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II. 11. 4

giihil ODbstat.


Censor Theol.



ViCARius Generalis.





Prior Provincialis Anglic.


Feb. 4, 1922,















r 92 2 All rii^lits reserved




ci. of piety - - - - - - i

cii. of observance - - - - - id

Parts of Observance and Contrary Vices

cm. OF DULiA - - - - - - 17

CIV. OF obedience - - - - - 25

cv. OF disobedience - - - - - 40

cvi. of gratitude - - - - "45

cvii. of ingratitude - - - - - 57

cviii. of vengeance - - - - - 64

cix. of truth - - - - - - 76

Opposed to Truth

ex. OF LYING - - - - - - 85

cxi. of dissimulation and hypocrisy - - "99

cxii. of boasting - _ _ - - - io9

cxiii. of irony - - - - - -114

cxiv. of friendliness - - - - -ii8

Opposed to Friendliness

cxv. of flattery - - - - -i23

cxvi. of quarrelling - - - - - 1 28

cxvii. of liberality - - - - - 1 32

Opposed to Liberality.
cxviii. of covetousness - - - 144

CXIX. OF PRODIGALITY - - - - - 161

CXX. OF EQUITY - - - - - -1 68







cxxiii. of fortitude - - - _ _ 193

cxxiv. of martyrdom .... - 215

Vices opposed to Fortitude

cxxv. OF fear - _ _ - _ _ 227

cxxvi. OF fearlessness - - - 235

cxxvii. OF (excessive) daring - - - - 239

Parts of Fortitude

cxxviii. of the parts of fortitude, in general - 243

cxxix. of magnanimity - - - 249

cxxx. of presumption opposed to magnanimity - 268

cxxxi. of ambition ,, ,, „ - 273

cxxxii. of vainglory ;, ,, ,, 277

cxxxiii. of pusillanimity „ ,, „ 288

cxxxiv. of magnificence - - - 293

cxxxv. of meanness opposed to magnificence - - 302

cxxxvi. of patience - - - 306

cxxxvii. of perseverance - . _ - 317

cxxxviii. of the vices opposed to perseverance- - 326

cxxxix. of the gift of fortitude - _ - 330

cxl. of the precepts of fortitude - - - 334





{In Four Articles.)

After religion we must consider piety, the consideration of
which will render the opposite vices manifest. Accordingly
four points of inquiry arise with regard to piety: (i) To
whom does piety extend ? (2) What does piety make one
offer a person ? (3) Whether piety is a special virtue ?
(4) Whether the duties of piety should be omitted for the
sake of religion ?

First Article.

whether piety extends to particular human

individuals ?

We proceed thus to the First Article : —

Objection i. It seems that piety does not extend to
particular human individuals. For Augustine says (De
Civ. Dei x.) that piety denotes, properly speaking, the wor-
ship of God, which the Greeks designate by the term evo-e/Seia.
But the worship of God does not denote relation to man,
but only to God. Therefore piety does not extend definitely
to certain human individuals.

Obj. 2. Further, Gregory says {Moral, i.): Piety, on her
day, provides a banquet, because she fills the inmost recesses of
the heart with works of mercy. Now the works of mercy are

II. ii. 4 I

Q. loi. Art. i THE '' SUMMA THEOLOGICA " 2

to be done to all, according to Augustine {De Doctr. Christ, i.).
Therefore piety does not extend definitely to certain special

Obj. 3. Further, In human affairs there are many other
mutual relations besides those of kindred and citizenship, as
the Philosopher states {Ethic, viii.ii, 12), and on each of them
is founded a kind of friendship, which would seem to be the
virtue of piety, according to a gloss on 2 Tim. iii. 5, Having
an appearance indeed of piety (Douay, — godliness). Therefore
piety extends not only to one's kindred and fellow-citizens.

On the contrary, TuUy says {De Inv. Rhet. ii.) that it is
by piety that we do our duty towards our kindred and well-
wishers of our country and render them faithful service.

