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from his country to the Quirinal was one of his best
friends, he was not allowed to accept an invitation from

The American minister, Judge Stallo of Cincinnati,
seemed to me an admirable man, in spite of the stories
circulated by various hostile cliques. At the house of the
British ambassador Stallo spoke in a very interesting way
of Cardinal Hohenlohe as far above his fellows and ca-
pable of making a great pope. The political difficulties
in Italy, he said, were very great, and, greatest of all, in
Naples and Sicily. Dining with him, I met my old friend
Hoffmann, rector of the University of Berlin, and a num-
ber of eminent Italian men of science, senators, and

At the house of Dr. Nevin, rector of the American
Episcopal church, I met the Dutch minister, who corrobo-
rated my opinion that the British parliamentary system
generally works badly in the Continental countries, since
it causes constantly recurring changes in ministers, and
prevents any proper continuity of state action, and he
naturally alluded to the condition of things in France
as an example.

Among other interesting people, I met the abbot of St.
Paul Outside the Walls, to whom Lord Acton, in re-
sponse to my question as to whether there was such a
thing as a "learned Benedictine" extant, had given me
a letter of introduction. The good abbot turned out to
be an Irishman with some of the more interesting pecu-
liarities of his race ; but his conversation was more vivid


than illuminating. He had reviewed various books for the
Congregation of the Index, one of these, a book which I
had just bought, being on "The Architecture of St. John
Lateran." He held a position in the Propaganda, and I
was greatly struck by his minute knowledge of affairs
in the United States. The question being then unde-
cided as to whether a new bishopric for central New York
was to be established at Utica or Syracuse, he discussed
both places with much minute knowledge of their claims
and of the people residing in them. I put in the best
word I could for Syracuse, feeling that if a bishopric was
to be established, that was the proper place for it; and
afterward I had the satisfaction of learning that the
bishop had been placed there. The abbot had known Sec-
retary Seward and liked him.

Leaving Rome in May, we made visits of deep interest
to Assisi, Perugia, Orvieto, and other historic towns,
and, arriving at Florence again, saw something of society
in that city. Count de Gubernatis, the eminent scholar,
who had just returned from India, was eloquent in praise
of the Taj Mahal, which, of all buildings in the world,
is the one I most desire to see. He thinks that the stories
regarding juggling in India have been marvelously de-
veloped by transmission from East to West; that grow-
ing the mango, of which so much is said, is a very poor
trick, as is also the crushing, killing, and restoration to
life of a boy under a basket; that these marvels are
not at all what the stories report them to be; that it is
simply another case of the rapid growth of legends by
transmission. He said that hatred for England remains
deep in India, and that caste spirit is very little altered,
his own servant, even when very thirsty, not daring to
drink from a bottle which his master had touched.

Dining with Count Ressi at his noble villa on the slope
toward Fiesole, I noted various delicious Italian wines
upon the table, but the champagne was what is known
as " Pleasant Valley Catawba," from Lake Keuka in
western New York, which the count, during his journey


to Niagara, had found so good that he had shipped a
quantity of it to Florence.

A very interesting man I found in the Marquis Alfieri
Sostegno, vice-president of the Senate, a man noted for
his high character and his writings. He is the founder
of the new "School for Political and Social Studies,"
and gave me much information regarding it. His fam-
ily is of mediaeval origin, but he is a liberal of the Cavour
sort. Preferring constitutional monarchy, but thinking
democracy inevitable, he asks, "Shall it be a democracy
like that of France, excluding all really leading men
from power, or a democracy influenced directly by its
best men?" In his school he has attempted to train
young men in the practical knowledge needed in public
affairs, and hopes thus to prepare them for the inevi-
table future. This college has encountered much oppo-
sition from the local universities, but is making its way.

Another man of the grand old Italian sort was Peruzzi,
syndic of Florence, a former associate of Cavour, and
one of the leading men of Italy. Calling for me with
two other senators, he took me to his country villa, which
has been in the possession of the family for over four
hundred years, and there I dined with a very distin-
guished company. Everything was large and patri-
archal, but simple. The discussions, both at table and
afterward, as we sat upon the terrace with its wonder-
ful outlook over one of the richest parts of Tuscany,
mainly related to Italian matters. All seemed hopeful
of a reasonable solution of the clerical difficulty. Most
interesting was his wife, Donna Emilia, well known for
her brilliant powers of discussion and her beautiful
qualities as a hostess both at the Peruzzi palace in Flor-
ence and in this villa, where one meets men of light
and leading from every part of the world.

