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HISTORY OF THE
^WARFARE OF SCI-
ENCE WITH THEOLOGY
IN CHRISTENDOMS



ANDREW D.WHITE



BL 245 .W54 v. 2

White, Andrew Dickson, 1832

1918.
A history of the warfare of

science with theology in

• y i »

V. 2-



A HISTORY OF

THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE

WITH THEOLOGY

IN CHRISTENDOM



BY



ANDREW DICKSON' WHITE

LL. D. (Yale), L. H. D. (Columbia), Ph. Dr. (Jena)

LATE PRESIDENT AND PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY



IN TWO VOLUMES
VOL. II




NEW YORK

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1896



Copyright, 1896,
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



CHAPTER XIII.

FROM MIRACLES TO MEDICINE.

f. The Early and Sacred Theories of Disease.

Naturalness of the idea of supernatural intervention in causing and cur-
ing disease ...•••••
Prevalence of this idea in ancient civilizations .
Beginnings of a scientific theory of medicine .
The twofold influence of Christianity on the healing art .

II. Growth of Legends of Healing.— The Life of Xavier as a Typical Example
Growth of legends of miracles about the lives of great benefactors of
humanity ...•••••■••

Sketch of Xavier's career

Absence of miraculous accounts in his writings and those of his contem-



poraries .....••■•••
Direct evidence that Xavier wrought no miracles .
Growth of legends of miracles as shown in the early biographies of him

As shown in the canonization proceedings

As shown in the later biographies

Naturalness of these legends



i
i. 2



3.4



5
5,6



6-9
• 9. io
11-14
M,i5
15-21
21, 22



III. The Medieval Miracles of Healing check Medical Science
Character of the testimony regarding miracles .
Connection of mediaeval with pagan miracles .

Their basis of fact

Various kinds of miraculous cures .

Atmosphere of supernaturalism thrown about all cures

Influence of this atmosphere on medical science

IV. The Attribution of Disease to Satanic Lnfiuence.—" Pastoral Medicine"

holds back Scientific Effoi-t.

Theological theory as to the cause of disease

Influence of self-interest on " pastoral medicine "

Development of fetichism at Cologne and elsewhere
Other developments of fetich cure .



• 23
24

24,25

25, 26

. 26

26



27
2S
29

29, 3°



IV



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



V. Theological Opposition to Anatomical Studies. page

Mediaeval belief in the unlawfulness of meddling with the bodies of the dead 31
Dissection objected to on the ground that " the Church abhors the shed-
ding of blood " ........... 31

The decree of Boniface VIII and its results 32

VI. New Beginnings of Medical Science.

Galen 33

Scanty development of medical science in the Church 33

Among Jews and Mohammedans ....... 33, 34

Promotion of medical science by various Christian laymen of the Middle

Ages 34,35

By rare men of science .......... 35

By various ecclesiastics ......... 35, 36



VII. Theological Discouragement of Medicine.
Opposition to seeking cure from disease by natural means
Requirement of ecclesiastical advice before undertaking medical treat

ment ...........

Charge of magic and Mohammedanism against men ofscier.ee

Effect of ecclesiastical opposition to medicine

The doctrine of signatures

The doctrine of exorcism ....

Theological opposition to surgery
Development of miracle and fetich cures .
Fashion in pious cures ....

Medicinal properties of sacred places
Theological argument in favour of miraculous
Prejudice against Jewish physicians .

VIII. Fetich Cures under Protestantism. — The Royal Touch.
Luther's theory of disease
The royal touch ....
Cures wrought by Charles II .
By James II ....
By William III
By Queen Anne ....