I answer that, Man becomes a debtor to other men in
various ways, according to their various excellence and the
various benefits received from them. On both counts God
holds first place, for He is supremely excellent, and is for us
the first principle of being and government. In the second
place, the principles of our being and government are our
parents and our country, that have given us birth and
nourishment. Consequently man is debtor chiefly to his
parents and his country, after God. Wherefore just as it
belongs to religion to give worship to God, so does it belong
to piety, in the second place, to give worship to one's parents
and one's country.

The worship due to our parents includes the worship given
to all our kindred, since our kinsfolk are those who descend
from the same parents, according to the Philosopher
{Ethic, viii. 12). The worship given to our country includes
homage to all our feUow-citizens and to all the friends of our
country. Therefore piety extends chiefly to these.

Reply Obj. 1. The greater includes the lesser: wherefore
the Vv'orship due to God includes the worship due to our
parents as a particular. Hence it is written (Malach. i. 6) :
If I be a father, where is My honour ? Consequently the
term piety extends also to the divine worship.

Reply Obj. 2. As Augustine says {De Civ. Dei x.), the
term piety is often used in connection with works of mercy,

3 PIETY Q. ioi.Art.2

in the language of the common people ; the reason for which
I consider to he the fact that God Himself has declared that these
works are more pleasing to Him than sacrifices. This custom
has led to the application of the word'' pious" to God Himself.
Reply Ohj. 3. The relations of a man with his kindred
and fellow-citizens are more referable to the principles of
his being than other relations: wherefore the term piety is
more applicable to them.

Second Article,
whether piety provides support for our parents ?

We proceed thus to the Second Article : —

Objection 1. It seems that piety does not provide support
for our parents. For, seemingly, the precept of the decalogue,
Honour thy father and thy mother y belongs to piety. But
this prescribes only the giving of honour. Therefore it does
not belong to piety to provide support for one's parents,

Ohj. 2. Further, A man is bound to lay up for those
whom he is bound to support. Now according to the
Apostle (2 Cor. xii. 14), neither ought the children to lay up
for the parents. Therefore piety does not oblige them to
support their parents.

Ohj. 3. Further, Piety extends not only to one's parents,
but also to other kinsmen and to one's fellow-citizens, as
stated above (A. i.). But one is not bound to support all
one's kindred and feUow-citizens. Therefore neither is one
bound to support one's parents.

On the contrary, Our Lord (Matth. xv. 3-6) reproved the
Pharisees for hindering children from supporting their

/ answer that, We owe something to our parents and
fellow-citizens in two ways: essentially, and accidentally.
We owe them essentially that which is due to a father as
such: and since he is his son's superior through being the
principle of his being, the latter owes him reverence and
service. Accidentally, that is due to a father, which it
befits him to receive in respect of something accidental to

Q. loi. Art. 2 THE " SUMMA THEOLOGICA " 4

him, for instance, if he be ill, it is fitting that his
children should visit him and see to his cure; if he be poor,
it is fitting that they should support him; and so on in Uke
instance, all of which come under the head of service due.
Hence TuUy says {De Inv. Rhet. ii.) that piety gives both
dtity and homage : duty referring to service, and homage to
reverence or honour, because, as Augustine says {De Civ.
Dei. X.), we are said to give homage to those whose m^emory
or presence we honour.

Reply Obj. i. According to Our Lord's interpretation
(Matth. XV. 3-6), the honour due to our parents includes
whatever support we owe them; and the reason for this is
that support is given to one's father because it is due to him
as to one greater.

Reply Obj. 2. Since a father stands in the relation of
principle, and his son in the relation of that which is from a
principle, it is essentially fitting for a father to support his
son : and consequently he is bound to support him not only
for a time, but for all his life, and this is to lay by. On the
other hand, for the son to bestow something on his father is
accidental, arising from some momentary necessity, wherein
he is bound to support him, but not to lay by as for a long
time beforehand, because naturally parents are not the
successors of their children, but children of their parents.

Reply Obj. 3. As Tully says {loc. cit.), we owe homage
and duty to all our kindred and to the well-wishers of our
country ; not, however, equally to all, but chiefly to our
parents, and to others according to our means and their
personal claims.

Third Article.

whether piety is a special virtue distinct from

other virtues ?

