Andrew Dickson White.

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Copyright, 1904, 1905, by
Tiik Century Co.

Published March, 1905



Chapter XXXIII. As Minister to Russia— 1892-1894


Appointment by President Harrison. My stay in London. Lord Rothschild ;
his view of Russian treatment of the Jews. Sir Julian Goldschmidt ; impres-
sion made by him. Paris ; the Vicomte de Vogue" ; funeral of Renan ; the
Duke de la Rochefoucauld. Our Minister, William Walter Phelps, and others
at Berlin ; talk with Count Shuvaloff. Arrival in St. Petersburg. Deaden-
ing influences ; paralysis of energy as seen on the railways ; little apparent
change in externals since my former visit ; change wrought by emancipation
of the serfs. Improvement in the surroundings of the Emperor. Visit to
the Foreign Office. Presentation to Alexander III ; his view of the Behring
Sea Question ; his acquiescence in the American view ; his allusion to the
Chicago Exposition. My conversation with the Archbishop of Warsaw. Con-
versation with the Empress; her reference to the Rev. Dr. Talmage. Im-
pression made upon me by the Emperor. My presentation to the heir to the
Throne, now the Emperor Nicholas II ; his evident limitations ; main cause
of these. Presentation to sundry Grand Dukes. A reminiscence of the Grand
Duke Michael. The Grand Dukes Vladimir and Alexis. The diplomatic
corps. General von Schweinitz. Sir Robert Morier; his victory over the
United States at the Paris Arbitration Tribunal ; its causes ; its lessons . . 3

Chapter XXXIV. Intercourse with Russian
Statesmen— 1892-1894

Last days of Sir Robert Morier at St. Petersburg; his last appearance at
Court. Count de Montebello. Husny Pasha. Marochetti. Count Wolken-
stein. Van Stoetwegen and his views regarding peace in Europe. Pasitch,
the Servian Minister; his two condemnations to death. Contrast between
the Chinese and Japanese representatives. Character of Russian statesmen ;
their good qualities ; their main defects. Rarity of first-class men among
them ; illustrations of this view from The Hague peace programme and from
Russian dealings with Finland and with the Baltic Provinces. M. de Giers ;
his love of peace ; strong impression made by him on me. Weakness and
worse of Russia in the Behring Sea matter. Finance Minister De Witte ; his
strength ; his early history. Difference in view between De Witte and his
predecessor Wischniegradsky. Pobedonostzeff. Dournovo. My experience



with tin- hitter. Tli.- shirking of responsibility by leading Russian officials;
their lack of enterprise. An exception; l'lehve. One good example set us
by Russia; value placed on Russian, compared with the cheapening and
prostitution of American, dtisenship 22

Ohai i; WW. "All Sobts and Conditions of
M -,-■ ra Russia— 1892-1894

The " Minister of Public Enlightenment," Dclyanoff ; his theory and system.

lity of sundrj Russians to the Russian-Germans; evident folly of this.

Daaehkofl and General Amienkoff. The Caucasian railways and

ation of Bokhara. Qalkin Wraskoy and the prison system. Orloff

Davidoff; "the funniest thing he saw In America." Professor Demetrieff's

mt of the murder of Peter til and of the relation of Catherine II to it.

Prime Berge Wolkonsky; his ability and versatility; his tour de /orce at the

farewell dinner given meal si. Petersburg; his Lectures in the United States.

an scientific men. Woeikoff. Admiral Makhai-off. Senator Semenoff
ami Prince Gregory Qalitsin. Mendeleieff. Two salons. Other attractions.

ral Ignatieff. Princess Ourousoff and her answer to Alexander III.
Prlncesa RadzivilL The copy-book used by Louis XIV when a child, pre-

i in the Imperial Library; its historical importance. The American
colony at St. Petersburg. Mr. Prince; his reminiscences of sundry American
ministers. Mr. Buchanan's satire on spies, in the Embassy Archives. Diffi-
culties of the American Representative arising from his want of a habitation.
Diplomatic questions between the two countries The Behring Sea Fisher-

My d( slings with the Commandant of the Russian Pacific Islands. Suc-

f Sir Hubert Morier; how gained. Worldly wisdom of Great Britain.
Difflcnlties regarding Israelites; my long despatch on the subject to Secretary

am. Adventurous Americans. Efforts to prostitute American citizen-
ship. Difficulties arising from the complicated law of the Empire. Viola-
tion- of the Buchanan Treaty. Cholera at St. Petersburg; thorough mea-
Bures taken by the < iovernment ; death of Tschaikovsky ; difficulty in imposing
sanitary regulations upon the peasantry .... 41