By Louis XIV

Universal acceptance of these miracles



37

37
3S
38

38,39
39
40

40,41
42
42
43
44



45,46
46

47
47



48
4 S

49



IX. The Scientific Struggle for Anatomy.

Occasional encouragement of medical science in the Middle Ages . 49, 50

New impulse given by the revival of learning and the age of discovery . 50
Paracelsus and Mundinus. ......... 50

Vesalius, the founder of the modern science of anatomy. — His career and

fate 50-55

X. Theological Opposition to Inoculation, Vaccination, and the Use of Anes-

thetics.
Theological opposition to inoculation in Europe . . . . 55, 56

In America ........... 56, 57



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



Theological opposition to vaccination
Recent hostility to vaccination in England
In Canada, during the smallpox epidemic
Theological opposition to the use of cocaine
To the use of quinine ....
Theological opposition to the use of anaesthetics



PAGE

53,59

• 59

60, 61
. 61

61, 62

62, 63



XI. Final breaking away of the Theological Theory in Medicine.

Changes incorporated in the American Book of Common Prayer . . 64
Effect on the theological view of the growing knowledge of the relation

between imagination and medicine 64

Effect of the discoveries in hypnotism 65

In bacteriology 65

Relation between ascertained truth and the " ages of faith " . . .66



CHAPTER XIV.



FROM FETICH TO HYGIENE.



The Theological View of Epidemics and Sanitation.
The recurrence of great pestilences ........ 67

Their early ascription to the wrath or malice of unseen powers . 67, 68

Their real cause want of hygienic precaution 69

Theological apotheosis of filth 69, 70

Sanction given to the sacred theory of pestilence by Pope Gregory the

Great 7°

Modes of propitiating the higher powers 71

Modes of thwarting the powers of evil 72

Persecution of the Jews as Satan's emissaries 7 2_ 74

Persecution of witches as Satan's emissaries 74. 75

Case of the Untori at Milan 75~77

New developments of fetichism. — The blood of St. Januarius at Naples 78-80
Appearance of better methods in Italy. — In Spain . . . . 80,81



II. Gradual Decay of Theological Views regarding Sanitation.

Comparative freedom of England from persecutions for plague-bringing,

in spite of her wretched sanitary condition
Aid sought mainly through church services
Effects of the great fire in London .
The jail fever ......

The work of John Howard

Plagues in the American colonies

In France. — The great plague at Marseilles

Persistence of the old methods in Austria

In Scotland ......



82
82,83

33
83. S 4

84
85
86

87

87, SS



III. The Triumph of Sanitary Science.

Difficulty of reconciling the theological theory of pestilences with accu-
mulating facts 88, 89

Curious approaches to a right theory 89, 90



PAGE




go


90,


9 1


91.


-


92.


M




13




>3




94



y [ CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.

The law governing the relation of theology to disease

Recent victories of hygiene in all countries .....

In England. — Chadwick and his fellows ......

In France. ...........

IV. The Relation of Sanitary Science to Religion.

The progress of sanitary science not at the cost of religion
Illustration from the policy of Napoleon III in France .
Effect of proper sanitation on epidemics in the United States .
Change in the attitude of the Church toward the cause and cure of pes-
tilence Q4, 95

CHAPTER XV.
FROM " DEMONIACAL POSSESSION " TO INSANITY.

I. Theological Ideas of Lunacy and its Treatment.

The struggle for the scientific treatment of the insane .... 97
The primitive ascription of insanity to evil spirits .... 97, 98

Better Greek and Roman theories — madness a disease . . . 9S. 99

The Christian Church accepts the demoniacal theory of insanity . 99-101
Vet for a time uses mild methods for the insane .... 101, 102
Growth of the practice of punishing the indwelling demon . . 103,104
Two sources whence better things might have been hoped. — The reasons

of their futility 104, 105

The growth of exorcism ......... 106-109

Use of whipping and torture ........ 109. no

The part of art and literature in making vivid to the common mind the

idea of diabolic activity 110-112

The effects of religious processions as a cure for mental disease . . 112

Exorcism of animals possessed of demons 113

Belief in the transformation of human beings into animals . . .114
The doctrine of demoniacal possession in the Reformed Church . 114,115