We proceed thus to the Third Article : —

Objection i. It seems that piety is not a special virtue
distinct from other virtues. For the giving of service and
homage to anyone proceeds from love. But it belongs to
piety. Therefore piety is not a distinct virtue from charity.

5 PIETY Q. ioi.Art.3

Obj. 2. Further, It is proper to religion to give worship
to God. But piety also gives worship to God, according to
Augustine {De Civ. Dei x.). Therefore piety is not distinct
from religion.

Ohj. 3. Further, Piety, whereby we give our country wor-
ship and duty, seems to be the same as legal justice, which
looks to the common good. But legal justice is a general
virtue, according to the Philosopher {Ethic v. i, 2). There-
fore piety is not a special virtue.

On the contrary y It is accounted by Tully {De Inv. Rhet. ii.)
as a part of justice.

/ answer that, A special virtue is one that regards an object
under a special aspect. Since, then, the nature of justice
consists in rendering another person his due, wherever there
is a special aspect of something due to a person, there is a
special virtue. Now a thing is indebted in a special way to
that which is its connatural principle of being and govern-
ment. And piety regards this principle, inasmuch as it pays
duty and homage to our parents and country, and to those
who are related thereto. Therefore piety is a special virtue.

Reply Obj. i. Just as religion is a protestation of faith,
hope and charity, whereby man is primarily directed to God,
so again piety is a protestation of the charity we bear
towards our parents and country.

Reply Obj. 2. God is the principle of our being and govern-
ment in a far more excellent manner than one's father or
country. Hence reUgion, which gives worship to God, is a
distinct virtue from piety, which pays homage to our parents
and country. But things relating to creatures are trans-
ferred to God as the summit of excellence and causality, as
Dionysius says {Div. Nom. i.) : wherefore, by way of ex-
cellence, piety designates the worship of God, even as God,
by way of excellence, is called Our Father.

Reply Obj. 3. Piety extends to our country in so far as the
latter is for us a principle of being: but legal justice regards
the good of our country, considered as the common good:
wherefore legal justice has more of the character of a general
virtue than piety has.


Fourth Article.


We proceed thus to the Fourth Article : —

Objection i. It seems that the duties of piety towards one's
parents should be omitted for the sake of rehgion. For
Our Lord said (Luke xiv. 26) : // any man come to Me, and
hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and
brethren, and sisters, yea and his own life also, he cannot be
My disciple. Hence it is said in praise of James and John
(Matth. iv. 22) that they left their nets and father, and fol-
lowed Christ. Again it is said in praise of the Levites
(Deut. xxxiii. 9) : Who hath said to his father, and to his
mother : I do not knoi& you ; and to his brethren : I know you
not ; and their own children they have not known. These have
kept Thy word. Now a man who knows not his parents and
other kinsmen, or who even hates them, must needs omit
the duties of piety. Therefore the duties of piety should
be omitted for the sake of religion.

Obj. 2. Further, It is written (Luke ix. 59, 60) that in
answer to him who said : Suffer me first to go and bury my
father. Our Lord replied: Let the dead bury their dead: but go
thou, and preach the kingdom of God. Now the latter pertains
to religion, while it is a duty of piety to bury one's father.
Therefore a duty of piety should be omitted for the sake
of religion.

Obj. 3. Further, God is called Our Father by excellence.
Now just as we worship our parents by paying them the
duties of piety, so do we worship God by religion. There-
fore the duties of piety should be omitted for the sake of
the worship of religion.

Obj. 4. Further, Religious are bound by a vow which
they may not break to fulfil the observances of religion.
Now in accordance with those observances they are hin-
dered from supporting their parents, both on the score of
poverty, since they have nothing of their own, and on the

7 PIETY Q. ioi.Art.4

score of obedience, since they may not leave the cloister
without the permission of their superior. Therefore the
duties of piety towards one's parents should be omitted for
the sake of religion.

On the contrary, Our Lord reproved the Pharisees
(Matth. XV. 3-6) who taught that for the sake of rehgion
one ought to refrain from paying one's parents the honour
we owe them.

