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property from seizure at sea ; difficulty in getting it before the Conference ;
earnest support given us by the Netherlands and other governments. Talk
with the leading Netherlands Delegate, Van Karnebeek. Reasons why South
America was not represented in the Conference. Line of cleavage between
political parties in the Netherlands. Fears of President McKinley regarding
our special mediation proposal. Continuance of hortatory letters and crank-
ish proposals. Discussion between American and Russian delegates on a
fusion of various arbitration plans. Difficulties discovered in our own ;
alteration in them obtained from the State Department. Support given by
Germany to'the American view regarding the exemption of private property

on the high seas 269



CHAPTER XL VII. As PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN DELE-
GATION AT THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF THE HAGUE : III

1899

Festival given to the Conference by the city of Haarlem. Difficulties encoun-
tered by the American proposal for the immunity of private property at sea.
Question as to what contraband of war really is in these days. Encouraging
meeting of the great committee on arbitration and mediation. Proposal to
the Secretary of State that the American pelegation lay a wreath of silver
and gold upon the tomb of Grotius at Delft. Discussion of the Brussels
Conference Rules. Great social function at the house of the British Minis-
ter ; John Bull's wise policy in sustaining the influence of his Embassies and
Legations ; its happy results so far as Great Britain is concerned. Work on
the arbitration plans progressing. Discouragement. Germany, Austria,
Italy, and some minor powers seem suddenly averse to arbitration. De-
termination of other powers to go on despite this. Relaxation of the rule of
secrecy regarding our proceedings. Further efforts in behalf of the Ameri-
can proposal for exemption of private property from seizure at sea. Out-
spoken opposition of Germany to arbitration. Resultant disappointment in
the Conference. Progress in favor of an arbitration plan notwithstanding.
Striking attitude of French socialists toward the Conference. My earnest
talk with Count Miinster in favor of arbitration ; gradual change in his atti-
tude. My suggestion to Baroness von Suttner 288

CHAPTER XL VIII. As PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN DELE-
GATION AT THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF THE HAGUE : IV

1899

Declaration against an arbitration tribunal received from their Government
by the German delegation ; their consternation ; Professor Zorn and Secre-



TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii

PAGS

tary Holls sent to Berlin ; my personal letter to Baron von Bttlow. Means
by which the Conference was kept from meeting until the return of these
two gentlemen. Festival given by the Netherlands Government to the Con-
ference. Tableaux and dances representing art and life in the Dutch prov-
inces. Splendid music. Visit to Leyden. Arrival of Speaker Reed of the
American House of Representatives. The Secretary of State authorizes our
placing a wreath of silver and gold on the tomb of Grotius. Session regard-
ing the extension of the Geneva Rules. Return of Zorn and Holls from Ber-
lin. Happy change in the attitude of Germany. Henceforward American
and German delegates work together in favor of arbitration. Question of
asphyxiating bullets and bombs ; view of Captain Mahan and Captain Crozier
on these subjects. Curious speech of the delegate from Persia, Mirza Riza
Khan. Great encouragement given by the new attitude of Germany. Prep-
aration at Delft for our Grotius celebration. Visit to Rotterdam and Dort.
Thoughts upon the Synod of Dort. Visit to the house from which John
De Witt went to prison and assassination, and where Motley wrote much of
his history. Trouble regarding the relation of Switzerland to the Red Cross
Movement. The Dufee of Tetuan. The Grotius wreath 308



CHAPTER XLIX. As PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN DELE-
GATION AT THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF THE HAGUE : V
1899

