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there being in it not only a survival of various mediaeval
procedures, but many elements of solemnity and beauty;
and the funeral, which took place at the court church in
the evening, was especially impressive. Before the high
altar stood the catafalque ; in front of it, the crown, scep-
ter, orb, and other emblems of royalty; and at its sum-
mit, the coffin containing the body of the King. Around
this structure were ranged lines of soldiers and pages in


picturesque uniforms and bearing torches. Facing these
were the seats for the majesties, including the new King,
who had at his right the Emperor of Austria, and at his
left the German Emperor, while next these were the seats
of foreign ambassadors and other representatives. Of
all present, the one who seemed least in accord with hi j
surroundings was the nephew of the old and the son of
the new King, Prince Max, who was dressed simply as
a priest, his plain black gown in striking contrast with
the gorgeous uniforms of the other princes immediately
about him. The only disconcerting feature was the ser-
mon. It was given by one of the priests attached to the
court church, and he evidently considered this an occa-
sion to be made much of; for instead of fifteen minutes,
as had been expected, his sermon lasted an hour and
twenty minutes, much to the discomfort of the crowd of
officials, who were obliged to remain standing from
beginning to end, and especially to the chagrin of the
two Emperors, whose special trains and time-tables, as
well as the railway arrangements for the general public,
were thereby seriously deranged.

But all fatigues were compensated by the music. The
court choir of Dresden is famous, and for this occasion
splendid additions had been made both to it and to the
orchestra; nothing in its way could be more impressive,
and as a climax came the last honors to the departed
King, when, amid the music of an especially beautiful
chorus, the booming of artillery in the neighboring square,
and the tolling of the bells of the city on all sides, the
royal coffin slowly sank into the vaults below.

On the following morning I was received by the new
King. He seemed a man of sound sense, and likely to
make a good constitutional sovereign. Our talk was
simply upon the relations of the two countries, during
which I took pains to bespeak for my countrymen so-
journing at Dresden the same kindnesses which the de-
ceased King had shown them.

During the summer a study of some of the most im-


portant industries at the Diisseldorf Exposition proved
useful; but somewhat later other excursions had a more
direct personal interest; for within a few hours of each
other came two unexpected communications : one from the
president of Yale University, commissioning me to rep-
resent my Alma Mater at the tercentenary of the Bodleian
at Oxford ; the other from the University of St. Andrews,
inviting me to the installation of Mr. Andrew Carnegie
as lord rector of that institution; and both these I ac-

The celebration at Oxford was in every way interesting
to me; but I may say frankly that of all things which
gave me pleasure, the foremost was the speech of pres-
entation, in the Sheldonian Theatre, when the doctorate
of civil law was conferred upon me. The first feature
in this speech, assigning the reasons for conferring the
degree, was a most kindly reference to my part in estab-
lishing the Arbitration Tribunal at the International Con-
ference of The Hague ; and this, of course, was gratifying.
But the second half of the speech touched me more nearly ;
for it was a friendly appreciation of my book regarding
the historical relations between science and theology in
Christendom. This was a surprise indeed ! Years before,
when writing this book, I had said to myself, * * This ends
all prospect of friendly recognition of any work I may
ever do, so far as the universities and academies of the
world are concerned. But so be it; what I believe I will
say." And now, suddenly, unexpectedly, came recog-
nition and commendation in that great and ancient center
of religious thought and sentiment, once so reactionary,
where, within my memory, even a man like Edward
Everett was harshly treated for his inability to accept the
shibboleths of orthodoxy.