From Florence we went on to the Italian lakes, staying
especially at Baveno, Lugano, and Cadenabbia. Espe-
cially interesting to me were the scenes depicted in the
first part of Manzoni's "Promessi Sposi." An eminent


Italian told me at this time that Manzoni never forgave
himself for his humorous delineations of the priest Don
Abbondio, who figures in these scenes after a somewhat
undignified fashion. Interesting also was a visit to
the tomb of Eosmini, with its portrait-statue by Vela,
in the monastery looking over the most beautiful part
of the Lago Maggiore. Thence by the St. Gotthard
to Zurich, where we visited my old colleague, Colonel
Roth, the Swiss minister at Berlin. Very simple and
charming was his family life at Teufen. In the library
I noticed a curious shield, and upon it several swords,
each with an inscription; and, on my asking regarding
them, I was told that they were the official swords of Colo-
nel Roth's great-grandfather, grandfather, father, and
himself, each of whom had been Landamman of the can-
ton. He told me that as Landamman he presided from
time to time over a popular assembly of several thousand
people; that it was a republic such as Rousseau advo-
cated, all the people coming together and voting, by
"yes" and "no" and showing of hands, on the proposals
of the Landamman and his council. Driving through the
canton, I found that, while none of the people were rich,
few were very poor, and that the Catholic was much be-
hind the Protestant part in thrift and prosperity.

My love for historical studies interested me greatly
in a visit to the Abbey of St. Gall. The mediaeval build-
ings are virtually gone, and a mass of rococo construc-
tions have taken their place. Gone, too, in the main,
is the famous library of the middle ages ; but the eminent
historian and archivist, Henne Am Rhyn, showed me the
ancient catalogue dating from the days of Charlemagne,
and one or two of the old manuscripts referred to in it,
which have done duty for more than a thousand years.
Then followed my second visit to the Engadine, reached by
two days ' driving in the mountains from Coire ; and dur-
ing my stay at St. Moritz I made the acquaintance of many
interesting people, among them Admiral Irvine of the
British navy. Speaking of the then recent sinking of


the Cunarder Oregon, he expressed the opinion that a
squadron of seven-hundred-ton vessels with beaks could
best defend a harbor from ironclads; and in support of
this contention he cited an experience of his own as
showing the efficiency of the beak in naval warfare. A
few years before he had anchored in the Piraeus, his ship,
an ironclad, having a beak projecting from the bow,
of course under water. Noticing a Greek brig nearing
him, he made signals to her to keep well off; but the
captain of the brig, resenting this interference, and keep-
ing straight on, endeavored to pass, at a distance which,
no doubt, seemed to him perfectly safe, in front of the
bows of the ironclad. The admiral said that not the
slightest shock was felt on board his own vessel ; but the
brig sank almost immediately. She had barely grazed
the end of the beak. At another time the admiral spoke
of the advance of the British fleet, in which he held a
command, upon Constantinople in 1878. The British
Government supposed that the Turks had virtually gone
over to the Eussians, and the first order was to take
the Turkish fortresses at Constantinople immediately;
but this order was afterward withdrawn, and the matter
at issue was settled in the ensuing European conference.

It was a pleasure to find at this Alpine resort my old
friend Story the sculptor. He gave us a comical account
of the presentation at the Vatican of Mr. George Peabody
by Mr. Winthrop of Boston. Eef erring to Mr. Peabody 's
munificence to various institutions for aiding the needy,
and especially orphans, Mr. Winthrop, in a pleasant vein,
presented his friend to Pope Pius IX as a gentleman who,
though unmarried, had hundreds of children ; whereupon
the Pope, taking him literally, held up his hands and an-
swered, "Fidonc! ft done!"