Celebration of Independence Day at Delft in the presence of the entire Con-
ference and of eminent Netherlander ; speeches by the Netherlands ministers
and American delegates ; telegram from the King of Sweden. Impressive
character of the service ; the wreath placed upon the tomb ; breakfast given
by our delegation to the Conference, at the City Hall of Delft. Presentation
of the American Memorial in behalf of the immunity of private property on
the high seas; my speech in its favor: friendly answer by M. de Martens in
behalf of Russia. Visit to M. Cornets de Groot at Ryswyck; relics of his
great ancestor; curious information regarding the latter. Dinner to the
American delegation by the prime minister of the Netherlands ; happy refer-
ence to the arbitration plan. Effects of our Grotius celebration. Great din-
ner given by the Queen to the Conference at the palace in Amsterdam ; her
speech ; her conversations afterward. General satisfaction shown at our
Grotius tribute. My conversation with Mr. Raffalovitch regarding Russian
disarmament. Its difficulties. Unfortunate article in the London " Specta-
tor " on the work of the Conference. Attack in the Conference upon the
report on disarmament. Discussion of matters subsidiary to arbitration.
Hostile attitude of the Balkan States toward the commission d'enqntte; ill
feeling quieted. Field day regarding flattening and expanding bullets ; atti-
tude of the British and American delegates. Difficulties regarding the Mon-
roe Doctrine ; special meeting called by our delegation to obviate these , ap-
parent impossibility of doing so ; project of an American declaration ; private
agreement upon it among leaders of the Conference ; agreement of the Con-
ference to it. Final signing of the conventions ; seal used by me ; reserva-
tion in behalf of the Monroe Doctrine attached to our signatures. Closing
of the Conference. Speeches of M. de Staal and Count Miinster. Draw-
ing up of our report; difficulties arising from sundry differences of opin-
ion in our delegation. Final meeting of the Conference. Remarks of the
leading representative of a Catholic power, on the correspondence between
the Vatican and the Netherlands Government which had been presented to
the Conference. Retrospect of the Conference. Summary of its results . . 327



xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER L. HINTS FOR BEFORMS IN THE DIPLOMATIC
SERVICE

PAGE

My connection with the Diplomatic Service at periods during the last forty-
five years. Questions which have been asked me regarding it ; reasons why
I have not thought it best to reply fully ; reasons why I can now do so. Im-
provement in our service since the Civil War ; its condition during various
administrations before the Civil War ; sundry examples. Mr. Seward's re-
mark. Improvement in the practice of both parties during recent years.
President Cleveland's worthy effort. Better public sentiment among the
people at large. Unjust charges of pessimists. Good points in our service
at various posts, and especially at London. Faults of our service at present.
My replies to young men anxious to fit themselves for it. Simplicity of the
most important reforms ; suggestions. Choice of Ambassadors ; of Ministers
Plenipotentiary ; of Ministers Resident ; of Secretaries of Embassy and of
Legation. Proper preparation of Secretaries ; relation of our Universities to
it ; part which should be taken in their selection by the Secretary of State.
Appointment of expert attaches. Probable good results of the system pro-
posed. Evil results of the present system. Retention of the men best fitted.
Examples of English non-partizanship in such appointments. Foremost im-
portance of proper houses or apartments, owned or leased for long terms by
the United States for each of its representatives abroad ; evil results of the
present system ; certainty of good results from the reform advocated. Pres-
ent American system contrasted with that of other nations. Services rendered
by sundry American diplomatists. Cheapness of our diplomatic establish-
ment compared with its value. Increase of salaries. Summing up of results
of all the reforms herein advocated . 355



PART VI SUNDRY JOURNEYS AND EXPERIENCES

CHAPTER LI. EARLIER EXCURSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
1838-1875

