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because they abide by their opinions more than they
should; whereas the effeminate man does so less than he
ought, and the persevering man, as he ought. Hence it is
clear that perseverance is commended for observing the
mean, while pertinacity is reproved for exceeding the mean,
and effeminacy for falling short of it.

Reply Obj. i. The reason why a man is too persistent
in his own opinion, is that he wishes by this means to make
a show of his own excellence : wherefore this is the result of
vainglory as its cause. Now it has been stated above
(Q. CXXVII., A. 2,adi.: Q. CXXXIIL, A. 2), that opposi-
tion of vices to virtues depends, not on their cause, but on
their species.

Reply Obj. 2. The pertinacious man exceeds by persisting
inordinately in something against many difficulties: yet he
takes a certain pleasure in the end, just as the brave and the
persevering man. Since, however, this pleasure is sinful,
seeing that he desires it too much, and shuns the contrary
pain, he is like the incontinent or effeminate man.

Reply Obj. 3. Although the other virtues persist against
the onslaught of the passions, they are not commended
for persisting in the same way as perseverance is. As to
continence, its claim to praise seems to lie rather in over-
coming pleasures. Hence pertinacity is directly opposed
to perseverance.


{In Two Articles.)

We must next consider the gift corresponding to fortitude,
and this is the gift of fortitude. Under this head there are
two points of inquiry: (i) Whether fortitude is a gift ?
(2) Which among the beatitudes and fruits correspond
to it?

First Article,
whether fortitude is a gift ?

We proceed thus to the First Article : —

Objection i. It seems that fortitude is not a gift. For the
virtues differ from the gifts : and fortitude is a virtue. There-
fore it should not be reckoned a gift.

Obj. 2. Further, The acts of the gifts remain in heaven,
as stated above (I.-IL, Q. LXVIIL, A. 6). But the act of
fortitude does not remain in heaven: for Gregory says
(Moral, i.) that fortitude encourages the fainthearted against
hardships, which will be altogether absent from heaven. There-
fore fortitude is not a gift.

Obj. 3. Further, Augustine says [De Doctr. Christ, ii.)
that it is a sign of fortitude to cut oneself adrift from all the
deadly pleasures of the passing show. Now noisome pleasures
and delights are the concern of temperance rather than of
fortitude. Therefore it seems that fortitude is not the gift
corresponding to the virtue of fortitude.

On the contrary, Fortitude is reckoned among the other
gifts of the Holy Ghost (Isa. xi. 2).

/ answer that, Fortitude denotes a certain firmness of


331 GIFT OF FORTITUDE Q. 139. Art. 1

mind, as stated above (Q. CXXIIL, A. 2: I.-IL, Q. LXI.,
A. 3): and this firmness of mind is required both in doing
good and in enduring evil, especially with regard to goods
or evils that are difficult. Now man, according to his
proper and connatural mode, is able to have this firmness
in both these respects, so as not to forsake the good on
account of difficulties, whether in accomplishing an arduous
work, or in enduring grievous evil. In this sense fortitude
denotes a special or general virtue, as stated above
(Q. CXXIIL, A. 2).

Yet furthermore man's mind is moved by the Holy Ghost,
in order that he may attain the end of each work begun,
and avoid whatever perils may threaten. This surpasses
human nature : for sometimes it is not in a man's power to
attain the end of his work, or to avoid evils or dangers, since
these may happen to overwhelm him in death. But the
Holy Ghost works this in man, by bringing him to everlasting
hfe, which is the end of all good deeds, and the release from
all perils. A certain confidence of this is infused into the
mind by the Holy Ghost Who expels any fear of the contrary.
It is in this sense that fortitude is reckoned a gift of the Holy
Ghost. For it has been stated above (I.-IL, Q. LXVIIL,
AA. I, 2) that the gifts regard the motion of the mind by
the Holy Ghost.

