Andrea Palladio.

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Gold prevailed , and remained yellow , and of a Gold co-
lour : And the third was , where all thefe three metals were of
an equal temperament ^ and thefe fpecies have been fince divers
wayes imitated. Hitherto I have difcourfcd of thofe things
feeming moll neceHary to be confidered and prepared before
building j It now remains that fomething be faid of foundations,
the materials whereof being prepared, the work may be pro-
ceeded On.

/^^ '. V^C CHAP.



of ArchheShtre.

CHAP. VII.

Of the Qualities of Ground^ wherein
fonndations are to he laid.

TH E Bafe of the building is that which we call the Foundati-
on, which is to fay, the part which is under ground, up-
holding the reft of the building that is above ground} therefore
of all the errours which do happen in building, thofe are the moft
pernicious which are committed in the foundation, becaufe they
bring with them the ruine of the whole Fabrick, nor can with-
out great dilTiculty be amended j whence the Architeé^s ought
toufe their utmoft diligence : Becaufe in feme places they have
a natural foundation, and in other places it is necelTary to ufe

Art.

A Natural Foundation is when we build on Ston?, afoftfandy

or moldring Stone, or Gravel ; for thefe, without digging, or other

help? of Art, are of themfelves excellent foundations ,and moft fit

to uphold the greateft building both on Land and in Water: But

if nature affords nota foundation, it muft be attempted by Art,

and then the place you have to build on, is either a/ò/zW Earth, or

a gravelly, fandy, moffie,foft, and moorifh place. Ifthe Earth be

faft and hrm, you may dig fo far as to a difcreet Archited may

leem requifite for the quality of the building, and foundnefs of

the Earth : and (when you intend not to make Cellars, or other

under-ground OfHces ) your depth is to be a fixtls part of the

height of the building ; to know this firmnefs, obfervation

from the digging of Wells, Cif^erns, and fuch like, will help

wcll,^ and 'tis alfo known by Herbs growing there, if they

ufually fpring up only in firm and fai? grounds ; and befides ,

'tisafignof firm ground, if, a great weight thrown thereon, it

neither founds nor fhakes j and from the report of Drums

being fet on the ground , and lightly touched , it does not

refound again , and if water put in a Veflel doth not (hake :

The neighbouring places will^^ fo give you to underftand the

faftnefs



Of ^rchsteSlHre.

faftnefs and firmnefs of the Earth.- But if the place befandv
or grave Jy, obferve whether it be on land or in water : For if
Jt be on land, you mud take notice what liath been before dire^*
ed, concerning fail ground ; and if you build in a River, the
Sand and Gravel is altogether ufelefs, becaufe the water with its
continual ftream and flood often changes its bed: Therefore dig
till you come to a bottom found and firm ; or if that be
difficult, digfomewhat in the Sand and Gravel, and then place
piles whofe ends may reach to the found and good Earth and up-
on thofe you are to build ; But if you are to build upon a moffie,
and loofe ground, then you muft dig till you find found Earth, and
therein alfofo much as the bignefs of the walls and the^reatncfs
01 the building require. .

This found ground ( and fitto uphold building) isof divers
forts J for (as Alberti well faith ) fomewhere fo hard, asV«
Jcarce to be cut with Iron ; fomewhere very Ibff, fomewhere black-
ifli, fomewhere whitifh (which is accounted the weakeft ) fome-
where like chalk, fomewhere fandy ; of ail thefe the beft \s
that which IS cut with moft labour, and when wer, doth notdif-
folve into dirt.