Our stay at St. Moritz was ended by a severe snow-
storm early in August. That was too much. I had left
America mainly to escape snow ; my traveling all this dis-
tance was certainly not for the purpose of finding it
again; and so, having hugged the stove for a day or


two, I decided to return to a milder climate. Passing by
Vevey, we visited our friends the Brunnows at their beau-
tiful villa on the shore of Lake Leman, where my old
president at the University of Michigan, Dr. Tappan,
had died, and it was with a melancholy satisfaction that
I visited his grave in the cemetery hard by.

Stopping at Geneva over Sunday, I observed at the
Cathedral of St. Peter, Calvin's old church, that the ser-
mon and service carefully steered clear of the slightest
Trinitarian formula, as did the churches in Switzerland
generally. Considering that Calvin had burned Servetus
in that very city for his disbelief in the doctrine of the
Trinity, this omission would seem enough to make that
stern reformer turn in his grave. Returning to Paris,
I again met Lecky, who was making a short visit to the
French capital; and, as we were breakfasting together,
Mme. Blaze de Bury being present, our conversation
fell on Parisian mobs. She insisted that the studied in-
action of the papal nuncio during the Commune caused
the murder of Darboy, Archbishop of Paris, who was
hated by the extreme clerical party on account of his
coolness toward infallibility and sundry other dogmas
advocated by the Jesuits. Lecky thought Lord Acton's
old article in the "North British Review" the best
statement yet made on the St. Bartholomew massacre.
The discussion having veered toward the Jewish ques-
tion, which was even then rising, Lecky said that Shak-
spere probably never saw a Jew that Jews were not
allowed in England in his time, the only exceptions being
Queen Elizabeth's physician and, perhaps, a few others.

During the latter part of September I started on an
architectural tour through the east of France, and was
more than ever fascinated by the beauty of all I found
at Soissons, Laon, Chalons, Troyes, and Rheims, the
cathedral at the latter place seeming even more grand
than when I last saw it. I have never been able to de-
cide finally which is the more noble Amiens or Rheims;
my temporary decision being generally in favor of that


one of the two which I have seen last. But I found in-
iquity triumphant: the "restorers" had been at work,
and had apparently done their worst. A great scaffold-
ing covered the superb rose-window of the west front,
perhaps the finest of its kind in Christendom, and, in
a little book published by one of the canons, I soon
learned the reason. It appears that the architect super-
intending the "restoration" had dug a deep well at one
corner of one of the massive towers for the purpose
of inspecting the foundations; that he had forgotten to
fill this well ; and that, during the winter, the water from
the roofs, having come down into it and frozen, had up-
heaved the tower at one corner, with the result of crum-
bling and cracking this immense window adjacent.

At Troyes it was hardly better. It is a city which
probably never had sixty thousand inhabitants, and yet
here are four of the most magnificent architectural mon-
uments in Europe. But the work wrought upon them
under the pretext of "restoration" was no less atrocious
than that upon the cathedral at Rheims, and of this I
have given an example elsewhere. 1

Continuing my way homeward, I stopped a few days
in London. From my diary I select an account of the
sermon preached in one of the principal churches of
the city by Dr. Temple, then bishop of London, but later
archbishop of Canterbury, before the lord mayor, lady
mayoress, and other notable people. The sermon was a
striking exhibition of plain common sense, without one
particle of what is generally known as spirituality. The
text was, ' f Freely ye have received, freely give, ' ' and the
argument simply was that the congregation worshiping
in that old church had received all its privileges from
contributions made centuries before, and that it was now
their duty, in their turn, to contribute money for new
congregations constantly arising in the new population
of London. Of spiritual gifts to be acknowledged no-
thing was said. In the afternoon took tea with Lecky,

1 See Chapter XXI, p. 376.


and on my referring to Earl Russell, he spoke of him
as wonderful in getting at the center of an argument.
Of Carlyle he said that he knew him in his last days in-
timately, often walking with him ; but that his mind failed
him sadly; that the last thing Lecky read him was a se-
lection from Burns 's letters ; and that Carlyle, when left
to himself, often toned down his harsh judgments of men.
At his funeral, in Scotland, Lecky was present, and,
judging from his account, it was one of the most dismal
things ever known. Speaking of America, Lecky said
that Carlyle was really deeply attached to Emerson ; and
he added that Dean Stanley, on his return from America,
told him that the best things he found there were the
private libraries, and the worst the newspapers. Lecky
thought Americans more prone to give themselves up
to a purely literary life than are the English, and cited
Prescott, Irving, and others. He spoke of "The Club,"
of which he is a member. It is that to which Sir Joshua
Reynolds, Dr. Johnson, Burke, and Goldsmith belonged;
its members dine together every fortnight; one black
ball excludes. Speaking of Gladstone, he thought that
he had greatly declined as a speaker of late years, and
that no one had had such power in clouding truth and ob-
scuring a fact.