Chapteb X X X VI. My Recollections of Pobedo-
nostzeff— 1892-1894

My desire to know Pobedonostzeff; his history; bis power. Public business

which led to our meeting; his characteristics; reasons for his course; his

view of the relations of the Kusso-Creek Church to the Empire; his frank-

d speaking of the Church. His hostility to Western civilization, His

ission ol revolutionary efforts Ln Ru da. His theory of Russian public

Bis ultra reactionary views. His mingled feelings regarding

•i. His lose for American literature; his paradoxical admiration

■ i - translation of Emi r on'e " Essays" ; his literary gift. Peeling

■ l him in Russian society. His religlouc character, His esthetic char

\. Dana's impression of him. Our discussion of possible

•id English Churches; his talks upon intro

Orthodox Church" into the Unit Bis treatment

the English Reviews. His professorial friends. Bis

• ■ 1 1 n lT father l\an; miracles l.y the latter; proofs of their

legendar cfa ledonostsefTs testimony on the subject 55


Chapter XXXVII. Walks and Talks with Tolstoi —
March, 1894


Moscow revisited. Little change for the better. First visit to Tolstoi.
Curious arrangement of his household. Our first discussions ; condition of
the peasants; his view of Quakers; their "want of logic." His view of
Russian religious and general thought. Socrates as a saint in the Kremliu.
His views of the Jews ; of Russian treatment of prisoners. His interest in
American questions. Our visit to the Moscow Museum ; his remark on the
pictures for the Cathedral of Kieff ; his love for realistic religious pictures;
his depreciation of landscape painting; deep feeling shown by him before
sundry genre pictures. His estimate of Peter the Great. His acknowledg-
ment of human progress. His view of the agency of the Czar in maintain-
ing peace. His ideas regarding French literature; of Maupassant; of Balzac.
His views of American literature and the source of its strength ; his discus-
sion of various American authors and leaders in philanthropic movements;
his amazing answer to my question as to the greatest of American writers.
Our walks together; his indiscriminate almsgiving; discussion thereupon.
His view of travel. The cause of his main defects. Lack of interchange of
thought in Russia ; general result of this. Our visit to the Kremlin. His
Views of religion; questions regarding American women; unfavorable view
of feminine character. Our attendance at a funeral ; strange scenes. Fur-
' ther discussion upon religion. Visit to an "Old Believer"; beauty of his
house and its adornments ; his religious fanaticism ; its effects on Tolstoi.
His views as to the duty of educated young men in Russia. Further discus-
sion of American literature. His hope for Russian progress. His manual
labor. His view of Napoleon. His easy-going theory of warlike operations.
Our farewell. Estimate of him. His great qualities. His sincerity. Cause
of his limitations. Personal characteristics related to these. Evident evolu-
tion of his ideas. Effect of Russian civilization on sundry strong men ... 72

Chapter XXXVIII. Official Life in St. Petersburg
— 1892-1894

Difficulty in securing accurate information in Russia ; the censorship of
newspapers and books ; difficulty in ascertaining the truth on any question ;
growth of myth and legend in the Russian atmosphere of secrecy and repres-
sion. Difficulties of the American Minister arising from too great proneness
of Americans to believe Russian stories ; typical examples. American adven-
turers ; a musical apostle ; his Russian career. Relation of the Legation to
the Chicago Exposition ; crankish requests from queer people connected with
it ; danger of their bringing the Exposition into disrepute ; their final suppres-
sion. Able and gifted men and women scattered through Russian society.
Russian hospitality. Brilliant festivities at the Winter Palace ; the Blessing
of the Waters; the "palm balls"; comparison of the Russian with the Ger-
man Court. Visit of Prince Victor Napoleon to St. Petersburg ; its curious
characteristics. Visit of the Ameer of Bokhara ; singular doings of his son
and heir. Marriage of the Grand Duchess Xenia ; kindness, at the Peterhof
Palace, of an American "Nubian." Funeral of the Grand Duchess Catherine ;
beginnings of the Emperor's last illness then evident. Midnight mass on
Easter eve ; beauty of the music. The opera. Midnight excursions in the
northern twilight. Finland and Helsingfors. Moscow revisited. Visit to the
Scandinavian countries. Confidence reposed in me by President Cleveland.
My resignation 101


Chaptbb XX XIX. Aa Member of the Venezuelan
amission— 1895-1896


The Veneauelan t lommlastan | eurioua circumstances of my nomination to it
l.v President el. \. -lnii.l. Nature of the question to be decided; its previous

..,,,,.. M r . Cleveland's message. Attacks upon hira; his finnness.