Youfliouldnot build upon a ruine or old foundation, if firft
of all you know not its depth, and whether it be fufficient to bear
the building ' but if the Earth be foft and fink much, as m
moorilh grounds, then you muft place piles, whofe length mull
be an eighth part of the height of the Wall, and inlhickncfs
a twelfth part of their length .• The piles muft be placed as clofe
as one can ftand by the other, and are to be rammed in with
blows , rather quick then heavy, fo that the Earth may the
better confolidate and faften. You muft place the piles nc^ on-
ly under the out- walls, upon the Trench or Gutters, butalfo un-
der the inner-walls, which divide the Building : For if vo^
make the foundation for the inner-walls diffaent from thofc
without , then laying Beams along one by the other , and
others athwart them above, oftentimes it happens, that the m-
ner-walls fall down , when thofe without being placed (,n
piles, ftir not : Whence all walls come to cleave, the which
render the building rdnous, and is very uncomely to look on;
wherefore you muft avoid this danger, making the piling wtrk

C 2 of



U



li of ÀrchiteSiure»

of *efs charge ; for according to proportion of walls, the pites in
the middle may be placed thinner then them without.



F



CHAP. VIIL

of Foundations,

\ Ounda-tions ought to by twice fo thick as the walls to be rai-
fed thereon, and therein the quality of the Earth, and the
greatnefs of the building is to be regarded, making them more
large in foft and loofer ground , and where there is a great
weight to be fulirained. The ^Uin of the Trench muit be Level,
fo that the weight may prefs equally, and not inclining to one
part more then another, may prevent the cleaving of the walls.
^lv(YtUe^ a For this reafon the Ancients ufed to pave the plain with Tivertincy
:ertain and we lay Planks and Bcams^ and build thereon.
)'oifeht Foundations are made floping, that «sto fay, todiminiili as

Tom Tr/- they rife ^ yet fo, as that there may be fo much left on one fide 5
'jolu as on the other : So that the middle of that above may fall per-

pendicularly upon the middle of the lower work, which muft be
alfoobferved in the diminution of Walls above ground i becaufe
by this means the building becomes much ftronger, then by ttìa-
king the diminutions any other way. -n;» ek "

There is fometimes made ( efpecially in moorifh grounds
where there is need of piles ) to avoid charge. Foundations dif-
continued but with certain Vaults, upon which they afterwards
build. In great buildings 'tis very commendable to make vents
^ through the body of the Wailsy from the Fourdatrion to the Roof,

becaufe they letforth the wind (which is very prejudicial to build-
ings ) lefifen the charge, and are of no fmall convenience, if in
them you make winding flairs from the bottom to the top,



«-,•'1 -i^t



INSERT FOLDOUT HERE



of ArchiteBnre,

CHAP. IX.

Of ihe Fafiiomf Walls.

THE Foundation being laid, it remains that we treat of tke
Sup€rrrru(!^ure. The Ancients had fix forts of Wails 9 one
ciikd Reticolata, or Nét-wori^i Another of i^adrels, or Brtck^:
A third of Cement , which is of rough ftones from the Hills or Rt-
vers .• A fourth of various ftones ; a fifth of fquared ftones : The
fixth Riempiuta, which isalfo called Coffer- work. Of the Net-
work there is no life at all in thefedays; but becaufe FUruvim
relates it was common in his time, I do here put alfo that defign.
They made the Coignes and Corners of their building of i^Ji^-
dreU, and every two foot and half took up three Ccurfes of^a-
drels, which bound the whole thicknefs of the Wall.

A. Coignes-i or Corners of Qjtadrels.

B. CoHrfesof Quadrels, which bwd the whole Wall,

C. The Net-work:

D. 77?^ Courfes of Quadrels, through the thicknefs of the Wall,

E. The inner fart of the Wall made of Cement.

Walls of Brick-, or Qu:îdr&ïs,'%(Â\i t\\(^é'-2^h^^^
other great Edifices, muft be (6 made, that the infide and obtftde
may be of Qn^idrels, and in .the middle filled up with Cement,
and with Brick, Earth, and Stone, rammed together; and to
every three foot in hefght, there muft be three Courfes of Qm-
drels of thebiggeftfort, which may take the whole breadth of"
the Wall. And the firft Courfe muft be kid with the -length
inward, that the lefier part of the Brick be expofed : The fccond,
the length laid fide ways, and the third as the firft. Of this fort
are the Walls of the Rotwnda in Rome, and the Bathes of Diode -
fian, and all other ancient buildings which are there.
3A

