Andrew P. (Andrew Preston) Peabody.

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including two much smaller and shorter palets.
This grass has been introduced from Eai'ope,
where it is native, and also extensively cultivated
under the name of Cat's-tail grass.

On the high mountains of New Hampshire,
and also on the Rocky Mountains, we have a
native species closely i-elated to the Timothy,
viz. : Phleum alpinumy L., or what might be
called the Alpine Timothy. In Europe there
are also several other species belonging to this
genus, none of which, however, have been cul-
tivated.

THE HONEY LOCUST.

{Gledttschia triacanthoSf L.)

The Honey Locust is a well known ti-ee, prin-
cipally of the Western and Southern Statci^. It
is one of our largest forest trees, the tniiik fre-
quently attaining a diameter of tliree or four
feet ; but, ftx)m its habit of early dividing up into
large branches, it does not attain as great height
as many smaller trees. It usually forms a browl.
open head, with a beautit\il light-gi*eeu foliage,
which waves graceftilly in the summer breeze.

Its trunk and limbs ai-e usually beset with
numei*ous horrible spines, or thorns, fi'om thi'ec
to six inches long, each of which has coinmouly
two branches, whence the specific name triacan-
thos, or three-thorned. These thorns, however,
are not constant, as ti'ees are occasionally fouud
which are entirely smooth. Some have supposed
these were a diflferent species, but they are in all
other respects like the thorny kind, and the need
of either will pmduce thorny and thomless tree*-

The favorite locality of the Honey Locust is in
bottom lands, or following the coui'se of small
sti-eams. It belongs to the Pea family (Natural
Order Leguminosoi) , but not to the same section
as the Black Locust, which has true papillion-
aceous flowere. Its relationship in the Pea
family would not be suspected from the appear-
ance of the flowers, but its pinnate leaves and
long pods, or tine legumes, easily identify it.

In its floweiing habit it is polygamous— that
is, the fertile and infertile flowers are either
separate or variously mixed on the same tiw.
The flowei-s are small and inconspicuous, iu short
spikes, proceeding from the axils of the leaves.



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ENTOMOLOGIST AND BOTANIST.



223



The fertile ones produce flat, twisted pods, a foot
or more in length, and an inch and a half broad,
and containing twenty or more pretty large, flat
seeds. The pinnate leaves, four to six inches
lon^, are made up of about ten paire of small
oblong leaflets, which are nearly entire on the
inargiD. The pods contain a sweetish pulp,
which is said to be employed in some of the
Southern States in fermenting a kind of beer.

The tree is a vigorous gi'ower, with a pretty
ilense, tough-grained wood, which makes excel-
lent fuel. It is not much in request as an onia-
mental tree, perhaps on account of its formidable
thorns, but has been employed to make hedges,
and by some is thought to be superior tor that
purpose to the Osage. It has also been recom-
mended for timber plantations.



THE WOODY COMPOSIT.E.

Perhaps no family of plants is more numerous
in species than thai of the so-called Compound
flowers (CompositcB) .

In all that part of the country lying east of
the Mississippi there is not a shrub or tree be-
longing to this family. Some kinds, as various
species of Sunflower {Hdianthua) ^ produce
annually a large and heavy growth, but it inva-
riably d^es down to the ground at the approach
of winter. The roots of many are perennial,
bat nothing above ground survives a season's
growth.

It is not so, however, with several kinds of
ComposilcR in the region of the Rocky Moun-
tains, and particularly in the great basins of the
western slope. These are various species of
Arteme8ia and IdnosyriSy all generally cla'^sed
under the name of Sage brush ; and they form a
prominent and distinctive feature of the Plains,
and in some measure by their woody growth
compensate for the absence o1 trees.

