-Ch aimers turbine


441


Hamilton-Holzwarth


406


Angle of lead


251


Kerr


410


Atmospheric line


220


Rateau


397


Avery and Foster turbine


323.


Hiedler-Stumpf


390, 427






Sturtevant


394


B




Terry


392, 428


Back-pressure line


221


Wilkinson


408


Balanced valves


281


Zoelly


402


Bearings 3


84, 400


single-stage


373


Blading


442


4 De Laval


374


Boiling point 13,


25, 26


Riedler-Stumpf


386


Boyle's & Charles's law


40


reaction


431


Boyle's law


40


Allis-Chalmere


441


Brake horse-power


212


Parsons


432


Branca's impulse turbine


322


Compensation of cut-off


254


British thermal unit


27


Compound engines


48, 69


Brotherhood high-speed engine


75


cards for


224


Brown releasing gear


308


horse-power of


231


Buckeye engine governor


112


Compound turbines


325, 341


By-pass valve


400


Compounding


176, 336






Compression


249







Compression curve


222


Calorie


27


Condensers


89. 160


Calorimeter


183


advantages of


161


Carnot cycle


44


cooling surface


164


Casing


399


jet


92


Note. For page numbers see foot of pages.



467



INDEX



Page



Condensers




Drop cut-off gears




measurement of vacuum


165


Greene


310


quantity of w ter


163


Reynolds-Corliss


305


surface


89


safety cam


308


Conduction


35


Sulzer


311


Connecting rod


65


Duplex steam pump


86


Convection


36






Cooling towers


95


E




Corliss engines


86






Corliss valve setting


312


Ebullition


25


Corliss valves


167


Eccentric


65. 244


Crank


65


Economy curves


362


Crank action


171


Economy of steam engine


174


Crank pin


65


compounding


176


Crosby indicator


196


cut-off and expansion


176


inserting spring


198


effect of speed


178


Crosshead


65


feed water heaters


178


Curtis turbine 390,


415


steam jackets


175


Curves showing economy of engine with




superheated steam


175


low-pressure turbine


353


variation of load


177


Curves showing economy in 30 H. P. tur-




Economy of turbine


365


bine


362


Efficiency of actual engine


148


Cut-off


249


Engine constants, table of


211


compensation of


254


Evaporation


24


Cylinder, work done in


169


Exhaust lap


250


Cylinder of engine


63


Exhaust line


221


Cylinder heads


63


Exhaust rods


305


Cylinder ratios


71


Expanding nozzle


327






Expansion




D




of gases


21, 133






of liquids


20


De Laval reaction turbine


326


ratio of


168


De Laval steam turbine


374


of solids


15


bearings


384


work done in


43


gears


384


Expansion curve


221


nozzles


376






shaft


383


P




vanes


377


Fahrenheit scale


14


wheels


378


Feed-water heaters


178


Direct-acting steam pumps


83


Fiber graphite


116


Distillation


26


Floor space, economy in


358


Divided jet


331


Fly-ball governor


109


Double-ported valve


279


Fly wheel


97


Double valve gears


298


Fly-wheel pumps


83


Meyer


299


Fractional distillation


27


Drop cut-off gears


304


Frame of engine


65


Brown releasing


308


Freezing point


13



Note. For page numbers see foot of pages.