E. The Courfes of Quadrels, which bind the whole Wall,

F. The middle fart of the wall made of Cement , between one
Courfe and the other, and the outward Cuadrcls.

The



of ArchiteEinre»

The Walls of Cemem muft be made fo, that to every two foot
atleaft, there be three Courfes of ^adr^lsox Buck - , and that
the Quadrels or Brick. , be prepared according to the manner
aforefaid. Such are the VJsAls of TMrin in Piedmonty which are
made of River pebbles fplit in the middle, which being placed
with'the fplit lide outwards, make very even and fmooth work.
The Walls of the Arenaoî Verona dLtt{iktv/\fQ of Cemem ; and
there are three Courfes of Qnadreh to every three foot : And
in like manner are made other ancient Edifices, as appears in my
Books of Antiquities.

G. Cement or River Pebbles.

H. Courfes of Quadrels which bind the whole Wall.



The Walls of irregular fiones were fo called, becaufe they were
made of Stones of unequal fides and Angles j and to make thefe
Walls, they ufed a plumb Rule, which applied to the place where
the Stone was to be put, fervedto place them ftraight and even :
Thereby to try, time after time, if the Stone ftood right in the
defigned place. Of this fort may be feen Walls at Prenefie, and
Ancient ftreets were paved in this manner,

I. IrreguUr Stones.



M



of ArchiteSìnre.

htRome may be feen Walls of fquared Stones, where was the
riazz.a, and the Temple of Jugnfipu, in which they locked in
the lefler Stones with Courfes of. greater.



K. Courfes ef leffer Stor.es.
L. Courfes of bt^ger Stones.



The manner Riempiuta, or filled Walls, which is alfe called
CofFer-work, which the Ancients did ufe ; taking Planks, and
placing them edgwife, allowing fo much fpaceas they would
have the thicknefs of the Wall, filling it with mortar, and llones of
all forts mingled together; and fo they went oh from Courfe to
Courfe. There is feen fuch like Walls at Sermion» upon the
Lake De Gradu^



M. TUnks pit edge-wife,

N. The inmr pan of the wall.

O. ThefAce of the Wally the Flanks tAken aw Ay.

Of this kind may be called the ancient walls of Naples., which
had two walls of fquared Stones fotr foot thick, and fix foot di-
sant th' one from the other; chofe walls were bound together,
with other crofs walls, and the C/fj which were between the
Traverfe walls and the Out walls were four footfquare, and
were filled up with Stones and Earth.



P. The Outward Stone Wall.

Q^ The Traverfe Walls.

K. Cafes filled with Stones and Earth.

Thefewere the formes of which the Ancients did ferve them-
felves, and the foot fteps thereof are yet to be feen j whence it
may be concluded , that walFs of what fort foever ought to
have fome Tires or Courfes, whk;h are like finews that hold

faa



g of JtchiteShre,

fad all other parts together, which chiefly may be obferved when
Walls are made of Brick ; For the ftrudure through age falling
afunder in the middle, the Walls may not become ruinous, as
hathhapned, andisfeen in many Walls, efpecially on that fide
which rcfpeds the North.



CHAP. X.

Of the Method which the Ancients did
praBife in making their Stone
Buildings,

BEcaufe it happens, that fometimes buildings are made (the
whole, or good part) of Marble, or fome other great ftones j
I think it convenient, in this place, to acquaint you what the
Ancients did in fuch cafes j for we may obferve, in their work,
that they were fo diligent in joining their ftones together , that
in many places their connexion can fcarcely be perceived. And
befidcs, the Beauty, Firmnefs, and Duration of the Fabrick is
very much to be regarded.