I answer that, Religion and piety are two virtues. Now
no virtue is opposed to another virtue, since according to
the Philosopher, in his book on the Categories (Cap. De
Oppos.), good is not opposed to good. Therefore it is impossible
that religion and piety mutually hinder one another, so that
the act of one be excluded by the act of the other. Now, as
stated above (I.-IL, Q. VII., A. 2: Q. XVIIL, A. 3), the act
of every virtue is limited by the circumstances due thereto,
and if it overstep them it will be an act no longer of virtue,
but of vice. Hence it belongs to piety to pay duty and
homage to one's parents according to the due mode. But
it is not the due mode that man should tend to worship his
father rather than God, but, as Ambrose says on Luke xii. 52,
the piety of divine religion takes precedence of the claims of

Accordingly, if the worship of one's parents take one
away from the worship of God it would no longer be an act
of piety to pay worship to one's parents to the prejudice of
God. Hence Jerome says {Ep. ad Heliod.): Though thou
trample upon thy father, though thou spurn thy mother, turn
not aside, hut with dry eyes hasten to the standard of the
cross: it is the highest degree of piety to be cruel in this matter.
Therefore in such a case the duties of piety towards one's
parents should be omitted for the sake of the worship religion
gives to God. If, however, by paying the services due to
our parents, we are not withdrawn from the service of God,
then will it be an act of piety, and there will be no need to
set piety aside for the sake of religion.

Reply Obj. 1. Gregory expounding this saying of Our Lord
says [Horn, xxxvii. i7t Ev.) that when we find our parents to

Q. loi. Art. 4 THE " SUMMA THEOLOGICA " 8

be a hindrance in our way to God, we must ignore them by
hating and fleeing from them. For if our parents incite us to
sin, and withdraw us from the service of God, we must, as
regards this point, abandon and hate them. It is in this sense
that the Levites are said to have not known their kindred,
because they obeyed the Lord's command, and spared not
the idolaters (Exod. xxxii.). James and John are praised
for leaving their parents and following our Lord, not that
their father incited them to evil, but because they deemed it
possible for him to find another means of livelihood, if they
followed Christ.

Reply Obj. 2. Our Lord forbade the disciple to bury his
father because, according to Chrysostom {Hom. xxviii. in
Matth.), Our Lord by so doing saved him from many evils, such
as the sorrows and worries and other things that one anticipates
under these circumstances. For after the burial the will had
to be ready the estate had to be divided, and so forth: but chiefly,
because there were others who could see to the funeral. Or,
according to Cyril's commentary on Luke ix., this disciple s
request was, not that he might bury a dead father, but that he
might support a yet living father in the latter s old age, until at
length he should bury him. This is what Our Lord did not
grant, because there were others, bound by the duties of kindred,
to take care of him.

Reply Obj. 3. Whatever we give our parents out of piety
is referred by us to God; just as other works of mercy which
we perform with regard to any of our neighbours are offered
to God, according to Matth. xxv. /\o\ As long as you did it
to one of . . . My least . . . you did it to Me. Accordingly,
if our carnal parents stand in need of our assistance, so
that they have no other means of support, provided they
incite us to nothing against God, we must not abandon them
for the sake of religion. But if we cannot devote ourselves
to their service without sin, or if they can be supported
without our assistance, it is lawful to forgo their service,
so as to give more time to rehgion.

Reply Obj. 4. We must speak differently of one who is yet
in the world, and of one who has made his profession in

9 PIETY Q. ioi.Art.4

religion. For he that is in the world, if he has parents
unable to find support without him, he must not leave them
and enter religion, because he would be breaking the com-
mandment prescribing the honouring of parents. Some say,
however, that even then he might abandon them, and leave
them in God's care. But this, considered aright, would be
to tempt God : since, while having human means at hand, he
would be exposing his parents to danger, in the hope of God's
assistance. On the other hand, if the parents can find
means of livelihood without him, it is lawful for him to
abandon them and enter religion, because children are not
bound to support their parents except in cases of necessity,
as stated above. He that has already made his profession
in rehgion is deemed to be already dead to the world:
wherefore he ought not, under pretext of supporting his
parents, to leave the cloister where he is buried with Christ,
and busy himself once more with worldly affairs. Neverthe-
less he is bound, saving his obedience to his superiors, and
his religious state withal, to make pious efforts for his
parents' support.