This reviving of old and beginning of new friendships,
with the hearty hospitality lavished- upon us from all
sides, left delightful remembrances. Several times, dur-
ing the previous fifty years, I had visited Oxford and
been cordially welcomed; but this greeting surpassed all

BERLIN, OXFORD, ST. ANDREWS- 1901-1903 209

There was, indeed, one slight mishap. Being called
upon to speak in behalf of the guests at the great dinner
in Christ Church Hall, I endeavored to make a point
which I thought new and perhaps usefully suggestive.
Having referred to the increasing number of international
congresses, expositions, conferences, academic commem-
orations, anniversaries, and the like, I dwelt briefly on
their agency in generating friendships between men of
influence in different countries, and therefore in maintain-
ing international good will ; and then especially urged, as
the pith and point of my speech, that such agencies had
recently been made potent for peace as never before. In
support of this view, I called attention to the fact that the
Peace Conference at The Hague had not only established
an arbitration tribunal for preventing war, but had gained
the adhesion of all nations concerned to a number of ar-
rangements, such as international "Commissions of In-
quiry, ' ' the system of ' ' Seconding Powers, ' ' and the like,
for delaying war, thus securing time during which better
international feelings could assert themselves, and rea-
sonable men on either side could work together to bring
in the sober second thought ; that thereby the friendships
promoted by these international festivities had been given,
as never before, time to assert themselves as an effective
force for peace against jingo orators, yellow presses, and
hot-heads generally ; and finally, in view of this increased
efficiency of such gatherings in promoting peace, I urged
that they might well be multiplied on both sides of the
Atlantic, and that as many delegates as possible should be
sent to them.

' ' A poor thing, but mine own. ' ' Alas ! next day, in the
press, I was reported as simply uttering the truism that
such gatherings increase the peaceful feeling of nations;
and so the main point of my little speech was lost. But
it was a slight matter, and of all my visits to Oxford, this
will remain in my memory as the most delightful. 1

The visit to St. Andrews was also happy. After the

ir The full speech has since been published in the "Yale Alumni Weekly."


principal of the university had conferred the doctorate of
laws upon several of the guests, including Mr. Choate, the
American ambassador at London, and myself, Mr. Car-
negie gave his rectorial address. It was decidedly origi-
nal, its main feature being an argument in behalf of a
friendly union of the United States and Great Britain
in their political and commercial policy, and for a simi-
lar union between the Continental European nations for
the protection of their industries and for the promotion
of universal peace, with a summons to the German Em-
peror to put himself at the head of the latter. It was
prepared with skill and delivered with force. Very amus-
ing were the attempts of the great body of students to
throw the speaker off his guard by comments, questions,
and chaff. I learned later that, more than once, orators
has thus been entrapped or entangled, and that on one
occasion an address had been completely wrecked by such
interruptions ; but Mr. Carnegie 's Scotch- Yankee wit car-
ried him through triumphantly: he met all these efforts
with equanimity and good humor, and soon had the au-
dience completely on his side.

Returning to Berlin, there came preparations for clos-
ing my connection with the embassy. I had long before
decided that on my seventieth birthday I would cease to
hold any official position whatever. Pursuant to that reso-
lution, my resignation had been sent to the President, with
the statement that it must be considered final. In return
came the kindest possible letters from him and from the
Secretary of State; both of them attributing a value to
my services much beyond anything I would dare claim.

On my birthday came a new outburst of kindness.
From all parts of Europe and America arrived letters
and telegrams, while from the Americans in various parts
of Germany especially from the Berlin colony came a
superbly engrossed address, and with it a succession of
kindly visitors representing all ranks in Berlin society.
One or two of these testimonials I may be pardoned for
especially mentioning. Some time after the letter from

BERLIN, OXFORD, ST. ANDREWS- 1901-1903 211

President Roosevelt above mentioned, there had come
from him a second epistle, containing a sealed envelop
on which were inscribed the words: "To be opened on
your seventieth birthday." Being duly opened on the
morning of that day, it was found to be even more heartily
appreciative than his former letter, and the same was
found to be true of a second letter by the Secretary of
State, Mr. Hay ; so that I add these to the treasures to be
handed down to my grandchildren.

Shortly afterward came a letter from the chancellor
of the empire, most kindly appreciative. It will be placed,
with those above referred to, at the close of this chapter.