II. The Beginnings of a Healthful Scepticism.

Rivalry between Catholics and Protestants in the casting out of devils . 116
Increased belief in witchcraft during the period following the Reforma-
tion 117. 1 if

Increase of insanity during the witch persecutions .... 11S, 119

Attitude of physicians toward witchcraft . . . . . . .119

Religious hallucinations of the insane . . . . . . .120

Theories as to the modes of diabolic entrance into the possessed . .120
Influence of monastic life on the development of insanity . . . 121

Protests against the theological view of insanity — Wier, Montaigne,

Bekker 122. 123

Last struggles of the old superstition . . . . . . .123

III. The Final Struggle and Victory of Science. — Pine I and Tide.

Influence of French philosophy on the belief in demoniacal possesion 124, 125
Reactionary influence of John Wesley . . . . . . -125



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME. vii

PAGE

Progress of scientific ideas in Prussia 126

In Austria I26 ' I2 7

In America I2 7

In South Germany I2S

General indifference toward the sufferings of madmen .... 129

The beginnings of a more humane treatment 13°

Jean Baptiste Pinel I 3 I

Improvement in the treatment of the insane in England.— William

Tuke I 3 2 - I 33

The place of Pinel and Tuke in history 134



CHAPTER XVI.

FROM DIABOLISM TO HYSTERIA.

I. The Epidemics of " Possession."

Survival of the belief in diabolic activity as the cause of such epidemics 13 =

Epidemics of hysteria in classical times I 3»

In the Middle Ages 136,137

The dancing mania J 37> l 3°

Inability of science during the fifteenth century to cope with such dis-

• I3Q
eases ...-•••••• JV

Cases of possession brought within the scope of medical research during

the sixteenth century x 39

Dying-out of this form of mental disease in northern Europe . . • 139

In Italy J 4°

Epidemics of hysteria in the convents 140, 141

The case of Martha Drossier 1 4 I . J 4 2

Revival in France of belief in diabolic influence T 43

The Ursulines of Loudun and Urbain Grandier .... 143. *44

Possession among the Huguenots x 4?

In New England. — The Salem witch persecution . I45 -1 54

At Paris. — Alleged miracles at the grave of Archdeacon Paris . 154-156

In Germany. — Case of Maria Renata Sanger T 5"

More recent outbreaks . . . . . • • • • • I 57

II. Beginnings of Helpful Scepticism.

Outbreaks of hysteria in factories and hospitals .... 157. T 5°

In places of religious excitement 158.159

The case at Morzine 159-162

Similar cases among Protestants and in Africa io 3

III. Theological Suggestions of Compromise.— Final Triumph of the Sci-

entific View and Methods.
Successful dealings of medical science with mental diseases . . • 163
Attempts to give a scientific turn to the theory of diabolic agency in dis-

. 164
ease ....•••••••

Last great demonstration of the old belief in England . • .165
Final triumph of science in the latter half of the present century . 165, 166
Last echoes of the old belief



viii CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



CHAPTER XVII.

FROM BABEL TO COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY.

I. The Sacred Theory in its First Form. PAGE

Difference of the history of Comparative Philology from that of other sci-
ences as regards the attitude of theologians . . . . .168
Curiosity of early man regarding the origin, the primitive form, and the

diversity of language 16S

The Hebrew answer to these questions ...... 169, 170

The legend of the Tower of Babel ....... 170,171

The real reason for the building of towers by the Chaldeans and the

causes of their ruin . . . . . . . . . .172

Other legends of a confusion of tongues ...... 172,173

Influence upon Christendom of the Hebrew legends . . . .174

Lucretius's theory of the origin of language 174

The teachings of the Church fathers on this subject .... 175

The controversy as to the divine origin of the Hebrew vowel points . 176
Attitude of the reformers toward this question . . . . 177