us ..f the Commission; Initial difficulties; solution of them. The old

nn—tlnn between the Netherlands and Spain. .Mutt-rial at our command.

redltable featurea of the lir-t British Blue Book on the subject : British
•• i'nir play " In this and In the Behring Sea question. Distribution of duties
in the Commission. My Increased respecl for Lord Aberdeen ; boundary line

pted by him : Btriking confirmation <>f his justice and wisdom by the Ar-

■i..[i Tribunal al l'aris. Triumph of President Cleveland and Secretary
Men whom I met in Washington. Lord Pauncefote. Secretary
Carlisle; striking tribute to him by an eminent Republican; his characteris-
tics. Vice-President Btevenson; his powers as a raconteur. Senator Gray
and Mr. Omey. Visit with the American Geographical Society to Monticello;
. ni. his evidences there of Jefferson's peculiarities; beauty of the place.
\ i-n to the University of Virginia. My increasing respect for the qualities
of Mr. Cleveland 117

Chapter XL. As Ambassador to Germany — 1897-190:5

Nomination by President BicKlnley. Light thrown upon his methods by
appointments of second secretary and military attached Secretary Sherman;
'ii» referenoe to President Johnson's impeachment. Judge Harlan's refer-
ence to Dr. Burehard's alliteration. Discussions with the German ambassa-
dor an. 1 others. Change of the American legation into an embassy; its ad-
vantages and disadvantages. First interview with Emperor William II;
subjects discussed. 11 is reference to Frederick the Great's musical powers.
'I'll. Empress; happy change in the attitude of the people toward her. The
Chancellor of the Empire ; Prince Hohenlohe ; his peculiarities; his refer-
. n.-. st.> Bismarck ; his opinion of Germans. Count von Biilow, Minister of
Foreign Affairs ; resemblances between him and his father ; his characteristics
aa minister and as parliamentary Leader. Ambassadorial receptions; difficul-
mistaken policy of our government regarding residences for its repre-
sentatives. Change In < lerman public opinion toward the United States since
my ministerial days ; Ltsoauses; evidences of it during Spanish War. Mis-
representations in German and American papers, and their effects; our own

culpability as shown in the IVsseiideli case. International questions; Hai-
tian th. ory of the Monroe Doctrine. The Samoan question : furor eonaularis ;
onarj squabbles; reasonableness of Minister von Biilow. Attendance
Its characteristics; not.s on sundry members ; Posadowski;
Ui. ht.r. Bebel; Barth. The German Parliament Bouse compared with the

V..rk State Capitol 131

I rsB XL I. Ajatsrica, Germany, and the Spanish
Wm ; _ L897-1903

■ .man part in it : my dutiefl regarding it ; course ,.!'

Oley and Secretary Hay. The exclusion Of American insur-

. difficulties. American BUgar duties; our waveritiLT policy.

"; American illustration of defective German policy.



The "fruit question" and its adjustment. The Spanish-American War;
attitude of the German press ; my course under instructions ; importance of
delaying the war; conference In Paris with Ambassador Porter and Minister
Woodford; the destruction of the Maine and Its effect; conversation with
the Emperor regarding it; his view of it. My relations with the Spanish
ambassador. Visit to Dresden to present the President's congratulations to
the Saxon king; curious contretemps; festivities. Change in character of
European monarchs since Jefferson's letter to Langdon. The King of Wiir-
temborg and Grand Duke of Baden. Notes on sundry pretenders to Euro-
pean thrones. Course of German Government during our Spanish War ;
arrest of Spanish vessel at Hamburg. Good news at the Leipsic Fourth of
July celebration. Difficulties arising in Germany as the war progressed.
The protection of American citizens abroad ; prostitution of American citi-
zenship ; examples ; strengthening of the rules against pretended Americans ;
baseless praise of Great Britain at the expense of the United States. Duty
of the embassy toward American students ; admission of women to the Ger-
man universities. Efforts of various compatriots to reach the Emperor;
psychological curiosities. Changes in Berlin since my former official resi-
dence ; disappearance of many strong men ; characteristics of sundry survi-
vors ; Mommsen ; Harnack 157