468





UM


JUA


3


I


'age




Page


Gas engine


49


Impulse, definition of


331


Gases, expansion of 21,


133


Impulse turbines 321,


338, 373


Gauges


183


compound


388


Gears


384


Curtis


390, 415


Gooch link motion


288


Hamilton-Holzwarth


406


Governing steam turbines


445


Kerr


410


throttling


440


Rateau


397


varying number of open nozzles


446


Riedler-Stumpf


390, 427


varying time of admission


449


Sturtevant


394


Governors


104


Terry


392, 428


Buckeye


112


Wilkinson


408


fly-ball


109


Zoelly


402


pendulum


106


single-stage


373


throttling


105


De Laval


374


shaft


111


Riedler-Stumpf


386


spring


111


Indicator cards


48. 232


straight-line


113


Indicator diagrams


206


Graphite


116


Indicators


181. 193


Greene gear


310


Crosby


196


Guide vanes


345


Tabor


199


Guides


424


Thompson


194






Inequality of steam distribution


252


H




Installation of steam turbines


' 357






Isothermal expansion


42


Hackworth gear


290






Hamilton-Holzwarth turbine


406


J




Hartman's compound impulse turbine


325


Jacketing


156


Heat 11


-52


Jet condensers


92


action of


129


Joy gear


292


measurement of


27






thermodynamics


38


K




transfer of


35


Kerr turbine


410


Heat transfer


35






conduction


35


L




convection


36






radiation


36


Labyrinth packing


408


Heat units


27


Latent heat


27


Hero's steam turbine


321


Lead


251


High-speed engines


73


Linear expansion, coefficient of


16


Hook stud


305


Liquefaction


23


Horizontal engines


76


of air


' 61


Horse-power of compound engines


231


Liquid lubricants


116


Hot-air engine


48


Liquid thermometers


13


Hyperbolic or Napierian logarithms, table




Liquids, expansion of


20


of


171


Locomotive engines


80



_ For page numbers see foot of pages



INDEX





Page




Page


Losses in steam turbine


361


R




Low-pressure turbines


348






Lubricators


118


Radial valve gears '


289






Hackworth


290


M




Joy


292


Marine engines


79


Marshall


292


Marshall gear


292


Walschaert


293


Mechanical efficiency of engine


215


Radiation


36


Melting points, table of


23


Rateau accumulator


355


Metalline


116


Rateau turbine


397


Meters


181 .


bearings


400


Meyer valve


^9


by-pass valve


400


Multiple expansion


152


casing


399






diaphragm


397


N




vanes


399


Negative lap


255


wheels


400


Newcomen's steam engine


57


Ratio of expansion


168


Nozzles 334,


376, 422


Reaction, definition of


331






Reaction turbines


S38, 431







Allis-Chalmers


441


Otto cycle


49


Parsons


432


Overload in reciprocating engine


366


Reaction wheel


322






Real and Pichon turbine


323


P




Reducing motion


202


Pantograph


203


Refrigerating machines


49


Parsons turbine


326, 432


Regenerator


356


Pelton water-wheel


120


Release


249


Pencil mechanism


199


Returned jet


332


Pendulum governor


106


Reynolds-Corliss gear


305


Perfect gases, thermodynamics of


39


Rice-Sargent engine


354


Performance of steam turbine


361


Riedler-Stumpf turbine


386, 390, 427


Piston


65


Rocker


255


Piston rod


65


Rope brake


213


Piston speed


167, 210


Rotor


439


Piston valve


278










g




Planimeter


217






Point of cut-off


221


Safety bearings


379


Point of exhaust closure


221


Safety cam


308


Point of release


221


Saturated vapor


136


Porter governor


109


Savery's steam engine


55


Power, definition of


187


Scales


181


Prony brake


212


Separator


167


Properties of steam


32


Shaft


65, 383


Pumping engines


82


Shaft governors


111


Q"




Sight-feed lubricators


118






Simple engine


68


Quadruple engine


71


Slide valve


66



Xote. For page numbers see foot of pages.