Of Catholic scholars. — Marini 177

Capellus and his adversaries 177, 178

The treatise of Danzius 17S, 179

II. The Sacred Theory of Language in its Second Form.

Theological theory that Hebrew was the primitive tongue, divinely re-
vealed 179, 180

This theory supported by all Christian scholars until the beginning of the

eighteenth century 1S0-1S7

Dissent of Prideaux and Cotton Mather 187

Apparent strength of the sacred theory of language iSS

III. Breaking down of the Theological View.

Reason for the Church's ready acceptance of the conclusions of compara-
tive philology . . . . . . . . . . . 1S9

Beginnings of a scientific theory of language 189

Hottinger 189

Leibnitz 190

The collections of Catharine the Great, of Hervas, and of Adelung 190, 191
Chaotic period in philology between Leibnitz and the beginning of the

study of Sanskrit . ......... 191

Illustration from the successive editions of the Encyclopedia Britan-

nica ............ 192, 193

IV. Triumph of the New Science.

Effect of the discovery of .Sanskrit on the old theory . . . 193, 194
Attempts to discredit the new learning ....... 194

General acceptance of the new theory . . . . . . 194, 195

Destruction of the belief that all created things were first named by-
Adam ........... 195, 196

Of the belief in the divine origin of letters ...... 197

Attempts in England to support the old theory of language . . 198, 199



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



IX



PAGE



s



Progress of philological science in France ..... ion, 200

In Germany 200

In Great Britain 201, 202

Recent absurd attempts to prove Hebrew the primitive tongue . 202, 203

V. Summary.

Gradual disappearance of the old theories regarding the origin of speech

and writing .......... 204, 205

Full acceptance of the new theories by all Christian scholars . . 206, 207
The result to religion, and to the Bible ....... 208



CHAPTER XVIII.

FROM THE DEAD SEA LEGENDS TO COMPARATIVE MYTHOLOGY.

I. The Growth of Explanatory Transformation Myths.

Growth of myths to account for remarkable appearances in Nature —
mountains, rocks, curiously marked stones, fossils, products of vol-
canic action .......... 209-214

Myths of the transformation of living beings into natural objects . 215-219
Development of the science of Comparative Mythology . . . 219, 220

II. Medicev.il Growth of the Dead Sea Legends.

Description of the Dead Sea ........ 221,222

Impression made by its peculiar features on the early dwellers in Pales-
tine ............. 223

Reasons for selecting the Dead Sea myths for study .... 224

Naturalness of the growth of legend regarding the salt region of

Usdum ........... 224, 225

Universal belief in these legends ........ 226

Concurrent testimony of early and mediaeval writers, Jewish and Christian,
respecting the existence of Lot's wife as a " pillar of salt," and of the
other wonders of the Dead Sea ....... 226-233

Discrepancies in the various accounts and theological explanations of

them ............. 233

Theological arguments respecting the statue of Lot's wife . . . 234
Growth of the legend in the sixteenth century 234, 235

III. Post-Reformation Culmination of the Dead Sea Legends. — Beginnings

of a Healthful Scepticism.
Popularization of the older legends at the Reformation .... 236

Growth of new myths among scholars ...... 236, 237

Signs of scepticism among travellers near the end of the sixteenth century 238

Effort of Quaresmio to check this tendency 239

Of Eugene Roger ........... 240

Of Wedelius ............ 240

Influence of these teachings ......... 241

Renewed scepticism — the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries . 242, 243
Efforts of Briemle and Masius in support of the old myths . . 243, 244
Their influence. ........... 245



x 9 CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.

