Copyright
Anatole von Hügel.

Charles von Hügel, April 25, 1795 - June 2, 1870 online

. (page 1 of 6)
Online LibraryAnatole von HügelCharles von Hügel, April 25, 1795 - June 2, 1870 → online text (page 1 of 6)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


.,,v. ..>-..* _J



CHARLES VON HUGEL.

APRIL 25, 1795 JUNE 2, 1870.




CHARLES VON HUGEL.

FROM A PAINTING BY JOSEPH NEUGEBAUER.
Florence, /8$i.



CHARLES VON HUGEL



APRIL 25, 1795 JUNE 2, 1870



PRIVATELY PRINTED



CAMBRIDGE

1903




Co

ur JTOotijet
tofro tor

pears;
stfmrrti
tfte jops; antr siorroln
of tfre Itte rerortreti
in



Fetona, 1847 18ru8pl, 1870



PREFACE.



I FIND it hard to believe that full thirty-three years
have passed since my dear father died. He was an
old man, he had been in failing health for years, and he
had suffered much. But his mental activity hardly ever
flagged. He carried to the grave his chivalrous patriotism,
his many interests, his warm appreciation of the work of
others, his unbounded love of nature, his fresh sympathy
with youth. All the tastes and interests which I have,
I owe to his inspiration and his gentle training : and
through babyhood, childhood, and boyhood, his patience
and unfailing sympathy and his wonderful power of throwing
himself into the fancies of a child, bridged the wide span
of the fifty-nine years which separated him from me.

No detailed history of Charles von Htigel's life, so
unusually varied and full of stirring incident, has been
written, and the time for doing so in any complete form
has now passed, as many facts and personal data have
been lost with his contemporaries. All that I have now
attempted to do, is to bring together the brief sketches of



viii PREFACE

his career which already exist, and to give, in the shape
of notes, the few additional facts and data that were
obtainable, as well as some trivial details of purely family
interest.

Such a compilation will at least serve the purpose of
preserving for my nieces, Gertrud, Hildegard, and Thekla,
some picture of their Austrian grandfather, whom they had
not the happiness to know, but of whom in years to come
they will be the sole representatives. I have this all the
more at heart seeing that circumstances have removed his
children from the country which he loved and served with
such devotion, and that the new surroundings in which his
grandchildren have thus grown up, must in time tend to
dim in their minds the memory of the Austrian traditions
of their family.

Though the thought of doing something of this kind
had been for years before me, I am really indebted to my
wife's niece, Mary Froude, for its realization : as it was the
revising of a verbatim translation, kindly made by her for
my mother, of Dr Wiesner's speech, which induced me
last year to defer no longer the collection of material
for these Memoirs. Nor would they have even now
appeared, had it not been for the unfailing sympathy and
ever ready help which I have received from my wife
throughout the course of their compilation.

I hope later to amplify these Memoirs with notices of
various members of my father's family, and to give other
particulars of his own life, including a sketch of his early
years, written by himself for his children, and reprints of
the letters from him to my mother concerning the flight



PREFACE ix

of Prince Metternich in 1848, published by my brother in
the National Review for June 1883.

Of the memoirs now reprinted, two were written by old
and valued friends of my parents, Lady Georgiana Fullerton
and Baron von Reumont. The third, the address by
Dr Wiesner, at the unveiling of the Hiigeldenkmal, has
an interest of its own as coming from one who, without any
personal knowledge of my father, grew through years of
botanical research, not only to value his scientific attain-
ments, but also greatly to esteem and admire his character.
I cannot allow this opportunity to pass without expressing
the deep gratitude felt by my mother, my brother, and
myself, to Dr Wiesner and to the Verein der Gartner und
Gartenfreunde in Hietzing, of which he was the mouth-
piece, for having revived in Austria the memory of my
father's work.

I have to thank the Autotype Company for the care
which they have bestowed on the excellent reproductions
of portraits given in this volume, the negatives for which
were, at considerable trouble, kindly taken for me by
Mr H. A. Chapman, of the Fitzwilliam Museum.