Especially noteworthy also was the farewell dinner
given me at the Kaiserhof by the German- American As-
sociation. Never had I seen so many Germans eminent
in politics, diplomacy, literature, science, art, education,
and commerce assembled on any single occasion. Hearty
speeches were made by the minister of the interior, Count
Posadowsky, who presided, and by Professor Harnack of
the university, who had been selected to present the con-
gratulations of my entertainers. I replied at length, and
as in previous speeches during my career, both as min-
ister and ambassador, I had endeavored to present to my
countrymen at home and abroad the claims of Germany
upon American good will, I now endeavored to reveal to
the great body of thinking Germans some of the deeper
characteristics and qualities of the American people; my
purpose being in this, as in previous speeches, to bring
about a better understanding between the two nations.

The Emperor being absent in England, my departure
from Berlin was delayed somewhat beyond the time I
had fixed ; but on the 27th of November came my final day
in office. In the morning my wife and myself were re-
ceived in special audience by both the sovereigns, who
afterward welcomed us at their table. Both showed un-
affected cordiality. The Emperor discussed with me
various interesting questions in a most friendly spirit,
and, on my taking leave, placed in my hands what is


known as the ''Great Gold Medal for Art and Science,"
saying that he did this at the request of his advisers in
those fields, and adding assurances of his own which
greatly increased the value of the gift. Later in the day
came a superb vase from the royal manufactory of porce-
lain, bearing his portrait and cipher, as a token of per-
sonal good will.

On the same evening was the American Thanksgiv-
ing dinner, with farewells to and from the American col-
ony, and during the following days farewell gatherings
at the houses of the dean of the ambassadors, the secretary
of state for foreign affairs, and the chancellor of the em-
pire; finally, on the evening of December 5, with hearty
good-byes at the station from a great concourse of my dip-
lomatic colleagues and other old friends, we left Berlin.

Our first settlement was at a pretty villa at Alassio,
on the Italian Riviera; and here, in March, 1903, looking
over my garden, a mass of bloom, shaded by palms and
orange-trees in full bearing, and upon the Mediterranean
beyond, I settled down to record these recollections of
my life making excursions now and then into interest-
ing parts of Italy.

As to these later journeys, one, being out of the beaten
track, may be worth mentioning. It was an excursion in
the islands of Elba and Corsica. Though anything but
a devotee of Napoleon, I could not but be interested in
that little empire of his on the Italian coast, and espe-
cially in the town house, country-seat, and garden where
he planned the return to Europe which led to the final

More interesting still was the visit to Corsica and, es-
pecially, to Ajaccio. There the traveler stands before
the altar where Napoleon's father and mother were mar-
ried, at the font where he was baptized, in the rooms
where he was born, played with his brothers during his
boyhood, and developed various scoundrelisms during his
young manhood : the furniture and surroundings being as
they were when he knew them.


Just around the corner from the house in which the
Bonapartes lived was the more stately residence of the
more aristocratic family of Pozzo di Borgo. It interested
me as the nest in which was reared that early playmate
and rival of Napoleon, who afterward became his most
virulent, persistent, and successful enemy, who pursued
him through his whole career as a hound pursues a wolf,
and who at last aided most effectively in bringing him