The largest and most common Sage brush is
the Artemesia tridentata, Nutt. It is very vari-
able in size; on dry upland plains not usually
over two or three feet high, with a trunk two
or three inches in diameter. In valleys and
nioist ground it often attains a height of eight
to ten feet, with a thickness of as many inches.
Ut^oally there are a number of stems spreading
oat fix)m one root. The wood is light and
porous, somewhat resembling cedar, and it
bnrus readily even in a green state, as also do
the leaves, with a pleasant balsamic fragrance.
It is the main dependence, for fuel, of immi-
frrants and travellers on the Plains west of the
monntain ranges. It has no resemblance to our
cultivated Sage-plant, except in its fragmnce.



and belongs to an entirely different family. Its
annual growth is very slow. We have often
cut bushes of moderate size which indicated
forty or flfty years* age, and undoubtedly many
of them continue to grow for a century.

Another species, the Artemesia cana, Pursh.,
is seldom found away from rich moist valleys.
It sends up more numerous stalks from one
root, t. e., it grows in bushy clumps of twenty
or thirty stalks, which are each about an inch
in diameter.

Still another species is the Artemesia arbus-
cula, Nutt. This is very dwarf in habit, seldom
growing over a foot high, but often covering
hundreds of acres on low mountain slopes.

The bushes of Idnosynis are quite similar in
general habit to those of the Artemesia^ but do
not grow as large. There are also several spe-
cies of that genus.



NEW BOOK.

THE AMERICAN BOTANIST AND FLORIST. By
Alphonso Wood, A.M., author of the Class Book
of Botany, &c. A. S. Barnes & Co., New York and
Chicago .

This is a handsome, well-printed volume of nearly
600 pages, posHessing some features of great merit. The
part devoted to structural and physiological botany is
an example of great condensation, and is proAisely
illustrated. The definitions are generally very clear
and concise. In some instances, we thinic, technical
names are unnecessarily employed, as for instance,
pUwenehyma instead of Jihroua tissue, and trach/yenchyma
instead of vascular tissue. Where English words will
convey the idea intended, we think they should be em-
ployed in preference to foreign ones; Uius he(id is a
better word than capUulumy and duster is to be preferred
to gl(ymeruU, etc.

The portion of the volume devoted to descriptive
botany professes to record the characters of nearly 4,000
species of the native and cultivated plants of the United
States east of the Mississippi river. The introduction
of greenhouse exotics is, we think, carried too far; for
instance, we have given us fifteen species of Begonia, a
genus of which we have no native representative . As
an accommodation to city classes, whose acquaintance
with plants is mostly limited to the cultivated exotics,
this may be well enough, but for students wishing to
study the productions of their own country, we think
this matter is superfluous, and that its space would be
better tilled by expanding the descriptions of our native
plants.

: # ♦ •

Ferns and Mosses. — The Ferns and Mosses
are beautifal objects and well deserving the
study of young ladies. Good specimens are
finely adapted to parlor collections for ornament
as well as for study. There ai-e about sixty
species of ferns in the Northern States. Many
of them are very delicate and beautiful. The
fructification is generally in small dots or lines
on the back of the leaves.



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192



THE AMERICAN



From Ne^ir T#rlc«— You ask for some botanical
notes from this part of our great country . Vegetation
is yet mostly dormant, and we must confine ourselves
to anticipation of what Nature will soon present. Here
and there, however, in warm sheltered spots, by brush-
ing away the masses of fallen leaves we may recognize
some of our early spring flowers nearly ready to burst
forth into life and beauty. Among these is the Liver-
leaf {Hepa$ica), the Spring Beauty {Clayionia Garolini-
ana)y and several kinds of violets.

Of the violets I must speak a little at large, although
it is yet too early for their appearance. The commonest,
and perhaps the most beautiftil, is a blue violet growing
in wet or damp grounds, especially in meadows and by
the borders of brooks and streams, the Viola cueullataf
Ait. , which rendered into English means the Hooded
violet, from the manner in which the young leaves are
rolled together in the form of a hood . The color of this
violet is quite variable, from a light sky-blue to a dark
purple, but always bright and attractive. Next we
have, in low or wet grounds, the small White violet
( Viola hlandafWil{d,)f with roundish, heart-shaped, or
kidney-shaped leaves, and delicate white flowers on
short stalks, seldom rising more than an inch or two
from the ground. Then we have the low yellow violet
(Viola roUtndifolia, Mich.), which is found on wooded
slopes and hill sides. This has small, bright yellow
flowers, opening in early spring. The leaves, at the
time of flowering, are about an inch broad and nearly
round, but when fully grown they are often three or four
inches across. The three species we have mentioned
are stemless violets, the leaves and flowers springing
separately from the root or root-stock.