I add a plate representing the Patron's Medal of the
Royal Geographical Society of London to the list of
distinctions received by my father. He valued this medal,
given for his explorations in Cashmere, and the Armee
Kreuz, commemorative of the 1813-14 campaign, (of which
I also give a figure), perhaps more than any of his other
decorations, for 'they,' he used to say, 'meant real hard
work.' The 1849 medal given by Pope Pius IX (see
page xx), commemorates a remarkable episode in the history

b



x PREFACE

of the Church which rises vividly to mind at this moment
when the death of Leo XIII, the illustrious successor of
Pius IX in the Chair of Peter, is hourly expected.

ANATOLE VON HUGEL.



CROFT COTTAGE, CAMBRIDGE.
July 17, 1903.



TABLE OF CONTENTS



PAGE

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xiii

EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF CHARLES VON HUGEL xv

DISTINCTIONS CONFERRED ON CHARLES VON HUGEL xix

INSCRIPTION ON THE 'HUGELDENKMAL' 4

MEMORIAL ADDRESS delivered at the unveiling of the Hiigeldenkmal, at
Hietzing, near Vienna, October 3, 1901, by Hofrath Dr Julius
Wiesner, Professor of Botany at the University of Vienna. (Trans-
lated from the German) 5

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH by Alfred Baron von Reumont, late Prussian
Minister at the Grand Ducal Court of Tuscany. (Translated from
the German) 33

IN MEMORIAM by Lady Georgiana Fullerton 53

Presentation of the Patron's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society

of London by W. R. Hamilton, F.R.S 63

NOTES 71



b 2



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



SEE

Patron's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London . . xix
Armee Kreuz, for the 1813-14 campaign against Napoleon . . xix

Pontifical Medal, 1849, commemorative of the restoration of Rome . xx

PORTRAITS

Charles von Hiigel :

At the age of eighteen : taken in fancy dress on the occasion of the
ball given at Vienna by Prince Metternich, the Chancellor of State,
to celebrate the restoration of peace. From a painting in oils by
E. Sales (? Vienna), 1814 Reumont

At the age of thirty-six. From a miniature on ivory by Moritz M.
Dafifinger. Vienna, 1831. This portrait, engraved on copper by
Eaton, forms the frontispiece to the first volume of Kaschmir,
published 1840 Hamilton

At the age of fifty-four : taken after the campaign in Lombardy. From
a copy of a water-colour sketch drawn from life by Denis A. M. RafFet
for the late Prince Anatole de Demidoff. Florence, 1849 . . Reumont

At the age of fifty-six. From a painting in oils by Joseph Neugebauer.

Florence, 1851 Frontispiece

At the age of sixty-five. From a photograph by L. Angerer, of

Vienna, 1860 Fullerton

At the age of sixty-eight. From a photograph by Ghemar Freres of
Brussels of the diplomatists assembled for the Conference on the
'Rachat du peage de 1'Escaut.' Brussels, July, 1863 Reumont

The Hiigeldenkmal, Hietzing, Vienna. A posthumous bust by Johann

Benks, executed 1901 ......... Wiesner

Elizabeth Farquharson :

At the age of seventeen : previous to her marriage with Baron Charles
von Hiigel. From a painting in oils by Thomas Richmond.
London, 1848 Reumont

See Notes (i).



EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF CHARLES VON HUGEL.



1795 (April 25.) Born at Ratisbon.

1805 Upon the capitulation of Ulm (Oct. 20, 1805), Charles' father, the Con-

commissarius of the Reichstag, with his family and the staff of the
Chancellory, flies from Ratisbon and remains in Vienna till after the
signing of the Peace of Pressburg, Dec. 25, 1805.

1806 After the affairs of the Reichstag had been finally closed, the Hiigels

permanently remove to Vienna.

1807 (Winter and Spring.) Charles, with his elder brother Clemens
and their tutor, is taken by his father on an extended tour through
Italy.

1810 ( .) Enters at Heidelberg, as law student.

1811 ( .) Joins the Austrian Army and takes part in the war of

liberation.