470



INDEX





Page




Pige


Slide valve design


270


Steam, engine




bridge, width of


271


types of




exhaust port, width of


271


triple expansion


71


lead


272


vertical


76


point of cut-off


271


Steam engine indicators


187-241


steam pipe, area of


270


Steam jackets


.175


steam port, width of


271


Steam lap


250


Slide valve modifications


278


Steam line


220


balance valve


281


Steam nozzles


365


double-ported valve


279


Steam pump




piston valve


278


direct-acting


83


trick valve


281


duplex


86


Soapstone


lift


Steam rods


305


Solid lubricants




Steam tables


138


graphite


116


Steam turbines


317-449


metalline


nr,


advantages of


319


soapstone


110


commercial


373


Solids, expansion of


15


fundamental principles of


328


Specific heat


29


governing


445


Spring governors


111


history of


321


Steam, properties of


32


installation


357


Steam accumulator


356


performance


361


Steam chest


65


tests


367


Steam consumption


236, 362


types of


338


Steam distribution, inequality


of 252


Stephenson link motion


282


Steam engine


46, 55-185


Stephenson's Rocket


61


condensers


89, 160


Straight-line engine governor


113


cooling towers


95


Sturtevant turbine


394


cylinder


169


Sulzer gear


311


early history of


55-62


Superheated steam 34, 158,


175. 363


economy of


174


Superheated vapor


144


fly wheel


97


Surface condensers


89


governors


104


T




lubrication


114


Tables




parts of


63


boiling point of water


25


piston speed


167


boiling points


26


steam, application to


145


coefficients of linear expansion


16


testing


17D


engine constants


211


types of




expansion of liquids


20


compound


69


governor data


108


high-speed


73


hyperbolic or Napierian logarithms 171


horizontal


76


melting points


23


locomotive


80


saturated steam, properties of


33. 140


marine


79


specific- heats


30


pumping


82


steam consumption, average


179


quadruple


71


steam consumption tests


868


simple


68


thermal conductivities


36


Note. For pay numbers tee foot of pages.



471



6


INDEX




Page




Page


Tabor indicator


199


V




attaching to engine


201


Valve with lap


247


care of


201


Valve without lap


245


changing atmospheric line


200


Valve diagrams


256


pencil mechanism


199


Zeuner's


256


reducing motion


202


Valve displacement


247


springs


200


Valve gears


243-314


Temperature




double


298


absolute zero of


23


Meyer


299


definition of


11


drop cut off


30.4


measurement of


12


Brown releasing


308


Tempering


13


Greene


310


Terry turbine


392, 428


Reynolds-Corliss


305


Theoretical indicator diagram


219


Sulzer


' 311


admission line


220


radial


289


atmospheric line


220


Hack worth


290


back-pressure line


221


Joy


292


clearance line


222


Marshall


292


compression curve


222


Walschaert


293


exhaust line


221


Valve setting


275


expansion curve


221


to put engine on center


276


point of cut-off


221


to set valve for equal cut-off


277


point of exhaust closure


221


to set valve with equal lead


277


point of release


221


Vanes 377,


399, 422


steam line


220


Vaporization


24


zero line


222


Variation in speed of turbine


366


Thermal efficiency


219


Vertical engines


76


Thermodynamics


38


W




Thermodynamics of perfect gases


39


Walschaert gear


293


adiabatic expansion


42


Water turbines


329


Boyle's & Charles's law


40


Watt's diagram of work


192


Boyle's law


40


Watt's indicator


60


Carnot cycle


44


Watt's steam engine


59


isothermal expansion


42


Westinghouse




Thermometer scales




high-speed engine


76


Centigrade


14


turbo-generator


358


Fahrenheit


14


Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbine


435


Thermometers


12


Wheels 378,


400, 424


Thompson indicator


194


Wilkinson turbine


408


care of


196


Willans central valve engine


75


changing springs


195


Wilson's compound turbine


324


Three-way cock


202


Wolfgang de Kempelen turbine


321


Throttling


446


Work, definition of


187


Throttling governor


105


Z




Trick valve


281


Zero line


222


Triple expansion engine


71, 351


Zeuner's diagram


256


Turbo-generator


358


Zoelly turbine


402


Note. For page numbers see foot of pages.



472




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Online LibraryAmerican Technical SocietyCyclopedia of engineering : a general reference work on steam boilers, pumps, engines, and turbines, gas and oil engines, automobiles, marine and locomotive work, heating and ventilating, compressed air, refrigeration, dynamos motors, electric wiring, electric lighting, elevators, etc. (Volume 2) → online text (page 30 of 30)