Chapter XLII. America, Germany, and the Chinese
War — 1899-1902

Ex-President Harrison visits Berlin ; attention shown him by the .Emperor
and others; change in him since his Washington days. Difficulty regarding
embassy quarters ; moral. Bicentenary of the Royal Academy of Sciences ;
pomp and ceremony ; picturesque appearance of delegates ; conversation
with the Emperor on the subject; his jocose statement of his theory of the
monarchy. Coming of age of the heir to the throne ; reception of the Em-
peror of Austria-Hungary ; gala opera and opinion of the Chinese minister
regarding it ; banquet ; speeches of the two Emperors. Characteristics of
the Emperor Franz Josef; conversation with him; his views of American
questions ; prospects of his Empire. Visit from the German- American
Kriegerverein. Outbreak of the revolution in China; American policy;
commendation of it from foreign source ; my duties relating to it. Fourth
of July speech at Leipsic in 1900. Visit to America ; torrid heat at Washing-
ton ; new revelation of President McKinley's qualities ; his discussion of
public affairs. Two-hundredth anniversary of the Prussian kingdom ; cele-
bration ; my official speech ; religious ceremonies ; gala opera ; remark upon
it by the French ambassador. A personal bereavement. Vacation studies
on Fra Paolo Sarpi. Death of the Empress Frederick; her kindness to me
and mine ; conversations ; her reminiscences of Queen Victoria's relations to
American affairs ; her funeral 181

Chapter XLIII. Closing Years of My Embassy.

Berlin, Yale, Oxford, and St. Andrews — 1901-1903

Assassination of President McKinley ; its effect on German feeling. My
peculiar relations with the Chinese minister at Berlin; our discussions; my
advice to China through him ; visits from and to Prince Chun, on his expia-
tory errand. Visit to Mr. Andrew Carnegie at Skibo Castle ; evidences of
kindly British feeling regarding the death of President McKinley seen during



BgUab mill Beotefa journey; lif<- at Skiho. America revisited; Bicen-
tenary lit Y jiI.-. Am chosen t<> honorary membership In the Royal Academy
Berlin. Interview with the Emperor on my return from
Amerlea ; characteristic* of his conversation ; liis request to President Roose-
n r fear's day, 1902. Emperor's dinner to the American Embassy ;
departure of Prince Henry for the I'uited States; the Emperor's remarks
the purpose ol it. The American " open door" policy : my duties regard-
Louis Exposition ; difficulties. Short vacation in
my sixth vi-it to Venice and new researches regarding Father Paul ;
ler Robertson, Eteturn to Berlin; visit of the Shah of Persia and
the Croa n Prinoe of Siam. Am presented by the Emperor to the Crown Prin-
ny; her oharming manner and later escapade. Work with President
n in behalf of the Carnegie Institution for Research, at Washington.
Death of King Albert of Saxony ; attendance, under instructions, at his fu-
ii. -ml : Impressive ceremonial, and long sermon. The new King; impres-
bIod made by his conversation. The I Misseldorf Exposition. Attendance as
entative of Yale si the Bodleian Tercentenary at Oxford ; leeeption of
l'i I. peculiar feature of it; banquet in Christ Church Hall;
failure of my speech. Visit to the University of St. Andrews; Mr. Carnegie's
. curious but vain attempts by audience to throw him off his
guard : hi-~ >kill in dealing with them ; reception of LL.D. degree. My seven-
:ietli birthday ; kindness of friends at Berlin and elsewhere; letters from
• nt Roosevelt, Mr. Hay. Secretary of State, and Chancellor von Biilow.
My resignation at this- time in accordance with resolution made years before.
reception by the Emperor. Farewell celebration with the American
and departure. Stay at Alassio ; visits to Elba and Corsica; relics of
eon: curious monument of the vendetta between the Pozzo di Borgo
maparte families 197

Chapteb XLIV. My Eecollections of William II —

My flrsl knowledge of him : bis speech as a student at Diisseldorf : talk with

his father and mother regarding it. His appearance at court : characteristics.

His wedding and my flrsl conversation with him. Opinion regarding him in

Berlin. Growth of opinions, favorable and unfavorable, in America. His

sal of Bismarck : effect on public opinion and on my own view. Effect

me of his spe< .Ins. The " < lahgula" pamphlet. Sundry epigrams. Con-

.' my first interview with him as Ambassador. His qualities as a

His artistic gifts ; his love of music ; his dealings with dra-

f the 1 heater iii Germany. His interest in archffiologi-

cal !• on; in education; in city improvements; in improvements

thro Empire; Bundry talks with him on these subjects. His feel-

• ••nt of his reading; testimony of those nearest him.

■•■I from fads. His gifts as a statesman ; his public and private di

•• and International questions ; bis thoroughness In dealing

with army and navy questions; his interest In various navies. His broader

ing men and his strength in standing by them ;

dative bodies ; his acquaintance with men and things

' i pire and outside the Empire. Ilis devotion to work.