1814 (March July.) Is sent with General von Teigentesch on a diplomatic

mission representing the great powers, which negotiates King
Christian Frederick's renunciation of the Norwegian crown, and the
union of Norway and Sweden under Charles XIII of Sweden, who
was succeeded, in 1818, by Charles (John) XIV (Field-Marshal
Bernadotte, made Crown Prince of Sweden in 1812).

1815 (July.) Enters Paris with the troops of the allied Sovereigns.
1817-1818 Travels in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Russia.

1819 ( .) Returns south, and joins, as Captain, the $th Regiment

of Austrian Hussars ('The Prince Regent of England's Own'), which
he accompanies to Italy and the South of France, where at Tarascon
and at Aries he acts as Commandant de Place.

1821 Is attached to the Neapolitan Expedition (the outcome of the Congress
of Laibach, held in January and February of this year) which restores
the absolute power of Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies.

1824 Retires from the Army and returns to Vienna.

1825 (August 30.) Charles' father, Baron Johann Aloys Joseph, dies at

Hietzing near Vienna, aged seventy-one.



xvi CHARLES VON HUGEL



1826-30 Lives at his villa at Hietzing, and devotes himself to horticulture
and the study of natural science.

1829 (Early in September.) Charles' second sister, Maria, dies at Ratisbon 1 .

1830 His engagement to the Countess Mdlanie Zichy Ferraris is broken off.

(She marries Prince Metternich January 30, 1831.)

Visits England and France, in preparation for his proposed travels to
the East.

1831 (May .) Sails from Toulon, and occupies this year, and the following

five years, in travel and exploration 2 .

1836 ( ) Returns home.

From this year to 1848 leads a studious life at Hietzing, working out the
scientific results of his travels and resuming his botanical and horti-
cultural pursuits.

1837 (May 27.) Charles' mother, Anna Susanna Philippina, Baroness von

Hugel (nee von Holthof) dies at Vienna, aged sixty nine.

M ( .) Establishes the Viennese Gartenbaugesellschaft, of which

he is nominated President.

1840 The first volume of his work on Cashmere appears.

1846 ( .) Charles' eldest sister, 'Nanny' (Anna), dies at Vienna

somewhere about this time.

1847 (May 14.) Appointed, on the day of its foundation, an 'Actual Member'

of the k. k. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Vienna.

(August 10.) Betrothed, at Verona, to Miss Elizabeth Farquharson,
daughter of General Francis Farquharson (of Allargue) and of
Margaret Outram.

1848 (March 13.) On the outbreak of the revolution conveys the Chancellor,

Prince Metternich, out of Vienna to Felsberg and thence, by the
Hague, to England.

1849. Spends the winter in England.

1849 ( .) Rejoins the army under Prince Windischgratz, who, with

his troops, had, until now, been engaged in quelling the disorders in
Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia: is sent, in March, to Radetzky's
headquarters in Lombardy.

(May 28.) Is awarded the Patron's Medal of the Royal Geographical
Society of London, for geographical research in Cashmere and
elsewhere.

Accompanies Baron d'Asper, Master of the Ordnance, as diplomatic
agent, in his advance into Tuscany ; and takes part in the siege of
Leghorn, and in the entry into Florence on May 25.

1 See Notes (2). 2 See Notes (8).



CHARLES VON HUGEL xvii



1849 Sent from Florence to Naples on a secret mission to the Grand Duke of

Tuscany (June 10) ; and (on the conclusion of the convention of the
four catholic powers) as representative of the Empire to Pope
Pius IX, and King Ferdinand at Gaeta.

(August.) Commissioned by Field-Marshal Radetzky to convey the
news of the conclusion of peace with Piedmont to the ex-Emperor
Ferdinand at Inspruck.

(Aug. 25.) Gazetted Honorary Major.

(Sept. 7.) Named Austrian Charge" d'Affaires at Florence, after the
command of the army of occupation had been taken over by Prince
Friedrich Liechtenstein.

(Dec. 3.) Charles' elder brother, Clemens Wenzislaus, dies at Harden-
berg in Hanover, aged fifty-seven.

1850 (Dec. 9.) Appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary

at the Grand Ducal Court of Tuscany.

1851 (June 28.) Is married to Miss Farquharson at Florence.