Reply Ohj. i. Fortitude, as a virtue, perfects the mind
in the endurance of all perils whatever; but it does not go
so far as to give confidence of overcoming all dangers : this
belongs to the fortitude that is a gift of the Holy Ghost.

Reply Ohj. 2. The gifts have not the same acts in heaven
as on the way: for there they exercise acts in connexion
with the enjoyment of the end. Hence the act of fortitude
there is to enjoy full security from toil and evil.

Reply Ohj. 3. The gift of fortitude regards the virtue of
fortitude not only because it consists in enduring dangers,
but also inasmuch as it consists in accomplishing any
difficult work. Wherefore the gift of fortitude is directed
by the gift of counsel, which seems to be concerned chiefly
with the greater goods.

Q. 139. Art. 2 THE " SUMMA THEOLOGICA " 332

Second Article.

whether the fourth beatitude : ' blessed are they
that hunger and thirst after justice/ corre-
sponds to the gift of fortitude ?

We proceed thus to the Second Article : —

Objection i. It seems that the fourth beatitude. Blessed
are they that hunger and thirst after justice, does not corre-
spond to the gift of fortitude. For the gift of piety and not
the gift of fortitude corresponds to the virtue of justice.
Now hungering and thirsting after justice pertain to the
act of justice. Therefore this beatitude corresponds to
the gift of piety rather than to the gift of fortitude.

Ohj. 2. Further, Hunger and thirst after justice imply a
desire for good. Now this belongs properly to charity, to
which the gift of wisdom, and not the gift of fortitude,
corresponds, as stated above (Q. XLV.). Therefore this
beatitude corresponds, not to the gift of fortitude, but to
the gift of wisdom.

Ohj. 3. Further, The fruits are consequent upon the
beatitudes, since delight is essential to beatitude, according
to Ethic, i. 8. Now the fruits, apparently, include none
pertaining to fortitude. Therefore neither does any beati-
tude correspond to it.

On the contrary, Augustine says {De Serm. Dom. in
Monte i.): Fortitude becomes the hungry and thirsty: since
those who desire to enjoy true goods, and wish to avoid loving
earthly and material things, must toil.

I answer that, As stated above (Q. CXXL, A. 2), Augustine
makes the beatitudes correspond to the gifts according to
the order in which they are set forth, observing at the same
time a certain fittingness between them. Wherefore he
ascribes the fourth beatitude, concerning the hunger and
thirst for justice, to the fourth gift, namely fortitude.

Yet there is a certain congruity between them, because,
as stated (A. i), fortitude is about difficult things. Now it
is very difficult, not merely to do virtuous deeds, which

333 GIFT OF FORTITUDE Q. 139. Art. 2

receive the common designation of works of justice, but
furthermore to do them with an unsatiable desire, which
may be signified by hunger and thirst for justice.

Reply Ohj. i. As Chrysostom says [Horn. xv. in Matth.),
we may understand here not only particular, but also
universal justice, which is related to all virtuous deeds
according to Ethic, v. i, wherein whatever is hard is the
object of that fortitude which is a gift.

Reply Ohj. 2. Charity is the root of all the virtues and
gifts, as stated above (Q. XXIIL, A. 8, ad 3: I.-IL,
Q. LXVIIL, A. 4, ad 3). Hence whatever pertains to for-
titude may also be referred to charity.

Reply Ohj. 3. There are two of the fruits which correspond
sufficiently to the gift of fortitude: namely, patience, which
regards the enduring of evils; and longanimity, which may
regard the long delay and accomplishment of goods.


{In Two Articles.)

We must next consider the precepts of fortitude: (i) The
precepts of fortitude itself; (2) The precepts of its parts.

First Article.

whether the precepts of fortitude are suitably
given in the divine law ?

We proceed thus to the First Article : —

Objection i. It seems that the precepts of fortitude are
not suitably given in the Divine Law. For the New Law
is more perfect than the Old Law, Yet the Old Law contains
precepts of fortitude (Deut. xx.). Therefore precepts of
fortitude should have been given in the New Law also.