Returning to America, I again settled in my old quar-
ters at Cornell University, hoping to devote myself quietly
to the work I had in hand. My old home on the campus
had an especial charm for me, and I had begun to take
up the occupations to which I purposed to devote the rest
of my life, when there came upon me the greatest of all
calamities the loss of her who had been for thirty years
my main inspiration and support in all difficulties, cares,
and trials. For the time all was lost. In all calamities
hitherto I had taken refuge in work ; but now there seemed
no motive for work, and at last, for a complete change
of scene, I returned to Europe, determined to give my-
self to the preparation of my "History of the Warfare
of Science with Theology."



WHILE under the influence of the greatest sorrow
that has ever darkened my life, there came to me
a calamity of a less painful sort, yet one of the most
trying that I have ever known. A long course of mis-
taken university policy, which I had done my best to
change, and the consequences of which I had especially
exerted myself to avert, at last bore its evil fruit. On the
13th of June, 1888, I was present at the session of the
Court of Appeals at Saratoga, and there heard the ar-
gument in the suit brought to prevent the institution
from taking nearly two millions of dollars bequeathed by
Mrs. Willard Fiske. I had looked forward to the de-
velopment of the great library for which it provided
as the culminating event in my administration, and, in-
deed, as the beginning of a better era in American schol-
arship. Never in the history of the United States had
so splendid a bequest been made for such a purpose. But
as I heard the argument I was satisfied that our cause
was lost, and simply from the want of effective cham-
pions; that this great opportunity for the institution
which I loved better than my life had passed from us
during my lifetime, at least ; and then it was that I deter-
mined to break from my surroundings for a time, and
to seek new scenes which might do something to change
the current of my thoughts.

At the end of June, taking with me my nephew, a bright
and active college youth, I sailed for Glasgow, and, re-


EGYPT, GREECE, AND TURKEY- 1888 -1889 429

visiting the scenes made beautiful to me by Walter Scott,
I was at last able to think of something beside the sor-
row and disappointment which had beset me. Memorable
to me still is a sermon heard at the old Church of St.
Giles, in Edinburgh. The text was, "He wist not that
his face shone," and the argument, while broad and lib-
eral, was deeply religious. One thought struck me for-
cibly. The preacher likened theological controversies to
storms on the coast which result only in heaps of sand,
while he compared religious influences to the dew and
gentle rains which beautify the earth and fructify it.

Healing in their influences upon me were visits to the
cathedral towns between Edinburgh and London. The
atmosphere of Durham, York, Lincoln, Ely, Peter-
borough, aided to lift me out of my depression. In each
I stayed long enough to attend the cathedral service
and to enjoy the architecture, the music, and my recol-
lections of previous visits. At Lichfield Cathedral I
heard Bach's "Easter Hymn" given beautifully, and
it was needed to make up for the sermon of a colonial
bishop who, having returned to England after a long
stay in his remote diocese, was fearfully depressed by
the liberal tendencies of English theology. His discourse
was one long diatribe against the tendency in England
toward broad-churchmanship. One passage had rather
a comical effect. He told, pathetically, the story of a
servant-girl waiting on the table of the late Archbishop
of Canterbury, who, after hearing the clergymen present
dealing somewhat freely with the doctrine of the Trin-
ity, rushed out into the passage and recited loudly the
Nicene Creed to strengthen her faith. I, too, felt the
need of doing something to strengthen mine after this
tirade, and fortunately strolled across the meadows to
the little Church of St. Chad, and there took part in a
lovely * ' Flower Service, ' ' ended by a very sweet, kindly
sermon to the children from the fatherly old rector of
the parish. Nothing could be better in its way, and it
took the taste of the morning sermon out of my mouth.