1852 (May 5.) First child born, named Friedrich, after his godfather Prince

Liechtenstein.

1853 (Sept. .) Charles' youngest sister 'Fanny' (Kunigunde Franziska,

Countess Anton von Hardenberg) dies at Florence.

1854 (Sept. 29.) Second child born, named Anatole Andreas, after his

godfathers Prince Demidoff and Prince Corsini, the latter being the
actual sponsor as the former was a member of the Greek Church.

1855 (April 30.) Created a Privy Councillor.

1857 (August 31.) Retires finally from the army.

1858 (Nov. 3.) Third child born, named Pauline, after Pauline wife of Prince

Richard Metternich. (Died March 29, 1901, aged forty-three.)

1859 (April 27.) On the outbreak of the revolution, leaves Florence with the

Grand Duke.

Lives in Vienna.

1860 (Sept. 20.) Appointed Austrian Envoy Extraordinary and Minister

Plenipotentiary* at the Belgian Court.

1867 ( .) Retires into private life.

( .) Goes to England, where, in failing health, he lives at Tor-
quay, till May 1870.

1870 (May 31.) Leaves England for Austria.

(June 2.) Dies at Brussels, on his way to Vienna, in the seventy-sixth
year of his age.

* See Notes (19).








u.
O

>

UJ

O
O
V)



O uj

E :
CL I



or
o

O

Ld

O




o

cc

LJ

I
f-

u.
O



CO

z
o
or

cf

u

I
f-



DISTINCTIONS CONFERRED ON
CHARLES VON HUGEL.





M. 1815 Austria: The Armee Kreuz for active service with the Allied

Armies, 1813 1814. (Conferred by the Emperor Francis I.)
Sc. 1836 (December.) England : Honorary Foreign Member of the Royal

Geographical Society of London, for research during a six

years' journey in Asia, Africa, and Australia.
H. 1837 Austria : President of the then established k. k. Gartenbau-

gesellschaft of Vienna.
D. 1840 (December 13.) Prussia: Knight of the Royal Order of the Red

Eagle (conferred by King Frederick William).
1842 (August 15.) Denmark: Commander of the Dannebrog (conferred

by King Christian VIII).
,, 1847 (February 21.) Sweden: Commander of the Vasa (conferred by

King Oscar I).
Sc- ,, (May 14.) Austria: Actual Member of the then founded k. k.

Akademie der Wissenschaften of Vienna.
H- (June 29.) Belgium : Officer of the Order of Leopold, Civil Class

(conferred by King Leopold I).



NOTE. The letters M. , D., Sc., H., G. and P. prefixed to the entries indicate the
nature of the service (Military, Diplomatic, Scientific, Horticultural, General or Personal)
which they commemorated.



XX



CHARLES VON HUGEL



G. 1848 (July 5.) England: the D.C.L. honoris causa, Oxford.

H- 1849 The Honorary Presidency of the k. k. Gartenbaugesellschaft of

Vienna, conferred for life, on his departure from Austria.
(From all the other leading horticultural and botanical societies
of Europe, and from many zoological and other scientific
societies, Hiigel held diplomas or other marks of distinction.)

Sc- ,, (May 28.) England: The Patron's Medal of the Royal Geographical
Society of London for research in Cashmere and elsewhere.

D- (Nov. 17.) Papal States : Knight of the Pontifical Order of Christ ;

( ). Papal States: The 1849 Medal (see engravings below), for

services rendered before and during the Mission to Gaeta
(conferred by Pope Pius IX).

Q. 1850 (July 6). Tuscany : Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of St Joseph
of Tuscany (conferred by the Grand Duke Leopold II).

D- 1852 (June 24). Papal States: Grand Cross of the Pontifical Order
of St Gregory the Great (conferred by Pope Pius IX).

M- (June 28). Parma: Grand Cross of the Constantinian Order of
St George (conferred by Duke Ferdinand Charles III).

G- 1855 (April 30). Austria : A Privy Councillorship ; and

1861 (Jan. 17). Austria: Knight of the Iron Crown, First Class, (con-
ferred by the Emperor Francis Joseph).