Usefulness of various journeys to me. Excursion through central and west-
ern New York in 1838 ; in middle Massachusetts, Boston, and New York City
in 1842. Impression made by Trinity Church. Beginning of visits to Sara-
toga in 1843; life there; visits of Archbishop Hughes, Father Gavazzi,
Washington Irving, Mr. Buchanan ; the Parade of Mme. Jumel. Remark-
able progress of the city of New York northward as seen at various visits.
First visit to the West. Chicago in 1858; the raising of the grade; Mr.
George Pullman's part in it. Impression made on me by the Mississippi
River. Sundry stays in Boston. Mr. Josiah Quincy. Arthur Oilman ; his
stories and speeches ; his delivery of Bishop Eastburn's sermons ; his stories
regarding the Bishop. Men met at Boston. Celebration of Bayard Taylor's
birthday with James T. Fields ; reminiscences and stories given by the com-
pany; example of Charles Sumner's lack of humor. Excursions in the
Southern States. Visit to Richmond at the close of the war ; Libby Prison ;
meeting with Dr. Bacon of New Haven at the former Executive Mansion of
the Confederacy. Visit to Gettysburg ; fearful condition of the battle-field
and its neighborhood. Visit to South Carolina, 1875. Florida. A negro
church ; discovery of a Christmas carol imbedded in a plantation hymn. Ex-
cursion up the St. Johns River. Visit to Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Col-
lection of books on the Civil War. A visit to Martha's Vineyard ; pious
amusements ;" Nearer, My God, to Thee " played as a waltz 375



TABLE OF CONTENTS xv

CHAPTEE LII. ENGLAND EEVISITED 1885

PAGE

Reason for going abroad after my resignation of the Cornell Presidency
in 1885. " Tom Brown " at sea ; sundry stories of his. Southwest of Eng-
land. Visit to the historian Freeman at Wells. The Bishop and his palace.
The Judge's dinner. The Squires in the Court of Quarter Sessions. A Glad-
stonian meeting; Freeman's speech; his defense of the last Abbot of
Glastonbury. Bishop Bickersteth at Heavitree and Exeter. The caves at
Torquay and their lessons. Worcester Cathedral and Deanery. " The Bunga-
low " of Halliwell-Phillips at Brighton. Oxford ; chapel of All Souls College ;
interesting change seen at Magdalen ; Bryce's comparisons between British
and American problems ; visits to various colleges. Discussions of university
affairs. Freeman's lectures. To Windsor. Stay with Sir Paul Hunter at
Mortimer. Visit to Bearwood. Mr. John Walter of the " Times." Visit to
" Bramshill." Cambridge. New acquaintances. Talks with Bishop Creigh-
ton and Sir Henry Maine. Beginnings of technical instruction at Cambridge.
A Greek play. Lord Lytton. Professor Seeley and his lectures. ' ' Audit
dinner" at Trinity College. Professor Mahaffy's stories of Archbishop
Whately. London. Talks with Lecky 391

CHAPTER LIII. FRANCE, ITALY, AND SWITZERLAND 1886-

1887

Mme. Blaze de Bury. From Paris to the Riviera. James Bryce. George
von Bunsen. Sir Charles Murray. Lord Acton ; discussions with the
latter ; his wide range of knowledge ; his information, regarding Father
Paul, the Congregation of the Index, etc. Sir Henry Keating and the dis-
cussion at the Cercle Nautique of Cannes. Lord Acton's view of Napoleon.
Florence ; talks with Villari. Naples ; the Doctrine of Intercession as shown
in sundry pictures. Amain. Sorrento; the Catechism of Archbishop
Apuzzo ; Francis Galton ; his discussion of dreams ; Marion Crawford ; Mr.
MayalTs story of Herbert Spencer. Visit to Monte Cassino ; talk with a novice.
Excursions in Rome with Lanciani. Cardinal Howard at St. Peter's. Dis-
cussions of Italian affairs with Minghetti, Sambuy, and others. The sculptor
Story. Non-intercourse between Vatican and Quirinal. Judge Stallo. The
Abbot of St. Paul Outside the Walls ; his minute knowledge of certain
American affairs. Count de Gubernatis, at Florence, on the legendary char-
acter of sundry Hindu marvels. Count Ressi and his Catawba wine. Al-
fieri Sostegno and his school for political and social studies. Ubaldino Pe-
ruzzi. Stay at the Italian lakes. Visit to my colleague, Minister Roth, in
Switzerland ; his duties as Landamman. The Abbey of St. Gall and its li-
brary. Visit to the Engadine. Talks with the British Admiral Irvine, at
St. Moritz ; his advocacy of war vessels with beaks. Sermon at Geneva.
Talks with Mme. Blaze de Bury and Lecky at Paris. Architectural ex-
cursions through the east of France. Outrages by "restorers" at Rheims
and at Troyes. London. Sermon by Temple, then bishop. More talks with
Lecky ; his views of Earl Russell and of Carlyle. Return to America . . . 411