Ohj. 2. Further, Affirmative precepts are of greater
import than negative precepts, since the affirmative include
the negative, but not vice versa. Therefore it is unsuitable
for the Divine Law to contain none but negative precepts
in prohibition of fear.

Ohj. 3. Further, Fortitude is one of the principal virtues,
as stated above (Q. CXXIIL, A. 2: I.-IL, Q. LXL, A, 2).
Now the precepts are directed to the virtues as to their end :
wherefore they should be proportionate to them. There-
fore the precepts of fortitude should have been placed
among the precepts of the decalogue, which are the chief
precepts of the Law.

On the contrary, stands Holy Writ which contains these



/ answer that, Precepts of law are directed to the end
intended by the lawgiver. Wherefore precepts of law must
needs be framed in various ways according to the various
ends intended by lawgivers, so that even in human affairs
there are laws of democracies, others of kingdoms, and
others again of tyrannical governments. Now the end of
the Divine Law is that man may adhere to God: where-
fore the Divine Law contains precepts both of fortitude and
of the other virtues, with a view to directing the mind to
God. For this reason it is written (Deut. xx. 3, 4) : Fear ye
them not : because the Lord your God is in the midst of you,
and will fight for you against your enemies.

As to human laws, they are directed to certain earthly
goods, and among them we find precepts of fortitude accord-
ing to the requirements of those goods.

Reply Obj. i. The Old Testament contained temporal
promises, while the promises of the New Testament are
spiritual and eternal, according to Augustine [Contra
Faust, iv.). Hence in the Old Law there was need for the
people to be taught how to fight, even in a bodily contest,
in order to obtain an earthly possession. But in the New
Testament men were to be taught how to come to the posses-
sion of eternal life by fighting spiritually, according to
Matth. xi. 12, The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and
the violent bear it away. Hence Peter commands (i Pet.
v. 8, 9): Your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, goeth
about, seeking whom he may devour: whom resist ye, strong in
faith, as also James (iv. 7) : Resist the devil, and he will fly
from you. Since, however, men while tending to spiritual
goods may be withdrawn from them by corporal dangers,
precepts of fortitude had to be given even in the New Law,
that they might bravely endure temporal evils, according
to Matth. X. 28, Fear ye not them that kill the body.

Reply Obj, 2. The law gives general directions in its
precepts. But the things that have to be done in cases of
danger are not, like the things to be avoided, reducible to
some common good. Hence the precepts of fortitude are
negative rather than afiirmative.

Q. 140. Art. 2 THE " SUMMA THEOLOGICA " 336

Reply Obj. 3. As stated above (Q. CXXIL, A. i), the
precepts of the decalogue are placed in the Law, as first
principles, which need to be known to all from the outset.
Wherefore the precepts of the decalogue had to be chiefly
about those acts of justice in which the notion of duty is
manifest, and not about acts of fortitude, because it is not
so evident that it is a duty for a person not to fear dangers
of death.

Second Article.

whether the precepts of the parts of fortitude
are suitably given in the divine law ?

We proceed thus to the Second Article : —

Objection i. It seems that the precepts of the parts of
fortitude are unsuitably given in the Divine Law. For just
as patience and perseverance are parts of fortitude, so also
are magnificence, magnanimity, and confidence, as stated
above (Q. CXXVIIL). Now we find precepts of patience
in the Divine Law, as also of perseverance. Therefore
there should also have been precepts of magnificence and

Obj. 2. Further, Patience is a very necessary virtue, since
it is the guardian of the other virtues, as Gregory says
(Horn, in Ev. xxxv.). Now the other virtues are com-
manded absolutely. Therefore patience should not have
been commanded merely, as Augustine says {De Serm,
Dom. in Monte i.), as to the preparedness of the mind.