{In Three Ay tides.)

We must now consider observance and its parts, the con-
siderations of which will manifest the contrary vices.

Under the head of observance there are three points of
inquiry: (i) Whether observance is a special virtue, distinct
from other virtues ? (2) What does observance offer ?
(3) Of its comparison with piety.

First Article.

whether observance is a special virtue, distinct from

other virtues ?

We proceed thus to the First Article : —

Objection i. It seems that observance is not a special
virtue, distinct from other virtues. For virtues are dis-
tinguished by their objects. But the object of observance
is not distinct from the object of piety: for Tully says {De
Inv. Rhet. ii.) that it is by observance that we pay worship and
honour to those who excel in some kind of dignity. But
worship and honour are paid also by piety to our parents,
who excel in dignity. Therefore observance is not a distinct
virtue from piety.

Obj. 2. Further, Just as honour and worship are due to
those that are in a position of dignity, so also are they due
to those who excel in science and virtue. But there is no
special virtue whereby we pay honour and worship
to those who excel in science and virtue. Therefore ob-
servance, whereby we pay worship and honour to those who


II OBSERVANCE Q. 102. Art. 1

excel in dignity, is not a special virtue distinct from other

Obj, 3. Further, We have many duties towards those
who are in a position of dignity, the fulfilment of which is
required by law, according to Rom. xiii. 7, Render . . . to
all men their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due, etc. Now the
fulfilment of the requirements of the law belongs to legal
justice, or even to special justice. Therefore observance is
not by itself a special virtue distinct from other virtues.

On the contrary, Tully {loc. cit.) reckons observance along
with the other parts of justice, which are special virtues.

/ answer that, As explained above (QQ. CL, AA. i, 3*
LXXX.), according to the various excellences of those persons
to whom something is due, there must needs be a correspond-
ing distinction of virtues in a descending order. Now just
as a carnal father partakes of the character of principle
in a particular way, which character is found in God in a
universal way, so too a person who, in some way, exercises
providence in one respect, partakes of the character of father
in a particular way, since a father is the principle of generation,
of education, of learning and of whatever pertains to the per-
fection of human life: while a person who is in a position
of dignity is as a principle of government with regard to
certain things : for instance, the governor of a state in civil
matters, the commander of an army in matters of warfare,
a professor in matters of learning, and so forth. Hence it is
that all such persons are designated as fathers, on account
of their being charged with like cares: thus the servants
of Naaman said to him (4 Kings v. 13) : Father, if the prophet
had bid thee do some great thing, etc.

Therefore, just as, in a manner, beneath religion, whereby
worship is given to God, we find piety, whereby we worship
our parents, so under piety we find observance, whereby
worship and honour are paid to persons in positions of

Reply Obj. i. As stated above (Q. CL, A. 3, ad 2), religion
goes by the name of piety by way of supereminence, although
piety properly so called is distinct from religion : and in the


same way piety can be called observance by way of excel-
lence, although observance properly speaking is distinct
from piety.

Reply Ohj. 2. By the very fact of being in a position of
dignity a man not only excels as regards his position, but
also has a certain power of governing subjects, wherefore
it is fitting that he should be considered as a principle inas-
much as he is the governor of others. On the other hand,
the fact that a man has perfection of science and virtue does
not give him the character of a principle in relation to others,
but merely a certain excellence in himself. Wherefore a
special virtue is appointed for the payment of worship and
honour to persons in positions of dignity. Yet, forasmuch
as science, virtue and all like things render a man fit for
positions of dignity, the respect which is paid to anyone
on account of any excellence whatever belongs to the same

Reply Ohj. 3. It belongs to special justice, properly speak-
ing, to pay the equivalent to those to whom we owe any-
thing. Now this cannot be done to the virtuous, and to
those who make good use of their position of dignity, as
neither can it be done to God, nor to our parents. Conse-
quently these matters belong to an annexed virtue, and not
to special justice, which is a principal virtue.

Legal justice extends to the acts of all the virtues, as
stated above (Q. LVIII., A. 6).

Second Article.

whether it belongs to observance to pay worship
and honour to those who are in positions of

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