CHAPTER LIV. EGYPT, GREECE, AND TURKEY 1888-1889

A great sorrow and disappointment. Court of Appeals decides the Fiske
suit, June, 1888. Reasons for going abroad. Scotland revisited. Memorable
sermon at St. Giles in Edinburgh. Cathedral towns revisited. Sermons at
Lichfield. The House of Commons; scene between the Irish leaders and
Mr. Balfour. A political meeting in Holborn. Excursions to Rugby ; to the



xvi TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

home of Gilbert White ; to the graves of Gray, Thackeray, and others. A
critic of Carlyle at Brighton. Cambridge ; interesting papers regarding the
American Revolution. Lord Aberdare's story of Frederick the Great and a
British minister. Hermit life in London ; work at the British Museum.
Journey through Italy and Egypt with Willard Fiske ; effect of Egyptian
and other Eastern experiences on me ; five weeks on the Nile ; Brugsch Bey's
account of his discovery of the royal mummies ; my visit to Artin Pasha and
the great Technical School of Cairo. Dinner with the Khedive ; my curious
blunder. American and English missionaries in Cairo and Alexandria;
Dr. Grant's lecture on the Egyptian Trinities. Mr. Nimr ; his scientific and
other activities in Egypt. My enjoyment of Saracenic architecture. Revela-
tion to me of the connection between Egyptian and Greek architecture. Dis-
appointment in the work of missionaries in Mohammedan countries. Stay
in Athens. Professor Waldstein. The American School of Archaeology.
Excursions with Walker Fearne and Professor Mahaffy. A talk with the
Greek prime minister. A function at the cathedral. Visit to Mars Hill on
Good Friday. To Constantinople. Our minister, Mr. Straus. Discussions
of art by Hamdi Bey and of literature by Sir William White. Revelations
of history and architecture in Constantinople. St. Sophia. Return to Paris.
The Exposition of 1889. The American " commission of experts " ; its good
and bad sides. Great improvement in American art. Sargent and Melchers.
Tributes, in Paris, to Lafayette and Camille Desmoulius. Walks and talks
with Senator Gibson ; our journey together to Homburg and Belgium . . . 428



CHAPTER LV. MEXICO, CALIFOKNIA, SCANDINAVIA, RUSSIA,
ITALY, LONDON, AND BERLIN 1892-1897

My stay of two years in America, Lectures at the University of Pennsyl-
vania. Archbishop Ryan's Latin pun. The Mohonk Conference and Presi-
dent Hayes. Excursion with Andrew Carnegie to Mexico, California, and
Oregon. Meetings with Cornell students. Cathedral of Mexico. Our recep-
tion by President Porfirio Diaz and his ministers. Beauty of California in
spring. Its two universities. My relations with Stanford ; pleasure in this
visit to it ; character of its buildings ; my lectures there. Visit to Salt Lake
City. To the Chicago Exposition buildings. The University of Chicago and
its work. My appointment as minister to St. Petersburg. My arrival
there on November 4, 1892. A vacation visit to the Scandinavian countries.
The University and Cathedral of Upsala. Journey through the Swedish
canals and lakes. Gothenburg. Swedish system of dealing with the sale of
intoxicating liquors ; its happy results. Throndheim ; cathedral ; evidences
of mediaeval piety and fraud. Impression made by Sweden and Norway.
New evolution of human folly in Norway. The Ethnographic Museum at
Copenhagen. Moscow revisited. Muscovite ideas of trade. My visit to Tol-
stoi. Resignation of my legation at St. Petersburg. Italy revisited. Stay
in Palermo. The Church of St. Josaphat ; identity of this saint with Buddha;
my talk regarding him with the Commendatore Marzo. Visit to the Cathe-
dral of Monreale. The mediaeval idea of creation as revealed in its mosaics.
The earthquake at Florence ; our experiences of it ; its effects in the town.
Return to America. Conversation with Holman Hunt in London. Visits to
sundry American universities ; my addresses before their students ; reasons
for publicly discussing " The Problem of High Crime " in our country. The
Venezuelan Commission. My appointment in May, 1897, as ambassador to
Germany 445