•' in International questions as shown in sundry con-

■n of breadth and minuteness in his views; bis large ac-

irith men. His Independen f thought ; his view of the Maine

e. Hi* impulsivi beneath it ; results of some sup-



posed exceptions. His ability as a speaker; characteristics. His religious
views ; comparison of them with those of Frederick the Great and Frederick
William 1 ; his peculiar breadth of view shown in the Delitzsch affair ; ulso in
his dealings with his Roman Catholic subjects; treatment of the Strasburg
and Metz Bishopric questions ; his skill shown in the Jerusalem church matter.
His theory of monarchy ; peculiar reasons for it ; sundry criticisms of him in
this respect. Feeling of the German people regarding attacks on the monarch.
The whole subject as viewed from the American Democratic standpoint ;
Thomas Jefferson's letter to John Adams. The Emperor's feeling toward
Parliamentary government; strength he has given it by sundry appoint-
ments. His alleged violations of the German Constitution ; doubts regard-
ing them. His alleged hostility to the United States during the Spanish War
and at other times ; facts regarding this charge. Sundry other charges
against him ; his dealings with the Venezuela question; excellent reasons for
it. His feeling toward the United States. Summary of his position in con-
temporary history . . . . 218

Chapter XLV. As President of the American Dele-
gation at the Peace Conference of The Hague : I —

Proposal of a Conference by Nicholas II. Reasons why the Netherlands were
preferred to Switzerland as its place of meeting. General misunderstanding
as to the Emperor's proposal. My own skepticism. Resultant feeling re-
garding the Conference. My acceptance of the nomination to it. Condition
of things on our arrival at The Hague. First meeting of the American Dele-
gation. Am chosen its president. General character of our instructions
from Washington. American plan of arbitration. Preliminary meetings of
delegates. The opening session. The " House in the Wood"; its remarka-
ble characteristics. Proceedings. General skepticism at first. Baron de
Staal as President of the Conference. Count Nigra. Lord Pauneefote and
others. Public spirit of the Dutch Government. Growth of hope as to a
good result. Difficulties as to disarmament. The peace lobby. Queer letters
and crankish proposals. Better ideas. M. de Bloch and his views. Count
Welsersheimb and others. Organization of the Conference. First decision
regarding the publication of our proceedings. Rumors. Attitude of Count
Munster, President of the German Delegation. Attitude of Russia and
sundry other powers regarding the American proposal for exempting private
property from seizure on the high seas. New instructions sought by us from
Washington. First presentation of the Presidents of Delegations to the
Queen; her conversation. My talk with the British Admiral, Sir John
Fisher. Real and imaginary interviews published in sundry European papers 250

Chapter XL VI. As President of the American Dele-
gation at the Peace Conference of The Hague: II

Apparent wavering of Russia regarding an arbitration scheme. Count Miin-
ster's view of the Russian proposals. Social gatherings. Influx of people
with notions, nostrums, and whimsies. First meeting of the great com-
mittee on arbitration. Presentation of the Russian plan ; its serious defects.
Successful effort of Sir Julian Pauneefote to provide for a proper court. Ex-
cellent spirit shown by the Russian delegates. Final character of the Ameri-
can project for an arbitration plan. Festival given to the Conference by the
Burgomaster and City Council of The Hague. I revisit Delft after an ab-



I c.f thirtv vi ; deep Impression made opon me by the tombs of
William the Sii. nt and Grotiua Amalgamation of the Russian, British,
ami ft ntmlnen plana for arbitration, a day iu London. Henry Irving iu

'Robespierre"; - l and evil characteristics of the piece, its un-

rieal features. Return to The Eague. The American plan of " Special
•urn" and "Seconding Powers" favorably received by the Conference.
( the amalgamated plan fur tin- Arbitration Tribunal, its re-
i from Oonnl Monster; Interesting stories of his life as Ambassa-
dor at St Petersburg; the yoang tJerman savant rescued from Siberia;
quarrel with Qortehakoff; Ins quotation from the old Grand Duke
dona In the Conference regarding asphyxiating bombs, etc.
the American delegates. Question of the exemption of private
pr opeity from seisnreat sea; difficulty in getting it before the Conference ;
t rapport given us by the Netherlands and other governments. Talk
with the leading Netherlands Delegate Van Karuebeek. Reasons why South
America was nut represented in the Conference. Line of cleavage betweeD
poiitiea] parties In the Netherlands. Fears of President BicKinley regarding
cur special mediation proposal. Continuance of hortatory letters and crauk-
lab prupusals. Discussion between American and Russian delegates on a

Online LibraryAndrew Dickson WhiteAutobiography of Andrew Dickson White .. → online text (page 1 of 54)