And for as much as I can underftand, they firfl: fquared and
wrought the fides of the ftones which were to be placed one
upon the other, leaving the other fides rough, and fo ufed them ;
whereupontheedgesof the ftones were beyond thefquare, and
might manage them better , and more varioudy attempt to
place them right without danger of breaking, then if they had
been fquared on all fides before ; for when the edges are made
fquare , or Icfs then fquare , they are very weak and fubjedi to
accidents : In this manner they made all buildings rough, or, as
one may fay, ruftickj and that being done, they go on working
and polifliing the face of the ftone which is to be feen. It is true
that the Rofcs which are between the Af(7^i7/o;^j, and other fuch
like ornaments of the Cornich, could not commodioufly be done
when the ftones were fixed, therefore they made them while

they



of JrchiteSture^ if

they were on the ground. This is well attefl^d by many an-
cient buildings, where may befeen many ftoncs rough and un-
polifhed. The Arch by the old Calile in Ferona, and all other
the Arches and buildings there, were done in the fame manocrj
which is eafily made out by one curious in obferving the marks
of their 'Tools, that is to fay, the manner how theftones were
wrought. The pillars of Trajan^ and jûmonine in Rome^ Were
fo made, nor could they otherwife have fo exadfy joined the
ftones, that might fo clofely meet where they go crofs the heads,
and other part of the figures. And the fame may be faid of the
other Arches which are there.

kiJ if the works were very great, as the Ar^naoî Verona^
the Amphitheatre of Po/.ï, and the like, to fave charge and time,
which they would have required, they wrought only the Imports
of the Arches, Capitels, and the Corniches; and the reft they
left Ruftick, having only regard to the fair front of the building.
But in Temples, and other buildings, which required curiofity ,
they fpared no pains in the working them, and glazing and fmoo-
thingeven the very fluces of the Columns, and polifhing them
diligently. Therefore, in my judgment, you (hould not make
Walls of Brick in the Ruftick manner, much lefs Mantles of
Chimnies, which require curious work ; forbefidestheunhand-
fomnefs, 'twill happen that they will fplit and divide afunder ,
which naturally ought to be intire ; but according to the great-
nefs and quality of the building, you may make them Ruftickor
Polite : And in a work that requires altogether neatnefs, we
need not do as the Ancients ufed, with Reafon, and neceflitated
by the grcatnefs of their works.



D CHAP.



lg of ^rchiteBiire.

CHAP. XL

Of the Diminution of IVallf, and of their

fartf.

1 T is to be obferved, that by how much the higher the Walls
^ are, fo much the narrower theymuftbe^ therefore that part
which is above ground is to be one half thinner then the founda-
tion, and the fécond ftory a half brick thinner then the firfl ; and
fo continue till you come to the top of the building, but with dif-
cretion, that it be not too weak. The middle of the uppep
Wall ought to fall direa^ to the middle of the lower, thatfo all
the Walls be in a Pyramidal form. But if you would make a fu-
perficies, or face of a Wall, above, diredly over that below, it
mud be on the inner part ; becaufe the raftings of the Floors,
the Vaults, and other fupporters of the building, may not fuf-
fer the Wall to fall or give way. The difcharged part, which is
on tbe outfidc, muft be fupplyed with a Border or Corniche, in-
compafling the whole building, which will be an ornament and
faftningtothe whole Fabrick.

The Angles, becaufe they partake of both fides, and are to
keep them upright and faft together, muft be very ftrong, and
held with long a'nd hard ftones, as it were with arms ; therefore
the Windows and Apertures muft be as far from them as may be ^
or at leaft, fo much fpace muft be left between the Aperture and
the Angle, as is the breadth of the Aperture.

Having fpoken of meer Walls, 'tis convenient to pafstorhe
ornaments, the grcateft whereof are the Columns when they
are meetly placed, and have fair proportion to the whole Fa-
brick.



C H A F.



of ArchiteUnre^ i^

CHAP. XIL
Of the five Orders nfed by the Ancients.