After exhausting the attractions of Ajaccio, we drove
up a broad, well-paved avenue, gradually rising and .curv-
ing until, at a distance of six or seven miles, it ended
at the country-seat of this same family of Pozzo di Borgo,
far up among the mountains. There, on a plateau com-
manding an amazing view, and in the midst of a superb
park, we found the rural retreat of the family; but, to
our surprise, not a castle, not a villa, not like any other
building for a similar purpose in Italy or anywhere else
in the world, but a Parisian town house, recently erected
in the style of the Valois period, with Mansard roof. As
we approached it, I was struck by architectural details
even more at variance with the surroundings than was
the general style of the building: all its exterior decora-
tion presenting the features of a pavilion from the old
Tuileries at Paris ; and in the garden hard by we found
battered and blackened fragments of pilasters, shown by
the emblems and ciphers upon them to have come from
that part of the Tuileries once inhabited by Napoleon.
The family being absent, we were allowed to roam through
the house, and there found the statues, paintings, tapes-
tries, books, and papers of Napoleon's arch-enemy, the
great Pozzo di Borgo himself, all of them more or less
connected with the great struggle. There, too, in the li-
brary were collected the decorations bestowed upon him
by all the sovereigns of Europe for his successful zeal in
hunting down the common enemy "the Corsican Ogre."
The palace, inside and out, is a monument to the most
famous of Corsican vendettas.


My two winters at Alassio after leaving Berlin, though
filled with deferred work, were restful. During a visit
to America in 1903, 1 joined my class at Yale in celebrat-
ing its fiftieth anniversary, giving there a public address
entitled "A Patriotic Investment." The main purpose
of this address was to promote the establishment of Pro-
fessorships of Comparative Legislation in our leading
universities. I could not think then, and cannot think
now, of any endowment likely to be more speedily and
happily fruitful in good to the whole country. In the
spring of 1904 I returned to my old house on the grounds
of Cornell University, and there, with my family, old as-
sociates, and new friends about me, have devoted myself
to various matters long delayed, and especially to writ-
ing sundry articles in the ' ' Atlantic Monthly, ' ' the * ' Cen-
tury Magazine, ' ' and various other periodicals, and to the
discharge of my duties as a Trustee of Cornell and as a
Regent of the Smithsonian Institution and a Trustee of
the Carnegie Institution at Washington. It is, of course,
the last of my life, but I count myself happy in living to
see so much of good accomplished and so much promise of
good in every worthy field of human effort throughout
our country and indeed throughout the world.

Following are the letters referred to in this chapter.





August 5, 1902.

It is with real regret that I accept your resignation, for I
speak what is merely a self-evident truth when I say that we
shall have to look with some apprehension to what your suc-
cessor does, whoever that successor may be, lest he fall short of
the standard you have set.

It is a very great thing for a man to be able to feel, as you
will feel when on your seventieth birthday you prepare to leave


the Embassy, that you have been able to serve your country
as it has been served by but a very limited number of people in
your generation. You have done much for it in word and in
deed. You have adhered to a lofty ideal and yet have been abso-
lutely practical and, therefore, efficient, so that you are a per-
petual example to young men how to avoid alike the Scylla of in-
difference and the Charybdis of efficiency for the wrong. . . .
With regards and warm respect and admiration,

Faithfully yours,


Ambassador to Germany,
Berlin, Germany.




September 15, 1902.

Will you read the inclosed on your seventieth birthday?
have sealed it so you can break the seal then.

Faithfully yours,


U. S. Ambassador,
Berlin, Germany.




September 15, 1902.

On the day you open this you will be seventy years old. I
cannot forbear writing you a line to express the obligation which
all the American people are under to you. As a diplomat you
have come in that class whose foremost exponents are Benja-


min Franklin and Charles Francis Adams, and which numbers
also in its ranks men like Morris, Livingston, and Pinckney. As
a politician, as a publicist, and as a college president you have
served your country as only a limited number of men are able
to serve it. You have taught by precept, and you have taught
by practice. We are all of us better because you have lived
and worked, and I send you now not merely my warmest well-
wishes and congratulations, but thanks from all our people for
all that you have done for us in the past.

Faithfully yours,

U. S. Ambassador,
Berlin, Germany.



August 3, 1902.