TABLE OF CONTENTS xvii



PART VII MISCELLANEOUS RECOLLECTIONS

CHAPTER LVI. THE CARDIFF GIANT: A CHAPTER IN THE
HISTORY OF HUMAN FOLLY 1869-1870

PAGE

Twofold characteristics of the central route from New York to Niagara. The
lake country of western New York. The Onondaga Valley ; characteristics
of its people; their agitation in the autumn of 1869. Discovery of the " petri-
fied giant." My visit to it ; my skepticism ; its causes. Evolution of myth
and legend. General joy in believing in the marvelous origin of the statue.
Gradual growth of a skeptical view. Confirmation of suspicions. Desperate
efforts to resist skepticism. Clear proofs of a swindle. Attempted revival of
belief in it. Alexander McWhorter ; he declares the statue a Phenician idol,
and detects a Phenician inscription upon it. View of Dr. Schlottmann, In-
structor in Hebrew at Leipsic. My answer to his inquiry. He persists in
his belief. Final acknowledgment and explanation of the whole thing as a
swindle. Sundry later efforts to imitate it 465

CHAPTER LVII. PLANS AND PROJECTS, EXECUTED AND
UNEXECUTED 1838-1905

My early reverence for authors. Youthful tendency toward literary studies.
Change in this respect during my stay at Yale. Difference between the Yale
and Harvard spirit. Senator Wolcott's speech on this. Special influence of
Parker and Carlyle upon my view of literature. My purpose in various writ-
ings. Preparations for lectures upon the French Revolution and for a book
upon its causes ; probabilities of this book at present. ' ' Paper Money Infla-
tion in France," etc. Course of lectures upon the history of Germany. Re-
sultant plan of a book ; form to be given it ; reasons for this form ; its present
prospects. My discussion of sundry practical questions. Report as Commis-
sioner at the Paris Exposition of 1878 ; resultant address on " The Provision
for Higher Instruction in Subjects Bearing Directly on Public Affairs."
Happy progress of our universities in this respect. Civil-service reform ;
speeches; article in the "North American Review." Address at Yale on
"The Message of the Nineteenth Century to the Twentieth." Some points
in the evolution of my "History of the Warfare of Science with Theology."
Projects formed during sundry vacation journeys in Europe. Lectures on the
evolution of humanity in criminal law; growth of torture in penalty and
procedure ; collection of material on the subject. Project of a small book
to be called "The Warfare of Humanity with Unreason." Vague project
during sundry stays at Florence of a history of that city ; attractive points in
such a history. Project of a Life of Father Paul Sarpi formed at Venice ; its
relinquishment ; importance of such a biography. Plan for a study on the
Life of St. Francis Xavier ; beauty of his life ; lesson taught by it regarding
the evolution of myth and legend. Project of a brief biography of Thomas
Jefferson ; partly carried out ; how formed and why discarded. Bibliograph-
ical introduction to O'Connor Morris's short history of the French Revolu-
tion. Project of a longer general bibliography of modern history transferred
to President Charles Kendall Adams. Project of book, " How Can Wealthy
Americans Best Use Their Money " ; need of such a book in the United States.
Lectures given and articles projected on " The Problem of High Crime in the
United States " ; reasons for taking up this subject. Two projects of which
I have dreamed : A brief History of the Middle Ages as an introduction to



xviii TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAOK

Modern History ; desirable characteristics of such a book ; beginnings made
of it in my lectures: " A History of Civilization in Spain " ; reasons for such
a book ; excellent material accessible ; general characteristics of such a his-
tory ; recommendation of this subject to historical scholars. Characteristics
of American life in the latter half of the nineteenth century unfavorable to
the carrying out of many extended projects. Distractions. An apologia pro
vita mea . . , . 486