Five were the Orders among the Ancients, that is to fay, the
Tufcan, Dorickj, lonick-, Corinthian-, and Comfofta, which
ought to be fo difpofed in the building, that the ftrongcft be fet
loweft ; for then 'twill be more capable to bear the weight, and
the building will have a more fure foundation : Wherefore they
alwayes place the Dorrei^ under the/o?;?VJ^, the Ioniche under the
Corinthian^ and the Corinthian under the Compfita ; the Tufcan,
as being rude, feldome is ufed above ground, unlefsina building
of one Order onely, as in Town-houfes, or in vafl buildings, as
Amphitheaters and fuch like, where being many Orders, this in-
ftead of the Doriche is placed under the Ionici?^ ^ and if you leave
out one of themt and place, for example, the Corinthian immc-
diately over the Dorick-, which may be done according to the
Rule aforefaid, provided alwayes, that the more folid be the
foweft. I fhall fet down, particularly, the meafureof each of
thcfe Orders ; notfo much according to the Dodrinc of Titruvi-
m-t as according to my own obfervations in Ancient buildings j
but firft I will fay thofc things which belong to all in general.



CHAP. XIIL



Of the fuelling of Columns^ and their

diminutions \ of Inter- column s

and Pillajlers.

Columns of every Order muft be fo formed, that the up-
per part muft be lefler then the lower, and the middle
Ibmewhat thick j in diminilhing it muft be obferved, that by

D z how



of ArchiteUnre,

how much longer the Columns are, fo much the Icfs mud they
be diminilhed. in regard that the height of it felf works the ef-
itCioi diminifhing by the diflance ; therefore if the Column be
1 5. foot high, the Diamètre of the Column below muft be di-
vided into 6\. parts, and the Diamètre thereof above (hall be
5* . of thofe parts. If from 1 5 . to 20. the Diamètre below mull
be dividedintofeven parts, and 6^. muft be the thicknefsof the
upper parti ^^ likewife thofe which are from twenty to thirty
the Diamètre below muft be divided into 8. parts, and 7. muft
be the Diamètre of the upper part, and fo the Columns which
are higher are to be diminifhed proportionably by their feveral ■
parts, as Fitrnviiu (hews in his Second Chapter of this Third-
Book. But now the fweiling is to bemade inthemiddle, wc
have no more to ftiew from him then a bare promife j and there-
fore many have written varioufly thereof. I am wont to make
the profile of the faid fv/elling in this manner j I divide the bo-
dy of the Column into three equal parts, and leave the lower third
part perpendicular, at the end of which I lay a long thia rule as
long as the Column, or a little more, and move that part which
leachcth from the third part upwards, and bend it till the end
touch at the point of the diminution, at the top of the Co-
lumn under the Collarino or Aftragal-, according to that bend-
ing I proceed, and fo the Column becomes fomewhat fwelled in
the middle, and appears very handfomc ^ and although I could
not have contrived ( befide this ) a form either fliortcr or more
expedient, or that might be more acceptable; lam yet more
confirmed in this my opinion, fince it hath fo much pleafed Tr,
Cattaneo that ( I having told him of it ) he hath put it into one
of his Works of Archite^ure, with which he hath not a little
Illuftratcd this profelHon.

A. B. The third fan of the Column which ù fcrfenMcular,.

B. C. The trvo thirds diminifhed,

C. The foint of the Diminution under the Ctllarino cr JffirÀ^
gaL



. . of ArchiteSlnre, 2=g^

The Inter-Columns, that is to fay, the fpaces between the
Columns, may be made of a Diamètre, and '. . of the Column
and the Diamètre is to be taken at the lower part of the Column^
of two Diamètres , of two and i. of three, and fometimes of
more. But the Ancients were not wont to allow more then
three Diamètres of the Column, except in the Tufcan Order,
in which the Architrave i^ wont to be of wood ; they made the
Inter-columns very large, not lefs then a Diamètre and half, and
this fpace they allowed fometimes,- cfpccially when they made
the Columns very big ^ but thofe Inter-columns wcremoft pre-
ferred tl^it were of two Diamètres, and',, of the Column; and
they accounted this the moil noble and beautiful manner of the
Inter-columns.