PAGE

The travels of Mariti and of Volney 246

Influence of scientific thought on the Dead Sea legends during the eight-
eenth century 246, 247

Reactionary efforts of Chateaubriand ....... 247

Investigations of the naturalist Seetzen ...... 248, 249

Of Dr. Robinson 249, 250

The expedition of Lieutenant Lynch 250-252

The investigations of De Saulcy 252, 253

Of the Due de Luynes. — Lartet's report 253

Summary of the investigations of the nineteenth century. — Ritter's ver-
dict 254-256

IV. Theological Efforts at Compromise. — Triumph of the Scientific Viezu.

Attempts to reconcile scientific facts with the Dead Sea legends . 256, 257
Van de Velde's investigations of the Dead Sea region .... 257

Canon Tristram's ........... 258

Mgr. Mislin's protests against the growing rationalism .... 258

The work of Schaff and Osborn ........ 259

Acceptance of the scientific view by leaders in the Church . . 259, 260

Dr. Geikie's ascription of the myths to the Arabs 261

Mgr. Haussmann de Wandelburg and his rejection of the scientific view 262
Service of theologians to religion in accepting the conclusions of science

in this field 263



CHAPTER XIX.



FROM LEVITICUS TO POLITICAL ECONOMY.

I. Origin and Progress of Hostility to Loans at Interest.

Universal belief in the sin of loaning money at interest .
The taking of interest among the Greeks and Romans
Opposition of leaders of thought, especially Aristotle
Condemnation of the practice by the Old and New Testament!
By the Church fathers .......

In ecclesiastical and secular legislation ....

Exception sometimes made in behalf of the Jews
Hostility of the pulpit .......

Of the canon law ........

Evil results of the prohibition of loans at interest .
Efforts to induce the Church to change her position
Theological evasions of the rule .....

Attitude of the Reformers toward the taking of interest .
Struggle in England for recognition of the right to accept interest
Invention of a distinction between usury and interest



. 264
. 264

• 265

• 265
. 266

266-268

. 268

. 268

. 269

269, 270

270, 271

. 272

272, 273

274, 275

■ 275



II. Retreat of the Church, Protestant and Catholic.
Sir Robert Filmer's attack on the old doctrine
Retreat of the Protestant Church in Holland .
In Germany and America. .



276
276

277



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



XI



Difficulties in the way of compromise in the Catholic Church .

Failure of such attempts in France

Theoretical condemnation of usury in Italy ....

Disregard of all restrictions in practice

Attempts of Escobar and Liguori to reconcile the taking of interest

the teachings of the Church

Montesquieu's attack on the old theory

Encyclical of Benedict XIV permitting the taking of interest .
Similar decision of the Inquisition at Rome ....

Final retreat of the Catholic Church

Curious dealings of theology with public economy in other fields



PAGE

277,278

278

279

2tO



with



28



280
281
283
283

284
285-287



CHAPTER XX.
FROM THE DIVINE ORACLES TO THE HIGHER CRITICISM.

I. The Older Interpretation.

Character of the great sacred books of the world 28S

General laws governing the development and influence of sacred litera-
ture. — The law of its origin ........ 288

Legends concerning the Septuagint 289, 290

The law of wills and causes 290

The law of inerrancy 291

s — Hostility to the revision of King James's translation of the Bible . . 291

The law of unity 292

Working of these laws seen in the great rabbinical schools . . 292, 293

• 293
. 294

... -295

. 296

• 297
. 298

298, 299
. 300
. 301
Bede. — Savonarola ........... 3° 2

Methods of modern criticism for the first time employed by Lorenzo Valla 303

Erasmus 303-305

Influence of the Reformation on the belief in the infallibility of the sacred

books. — Luther and Melanchthon 3°5-3°7

Development of scholasticism in the Reformed Church .

Catholic belief in the inspiration of the Vulgate ....

Opposition in Russia to the revision of the Slavonic Scriptures

Sir Isaac Newton as a commentator ......

— Scriptural interpretation at the beginning of the eighteenth century



The law of allegorical interpretation .

Philo Judseus ..........

Justin Martyr and Clement of Alexandria . . . .

Occult significance of numbers

Origen ...........

Hilary of Poitiers and Jerome

Augustine ...........