Obj. 3. Further, Patience and perseverance are parts of
fortitude, as stated above (Q. CXXVIII: Q. CXXXVL, A. 4:
Q. CXXXVIL, A. 2). Now the precepts of fortitude are
not affirmative but only negative, as stated above (A. i, ad 2) .
Therefore the precepts of patience and perseverance should
have been negative and not affirmative.

The contrary, however, follows from the way in which
they are given by Holy Writ.

/ answer that, The Divine Law instructs man perfectly
about such things as are necessary for right living. Now
in order to live aright man needs not only the principal


virtues, but also the secondary and annexed virtues. Where-
fore the Divine Law contains precepts not only about the
acts of the principal virtues, but also about the acts of the
secondary and annexed virtues.

Reply Obj. i. Magnificence and magnanimity do not
belong to the genus of fortitude, except by reason of a
certain excellence of greatness which they regard in their
respective matters. Now things pertaining to excellence
come under the counsels of perfection rather than under pre-
cepts of obligation. Wherefore, there was need of counsels,
rather than of precepts about magnificence and magna-
nimity. On the other hand, the hardships and toils of the
present life pertain to patience and perseverance, not by
reason of any greatness observable in them, but on account
of the very nature of those virtues. Hence the need of
precepts of patience and perseverance.

Reply Obj. 2. As stated above (Q. III., A. 2), although
affirmative precepts are always binding, they are not
binding for always, but according to place and time. Where-
fore just as the affirmative precepts about the other virtues
are to be understood as to the preparedness of the mind,
in the sense that man be prepared to fulfil them when
necessary, so too are the precepts of patience to be under-
stood in the same way.

Reply Obj. 3. Fortitude, as distinct from patience and
perseverance, is about the greatest dangers wherein one
must proceed with caution; nor is it necessary to determine
what is to be done in particular. On the other hand,
patience and perseverance are about minor hardships and
toils, wherefore there is less danger in determining, especially
in general, what is to be done in such cases.

Printed in England

The ^^Summa Theologica" of
St. Thomas Aquinas, in English


Demy ^vo. Volumes. Cloth.

Editions Ready.


QQ. 1-26 Of God and the Divine Attributes.

27- 49 The Blessed Trinity — The Creation.

50- 74 The Angels — The Work of Six Days.

75- 94 Treatise on Man. [

95-119 On Man (r^;?////^^i)— The Divine I Revised Editions

^ ■' r^ ^ ' 1 Preparing.


SECOND PART. {Prima Secundo .)

QQ. I- 48 The End of Man — Human Acts — Passions. {Ready.

49- 89 Habits — Virtues and Vices. [Ready.

90-114 Law and Grace. \Ready.

SECOND PART. {Secimda SecimdcB.)

QQ. I- 46 Faith, Hope, and Charity. [Ready.

47- 79 Prudence — Justice. [Ready.

80-100 Justice {continued) — The Interior and Exterior Acts

of Religion. [Ready-

1 01-140 Piety, Observance, and Contrary Vices — Fortitude.


141-170 Temperance, its Integral, Subjective and Potential

Parts, and Contrary Vices. [Ready,

17 1- 1 89 Gratuitous Graces — Active and Contemplative Life

— States of Life. [Ready.


QQ.i- 26 The Incarnation. [Ready.

^7" 59 "^^^ Christology (including St. Thomas's Mariology).


60- 83 The Sacraments in General — Baptism — Confirmation

— Holy Eucharist. [Ready.

84-Supp. 33 Penance (including last seven questions of the Third

Part) — Extreme Unction. [Ready.

34- 68 Holy Orders — Matrimony. [Nearly Ready.

69- 86 Treatise on the Last Things. [Ready.

87- 99 Purgatory. [Nearly Ready.

Orders for the entire work are received. Forthcoming Volumes will be charged as

they appear.






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Online LibraryAmerican UniversityAmerican University Bulletin Catalog Issue: College of Arts and Sciences Announcements (Volume 1941-1942) → online text (page 26 of 26)