And you ought to take notice, that between the Inter columns
and the Columns, there ought to be proportion and correfpon-
dence, for leaving too much vacancy between fmall Columns ,
you will take away great part of their beauty • becaufe the great
quantity of air that will be between them will diminifh very
much their thicknefs ; and on the contrary, leaving too little fpace
to the great Columns, by the ftreightnefs and narro wnefs of the
fpaces they will appear gouty, and very ungraceful ; There-
fore if the fpaces exceed three Diamètres, you mull make the
Columns in thicknefs a feventh part of their height, as I ob-
fcrve hereafter in the Tnfcan Order; but if the fpaces fhall be
three Diamètres, the length of the Column mull be yl. or eight,
as in the Doriche Order ; and if 2^.. the length of the Column
mud be 9. Diamètres, as in the lonkk^ ; [t 2. the len«th of the
Column muft be 9'. as in the Corimhia». Lailly, if i [ . the length
of the Column muft be 10. as in the Compfta. Concerning thefc
Orders, I have took this care, that they may be examples for all
other Inter- columns, which Fitruvins intimates in the Chapter
aforefaid.

In the front of buildings, the Columns ought to bean even
number, fo that the middle Inter-column may be made bigger
then the reft, that the Doors and Entries may be the better feen ;
^hich ufually are placed in the middle : And thus much for Pil-
lar work only.

But if Galleries be made with Pillafters, they mull be fo dif-

pofedj



L)



^^4, Of ArchiteSiuye,

pofed, that the Plllailcrs be not lefs then a third of the vacancy
between Pillaftcr and Pillafter, and thofe at the corners muft be
two thirds bigger then theother, that fo the Angles of the Fabrick
may be firm and ftrong ; and when they are to fupport an extra-
ordinary great weight, as in very great buildings, then they
Hiuft be the half of the vacancy : As thofe of the Theatre of
Vtcenx.^^ and the Amphitheatre at Ca^ua : Or elfe two thirds,
as thofe of the Theatre of Marcellusm Rome^ and off the Thea-
tre of ^^«^«^^ which now belongs to Si^. Lodovico de Gabrieîliy
a Gentleman of that City. The Ancients alfo made them forae-
times as lart'e as the whole vacant, as in the Theatre of Ferona^
in chat part*which is not upon the Hill. But in private buildings,
they are not to be made lefs then a third of the vacant, nor larger
then two thirds, and they ought to be fquare ^ but to fave charge,
and to make room to walk more freely, they may be made lefs
in the flank then in the front.

And to adorn the frontifpicce, you may put in the middle of
the front half Columns, or other Pillafters which may bear up
the Corniche, which fhall be upon the Arches of the Gallery ;
and they muft be as large as their height (hall require, according
to their feveral orders, as intheenfuing Chapters and dcfignes
may appear -, for underftanding whereof ( that I may not repeat
the fame thing often ) you may underûand, that I in the dividing
and meafuring the faid Orders, would not take a certain and de-
terminate mcafure, which is peculiar to any City, as Cubit, Foot
or Span ; well knowing , that meafures are as various asthe Ci-
ties and Countries. But in imitation of /''^zVr^x'ij^, who divides
the i)omi^ Order with a Meafure taken from the tbicknefs of
the Column, which is common to all, and by him called a Mo-
Me : I will alfo ferve my felf with fuch a Meafure in all the Or-
ders, and the J</o^«/f fhall be the Diamètre of the Column, ta-
ken at the Bafe, divided into 60." parts ; except in the Doyìc\ ,
in which the Module is to be the half Diamètre of the Column,
and is divided into 30. parts : For fo it falls more commodious in
the Compartiments of the faid Order. Wherefore every one
may ferve himfclf ( making the Module greater or leflTer, accord-
ing to the quality of the Fabrick) with the proportions and pro-
files defigned convenient to every Order. ' '"^.*

CHAP.



of ArchiteSme,



CHAP. XIV.



Of the Tufcan Order.



TH E Tufcan Order, according to that which Fitruvim
writes of it, and is fo indeed, isthemoft fimpleand intire
of all the Orders of Archite<flure ; Becaufe it retains the moft of
Antique, and wants all thofe Ornaments which renders the
others fo pleafant and agreeable. This had its Original m
Thfcana^ a place very remarkable in Italy ^ whence the Name is


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