Of various experiences in London, the one of most in-
terest to me was a visit to the House of Commons, where
the Irish Home Rulers were attempting to bait Mr. Bal-
four, the government leader. One after another they
arose and attacked him bitterly in all the moods and
tenses, with alleged facts, insinuations, and denunciations.
Nothing could be better than his way of taking it all.
He sat quietly, looking at his enemies with a placid smile,
and then, when they were fully done, rose, and before he
had spoken five minutes his reply had the effect of a mus-
ket-shot upon a bubble. It was evident that these pa-
triots were hardly taken seriously even by their own side,
and, in fact, did not take themselves seriously. I then
realized as never before the real reasons why the ora-
torical and other demonstrations of Irish leaders have
accomplished so little for their country.

A Liberal political meeting in Holborn also interested
me. The main speaker was the son of the Marquis of
Northampton, Earl Compton, who was standing for Par-
liament. His speech was all good, but its best point was
his answer to a man in the crowd who asked him if he
was prepared to vote for the abolition of the House of
Lords. That would seem a trying question to the heir
of a marquisate; but he answered instantly and calmly:
"As to the House of Lords, better try first to mend it,
and, if we cannot mend it, end it. ' '

He was followed by a Home Ruler, Father McFadden,
whose speech, being simply anti-British rant from end
to end, must have cost many votes; and I was not sur-
prised when, a day or two afterward, his bishop recalled
him to Ireland.

Very pleasing to me were sundry excursions. At
Rugby I was intensely interested in the scenes of Ar-
nold's activity. He had exercised a great influence over
my own life, and a new inspiration came amid the scenes
so familiar to him, and especially in the chapel where he

Visiting some old friends in Hampshire, I drove with

EGYPT, GEEECE, AND TURKEY- 1888 -1889 431

them to Selborne, stood by the grave of Gilbert White,
and sat in his charming old house in that beautiful place
of pilgrimage.

Most soothing in its effect upon me was a visit to Stoke
Pogis churchyard and the grave of Thomas Gray. The
"Elegy" has never since my boyhood lost its hold upon
me, and my feelings of love for its author were deepened
as I read the inscription placed by him upon his mother 's
monument :

"The tender mother of many children, only one of
whom had the misfortune to survive her."

A Sunday afternoon in Kensal Green cemetery, with
a visit to the graves of Thackeray, Thomas Hood, and
Leigh Hunt, roused thoughts on many things.

Somewhat later, revisiting Mr. Halliwell-Phillips 's
"Bungalow" at Brighton, I met at his table the most
bitter and yet one of the most just of all critics of Car-
lyle whom I have ever known. He spoke especially of
Carlyle's treatment of his main historical authorities,
many of them admirable and excellent men, and dwelt
on the fact that Carlyle, having used the results of the
life-work of these scholars, then enjoyed pouring con-
tempt and ridicule over them; he also referred to Car-
lyle's address to the Scotch students, in which he told
them to study the patents of nobility for the deeds which
made the nobility of England great, but did not reveal
to them the fact that the expressions in these patents
were stereotyped, and the same, during many years, for
men of the most different qualities and services.

Running up to Cambridge for a day or two, and din-
ing with Oscar Browning at King's College, I after-
ward saw at his rooms a collection of intensely interest-
ing papers, and, among others, reports of British spies
during the Revolutionary War in America. Very curi-
ous, among these, was a letter from the British minister
at Berlin in those days, who detailed a burglary which
he had caused in that capital in order to obtain the papers
of the American envoy and copies of American de-


spatches. The correspondence also showed that Freder-
ick the Great was much vexed at the whole matter; that
the British ministry at home thought their envoy too
enterprising; that he came near resigning; but that the
whole matter finally blew over. This was brought back
to me somewhat later at a dinner of the Koyal Histori-
cal Society, where the president, Lord Aberdare, recalled
a story bearing on this matter. It was that Frederick
the Great and the British minister at his court greatly
disliked each other, and that on their meeting one day the
old King asked, "Who is this Hyder Ali who is making

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