D. 1863 (July 17). Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold
(conferred by King Leopold I.)

P. 1864 (April 10). Mexico: Grand Cross of the Order of Our Lady
of Guadalupe (conferred by the Emperor Maximilian).

G. 1868 (Feb. 28). Austria: Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold on
his retirement into private life after fifty-seven years' service
to the State (conferred by the Emperor Francis Joseph.)




PIVS IX-FONT-MAX
ROMAE BRSTITVTVS
CATHOLICIS A.RM15

COLLATIS




MEMOIRS



AND



ADDRESSES




THE HUGELDENKMAL

At Hletzing, Vienna.
BY JOHANN BENKS, 1901.



MEMOIRS AND ADDRESSES.



I.



MEMORIAL ADDRESS

BY

DR JULIUS WIESNER.

Translated from the German

BY
ANATOLE VON HUGEL.



KARL FREIHERR VON HUGEL,
Hortologe, Geograph und Staatsman.

Gedenkrede gehalten anlasslich der Enthiillung des Hiigeldenkmals,

am 3. October 1901, von Dr Julius Wiesner, k. k. Hofrath u.

Universitats-professor in Wien. Vienna, 1901. 8vo.



DEM

RUHMREICHEN FORDERER
DES GARTENBAUES IN

OESTERREICH
CARL ALEXANDER V.

HUGEL

ERRICHTET 1901

V. D. VEREINE DER GARTNER

UND GARTENFREUNDE IN

HIETZING.



INSCRIPTION ON THE HUGELUENKMAL.



KARL FREIHERR VON HUGEL,

HORTOLOGIST, GEOGRAPHER, AND STATESMAN.

AIONG those in our country, who are gardeners
and lovers of gardens, the thought arose of
perpetuating the memory of Charles Baron von
Hiigel, the renowned promoter of horticulture in Austria.
This inspiration has now been happily realized.

Near the scene of Hiigel's successful exertions, in
beautiful grounds accessible to the public*, stands the bust
which we unveil to-day, a work from the master-hand of
Johann Benks.

It is but fitting on this occasion to sketch the life-
history of this never to be forgotten man.

Great as was his fame as a promoter of horticulture,
that was not the only sphere in which his laborious life
bore fruit. He laboured in many departments no less
honourably, and, in some of these, with no less a measure
of success. Indeed, I do not exaggerate when I say that
it would be difficult to find anyone, sufficiently many-sided
and possessed of enough detailed knowledge, to be capable
of pronouncing an adequate judgment upon Hiigel's various
achievements. To do full justice to his life's work,
instead of one speaker there should appear in this place
a hortologist, a botanist, an ethnographer, and an anthro-
pologist. Even so the picture of his activity would not

* Known as the " Cottagepark," Hietzing.



WIESNER



be complete : his spirit of enquiry led him also into the
domains of zoology, of ancient history, of numismatics, of
archaeology 1 ; in early years he was a brave soldier; and,
in the last period of his active life, a respected diplomatist.

If, after some hesitation, I accepted, insufficiently
equipped as I was, the honourable invitation to depict
Charles von Hiigel's life, I did so because I felt that,
as a member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences,
I was under a greater obligation than other members of
the Hugel Memorial Committee to do honour to my late
colleague.

The obvious difficulty of describing a life, active
in so many and so various fields of activity, assures me
this I may assume of the forbearance of this honourable
assemblage.



Charles Alexander Anselm von Hiigel 2 , Baron of the
German Empire and Banneret, was born at Ratisbon on
April 25, I795 3 . His father, Aloys Baron von Hiigel,
had been, since 1790, in the Austrian service. At the
time of Charles' birth his father was the Concommissar
of the Reichsversammlung 4 , and at the close of his diplo-
matic career he was presented with the Grand-cross of the
Order of St Stephen in recognition of the services which
he had rendered to the State. He was a stern man, and
in old age inclined to melancholy. On the other hand
Charles' mother 5 is described as a woman who filled the
house with brightness and brought refreshing good-humour

1 See NOTES (3). 2 See NOTES (4). 3 See NOTES (5).

4 Concommissar der Reichsversammlung. This office he held from 1794
till August 1806, when owing to the action of the Emperor (since 1804,
Francis I of Austria) the Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist. See
NOTES (6). A. v. H. ' See NOTES (7).