Gregory the Great

Vain attempts to check the flood of allegorical interpretations



308

309
310
311



II. Beginnings of Scientific Interpretation.
— Theological beliefs regarding the Pentateuch
. The book of Genesis ....



3"
312



Xlj CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.

PAGE

Doubt thrown on the sacred theory by Aben Ezra 313

By Carlstadt and Maes 313

Influence of the discovery that the Isidorian Decretals were forgeries . 314
That the writings ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite were spu-
rious 315, 316

Hobbes and La Peyrere . 317

Spinoza ............ 317, 318

Progress of biblical criticism in France. — Richard Simon . . 319,320

Le Clerc 320, 321

Bishop Lowth ............ 322

Astruc 322, 323

Eichhorn's application of the "higher criticism" to biblical research . 323
Isenbiehl ............. 324

Herder 325, 326

Alexander Geddes ........... 326

Opposition to the higher criticism in Germany .... 327, 328

Hupfeld 32S

Vatke and Reuss 329

Kuenen ............ 330, 331

Wellhausen . . . . . . . . . . 331, 332

III. The Continued Growth of Scientific Interpretation.

Progress of the higher criticism in Germany and Holland . . . 333
Opposition to it in England ..... ... 333, 334

At the University of Oxford ......... 335

Pusey ............. 336

Bentley 337. 338

Wolf 339

Niebuhr and Arnold .......... 339

Milman ............. 340

Thirlwall and Grote ........... 341

The publication of Essays and Reviews, and the storm raised by the

book 342-348

IV. The Closing Struggle.

Colenso's work on the Pentateuch ....... 349, 350

The persecution of him ......... 350-353

Bishop Wilberforce's part in it 354.355

Dean Stanley's ............ 355

Bishop Thirlwall's 356

Results of Colenso's work ........ 356, 357

Sanday's Bampton Lectures ......... 357

Keble College and Lux Mundi 358,359

Progress of biblical criticism among the dissenters 300

In France. — Renan . . . . . . . . . . 360-362

In the Roman Catholic Church ....... 362, 363

The encyclical letter of Pope Leo XIII 364-366

In America. — Theodore Parker . 366, 367

Apparent strength of the old theory of inspiration .... 368, 369
Real strength of the new movement 370



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME. xiii

V. Victory of the Scientific and Literary Methods. ' pace

Confirmation of the conclusions of the higher criticism by Assyriology

and Egyptology 37°-37°

Light thrown upon Hebrew religion by the translation of the sacred

books of the East • 377

The influence of Persian thought.— The work of the Rev. Dr. Mills . 378
The influence of Indian thought.— Light thrown by the study of Brah-

manism and Buddhism 37')

The work of Fathers Hue and Gabet 379. 3^o

Discovery that Buddha himself had been canonized as a Christian

saint 381-383

Similarity between the ideas and legends of Buddhism and those of Chris-
tianity 383>384

The application of the higher criticism to the New Testament . . 385

The English "Revised Version" of 1E81 386,387

Studies on the formation of the canon of Scripture 388

Recognition of the laws governing its development 389

Change in the spirit of the controversy over the higher criticism . 39°-392

VI. Reconstructive Force of Scientific Criticism.

Development of a scientific atmosphere during the last three centuries . 393
Action of modern science in reconstruction of religious truth . . 393, 394
Change wrought by it in the conception of a sacred literature . . 394

Of the Divine Power.— Of man.— Of the world at large . . . -395
Of our Bible 395, 39^



THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE

WITH THEOLOGY.



CHAPTER XIII.

FROM MIRACLES TO MEDICINE.

I. THE EARLY AND SACRED THEORIES OF DISEASE.

Nothing in the evolution of human thought appears
more inevitable than the idea of supernatural intervention in
producing and curing disease. The causes of disease are so
intricate that they are reached only after ages of scientific
labour. In those periods when man sees everywhere miracle
and nowhere law, — when he attributes all things which he
can not understand to a will like his own, — he naturally



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