PART VIII RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER LVIIL EARLY IMPRESSIONS 1832-1851

Religious ideas of the settlers in central New York. The Protestant Episco-
pal Church ; its relations to larger Christian bodies. Effects of revivalism in
them. My father and mother. A soul escaped out of the thirteenth century
into the nineteenth, Henry Gregory. My first recollections of religious
worship ; strong impressions upon me ; good effects ; some temporary evil
effects. Syracuse. My early bigotry ; check in it ; reaction. Family influ-
ences. Influence of sundry sermons and occurrences. Baptismal regener-
ation. My feelings as expressed by Lord Bacon. The " Ursuline Manual "
and its revelation. Effects of sectarian squabbles and Sunday-school zeal.
Bishop DeLancey ; his impressive personality. Effects of certain books. Life
at a little sectarian college. Results of " Christian Evidences " 513



CHAPTER LIX. IN THE NEW ENGLAND ATMOSPHERE
1851-1853

Influence of New England Congregationalism at Yale. Butler's " Analogy."
Revivals. Sermons and prayers in the college pulpit. Noble efforts of
sundry professors, especially sermons of Horace Bushnell and President
Woolsey. The recital of creeds. Effects of my historical reading. Injury
done the American Church at that period by its support of slavery ; notable
exceptions to this. Samuel J. May. Beecher. Chapin. Theodore Parker.
Influence of the latter upon me. Especial characteristics of Beecher as shown
then and afterward. Chapin and his characteristics. Horace Greeley as a
church-goer; strain upon his Universalism. Dr. Leonard Bacon. Bishop
Alonzo Potter. Archbishops Bedini and Hughes ; powerful sermon by the
latter ; Father Gavazzi's reply to it 529

CHAPTER LX. IN THE EUROPEAN ATMOSPHERE 1853-
1856

Student life in Europe. My susceptibility to religious architecture, music,
and the nobler forms of ceremonial. Beauties of the Anglican service.
Sundry experiences in European cathedrals and English university chapels.
Archbishop Sumner. Bishop Wilberforce. My life in a Roman Catholic
family in Paris. Noble work of the Archbishop of Paris. Sibour ; his assas-
sination. German Protestantism as seen in Berlin. Earnest character of
Roman Catholic worship in central Germany. The Russo-Greek Church as
seen in Russia ; beauty of its service ; its unfortunate influence on the peo-
ple. Roman Catholicism in Italy ; its wretched condition when I first saw it ;



TABLE OF CONTENTS xix

PAGE

irreverence of prelates at an Easter high mass in St. Peter's. Pius IX; ef-
fectiveness of the ceremonial in which he took part; Lord Odo Russell's
reminiscence of him. A low mass at Pisa and its effect. An effort at pros-
elytism in Rome; Father Cataldi. Condition of Rome at that time.
Improvements since. Naples and " King Bomba " ; Robert Dale Owen's state-
ment to me. Catechism promoted by the Archbishop of Sorrento. Lique-
faction of the blood of St. Januarius ; remark of a bystander to me. The
doctrine of "intercession" illustrated. Erasmus's colloquy of "The Ship-
wreck." Moral condition of Naples. Influence of this Italian experience upon
my religious views 542



CHAPTER LXI. IN LATER YEARS 1856-1905

My relations with Professor Fisher at New Haven ; his good influence. My
interest in church work as a professor at the University of Michigan ; am
asked to select a rector; my success. Readings in ecclesiastical history;
effect of these. Sale's Koran. Fra Paolo Sarpi's " History of the Council of
Trent." Dean Stanley's "Eastern Church." Bossuet, Spalding, Balmez,
Buckle, Lecky, Draper, the Darwinian hypothesis. Special influence of Stan-
ley's " Life of Arnold," Robertson's Sermons, and other works. Good in-
fluences from sundry Methodists. Exceptions taken by individuals to sundry



Online LibraryAndrew Dickson WhiteAutobiography of Andrew Dickson White (Volume 2) → online text (page 2 of 54)