I have received your very kind letter of the 21st July, which
is the first intimation I have had of your intention to resign
your post of ambassador to Germany. I am sorry to hear the
country is to lose your services in the place you have filled with
such distinguished ability and dignity. It is a great thing to
say as it is simple truth to say it that you have, during your
residence in Berlin, increased the respect felt for America not
only in Germany but in all Europe. You have thus rendered
a great public service, independent of all the details of your
valuable work. The man is indeed fortunate who can go through
a long career without blame, and how much more fortunate if
he adds great achievement to blamelessness. You have the sin-
gular felicity of having been always a fighting man, and hav-
ing gone through life without a wound.

I congratulate you most on your physical and mental ability
to enjoy the rest you have chosen and earned. . . .

My wife joins me in cordial regards to Mrs. White, and I am
always, Faithfully yours,

(Signed) JOHN HAY.



WASHINGTON, November 7, 1902.

I cannot let the day pass without sending you a word of cor-
dial congratulation on the beginning of what I hope will be the
most delightful part of your life. Browning long ago sang,
' ' The best is yet to be, ' ' and, certainly, if world-wide fame,
troops of friends, a consciousness of well-spent years, and a
great career filled with righteous achievement are constituents
of happiness, you have everything that the heart of man could

Yours faithfully,

(Signed) JOHN HAY.

His Excellency ANDREW D. WHITE, etc., etc., etc.


Wilhelm Str. 77.

On the occasion of this memorable day, I beg to send you my
best wishes. May God grant you perfect health and happiness.
Be assured that I always shall remember the excellent relations
which have joined us during so many years, and accept the assur-
ance of the highest esteem and respect of your most affectionate

7 Nov. 1902.



AT various times since my leaving the Berlin Embassy
r\ various friends have said to me, * ' Why not give us
something definite regarding the German Emperor?"
And on my pleading sundry difficulties and objections,
some of my advisers have recalled many excellent pre-
cedents, both American and foreign, and others have
cited the dictum, "The man I don't like is the man I
don't know."

The latter argument has some force with me. Much
ill. feeling between the United States and Germany has
had its root in misunderstandings; and, as one of the
things nearest my heart since my student days has been a
closer moral and intellectual relation between the two
countries, there is, perhaps, a reason for throwing into
these misunderstandings some light from my own expe-

My first recollections of the present Emperor date from
the beginning of my stay as minister at Berlin, in 1879.
The official presentations to the Emperor and Empress of
that period having been made, there came in regular order
those to the crown prince and princess, and on my way
to them there fell into my hands a newspaper account
of the unveiling of the monument to the eminent painter
Cornelius, at Diisseldorf, the main personage in the cere-
mony being the young Prince William, then a student at
Bonn. His speech was given at some length, and it im-
pressed me. There was a certain reality of conviction



and aspiration in it which seemed to me so radically
different from the perfunctory utterances usual on such
occasions that, at the close of the official interview with
his father and mother, I alluded to it. Their response
touched me. There came at once a kindly smile upon the
father's face, and a glad sparkle into the mother's eyes:
pleasing was it to hear her, while showing satisfaction and
pride, speak of her anxiety before the good news came,
and of the embarrassments in the way of her son at his
first public address on an occasion of such importance;
no less pleasing was it to note the father 's happy acquies-
cence : there was in it all a revelation of simple home feel-
ing and of wholesome home ties which clearly indicated
something different from the family relations in sundry
royal houses depicted by court chroniclers.

Not long afterward the young prince appeared at some
of the court festivities, and I had many opportunities to
observe him. He seemed sprightly, with a certain exu-
berance of manner in meeting his friends which was not
unpleasing; but it was noticeable that his hearty saluta-
tions were by no means confined to men and women of
his own age; he was respectful to old men, and that is
always a good sign ; it could be easily seen, too, that while
he especially sought the celebrities of the Franco-Prus-
sian War, he took pains to show respect to men eminent
in science, literature, and art. There seemed a healthy,
hearty life in him well befitting a young man of his po-
sition and prospects : very different was he from the heir
to the throne in another country, whom I had occasion
to observe at similar functions, and who seemed to regard
the whole human race with indifference.

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