MEMORIAL ADDRESS



wherever she went. From her he inherited his beautiful,
sympathetic exterior, his affability, and his serenity.

In the parental house he received a careful education,
with his elder brother Clemens, who was afterwards Attache"
to the Austrian Embassy in Brazil, and, later, Director of
the Imperial Archives at Vienna. Charles studied law at
Heidelberg, then entered the Austrian army and took his
part as a brave soldier in the wars of independence. With
the Austrian army he entered Paris, and was subsequently
employed in a diplomatic mission which led him to the
court of the King of Sweden. Here the desire for travel
awoke in him, and he took advantage of the opportunity to
become acquainted not only with Sweden, but also with
Norway and Denmark. On his return he was employed
in a military capacity 1 in the South of France and in Italy,
and, eventually, as Military Attache at Naples. In the
year 1824 he went to Vienna, and shortly afterwards retired
from the army with the rank of captain, and the decoration
of the Army Cross 2 . In 1849 he received his majority.

Hiigel left the army in order to strike out quite a new
line of life, and to take up the study of horticulture and
of natural science. At Hietzing, in the neighbourhood of
Vienna, he established his beautiful home, a villa arranged
according to his own taste, in the midst of gardens and
pleasure-grounds which he called into existence, and which,
under his constant care and personal superintendence, at
once became famous. Here, with a success as great as
his assiduity, he worked at the most diverse branches of
horticulture. With his easily enkindled intellectual curiosity
he soon interested himself in other branches of natural
science, and made a profound study of them without ever

1 In the 5th Regiment of Hussars (' The Prince Regent of England's
Own'). A. v. H. 2 Armeekreuz: see List of Distinctions.

I 2



VVIESNER



renouncing his horticultural proclivities. These pursuits
awoke in him the desire to become acquainted with the
richest organic life of the earth, and so, little by little, the
plan was matured of a great journey through all parts of
the old world, with India for its goal. With untiring zeal he
elaborated this plan, and, without discontinuing his studies
in natural science, he devoted himself also to those branches
of psychological science which bear on the language, the
history, and the political and moral development of all
those ancient civilizations with which he desired to be-
come acquainted by personal observation. For reasons
which I will indicate later this scheme was carried out
sooner than Hiigel contemplated.

In the year 1830 Hiigel started on his great journey,
which for six years kept him away from home. Prepara-
tory studies led him first to England and France. Taking
his departure from Toulon, he went to Greece, Crete, and
Cyprus. After an extended sojourn in the Nile country,
Syria, and Palestine, he reached India in the year 1832.
It would take me too far to give a complete description of
his route 1 ; I must be satisfied with mentioning a few of
its principal points. He visited the Deccan, Goa, and
Mysore, ascended the Blue Mountains 2 , and went by way of
Koimbattur to the coast of Malabar, thence by Travancore
to Cape Comorin. Next followed a journey through Ceylon,
which greatly enriched his collections. This journey occu-
pied four months, and gave Hiigel the opportunity of
becoming acquainted with all parts of this island, so un-
usually rich in nature's treasures. Then along the coast
of Coromandel he proceeded to Pondicherry and Madras,
and thence sailed to the Indian Archipelago, to Australia,
New Zealand, and Manilla. A new, great, and as far as
1 See NOTES (8). 2 The Nilgiri Hills.



scientific results are concerned, a most important part of
the expedition, was the journey which he accomplished from
Calcutta through Northern India, with Cashmere and the
land of the Sikhs for its end. Continually collecting and
observing, Hiigel crossed the high lands of the Himalayas
and skirted the frontier of Thibet to Cashmere. Here he
accumulated the rich stores of material which are elaborated
in his great work, partly by his own labours, and partly by
those of prominent specialists. Through the country of the
Sikhs Hugel proceeded to Delhi, whence, after an absence
of four years, he returned to Bombay, the starting-point of


1 3 4 5 6

Online LibraryAnatole von HügelCharles von Hügel, April 25, 1795 - June 2, 1870 → online text (page 1 of 6)