Of the stemmed violets we have a number of species.
In damp shady places the low leafy blue violet, a variety
of Viola earunaf L. , or the Viola JfuhUfibergii, Torr., the
Long-spurred violet {Viola rostraia, Pursh.), in rich
soils on wooded hills, the Striped-flowered violet ( Viola
striatay Ait.), and the large white violet ( Viola canaden.'
sis, L.), which is the largest species we have in the
country, common in rich, open woods, the flowers of
good size, whitish, and delicately tinged with violet.
Lastly, we have the large yellow violet ( Viola pubsseens,
Ait.) which is common in open, and especially in sandy
woods.

I was much pleased the other day, in crossing a low
place in a meadow, to observe the young flower-stalks,
or spathes, of the Skunk Cabbage {Symploearput foetidus,
Salisb.) Just shooting into sight. With a knife I cut
down into the ground, and severed some of these fh>m
the root, that I might examine their very singular
structure. They consist of a roundish mass, or head,
in which grow many small crowded yellowish flowers,
the whole surrounded by a thick, leathery kind of leaf,
of a purplish color, spotted and striped with yellow and
green, and extending beyond the cob, or head of flowers,
enwrapping and almost entirely concealing them from
view. The young leaves are already beginning to press
out of the ground, and when fully developed they form
a mass of large heart-shaped leaves, looking not unlike
a head of cabbage, and, from their strong and peculiar
odor, meriting the name by which it is generally known.
A plant of such offensive odor should have some com-
pensating qualities, and we find that the root of this
pUmt has a pretty well established reputation in the
Materia Medica.



Meagre as is the botanizing field among the flowering
plants at present, we find it little more satlsiSMtory among
cryptogams. Several kinds of mosses have found warmth
sufllcient to make some growth, and send up flruitlng
pedicels and mature capsules. On the bodies of trees
are several species of OHhotriekum (particularly 0, ttran^
ffylaium, Beauv., and 0. eritpum, Hedw.) in little round
patches, and occasionally large masses of the handBome
Neehsra pmiuUa, Hedw. 1 often gather this in fine con-
dition on the beech wood which is brought into market.
Various other kinds of mosses are still under beds of
snow, where they find conditions favorable to their
growth, and when their fleecy covers are melted away
they will please the eye with their bright and lively
colors, and repay tenfold any labor taken in a close
examination. These small delicate objects are worthy
of more carefUl study . P .

Utica, N. y., AprU, 1870.



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

Plaats to Name— JKr«. B. S, Zafo, Oolorado.-li^i
a pleasure to look upon such finely preserved specimens
as the Colorado plants you send. No. 1 is the sky-blue
Columbine {AquiUgia ceruleay Torr.), one of the finest
ornaments of the Bocky Mountains. The fioweis are
larger and more showy than either the garden Colum-
bine {A, vulgaris^ L.) or the wild Columbine (^. etM-
densUy L.) of the Eastern States. It grows about two
feet high, has large bright blue flowers, the spur of the
petals being two inches long. It is well worthy of
cultivation . No . 2 is the smooth Mountain Maple (i<sr
glabrumy Torr . ) It is a small shrub, six to eight or t(m
feet high, with small smooth leaves , somewhat three-
lobed and toothed, and producing an abundance of the
winged fhiit peculiar to the maples. No . S Is OsBi/lropi*
ZamberU, Pursh. . without any common name so fitf «
we are aware. It belongs to the Pea Family (-^*
nUnota). It is a low plant with perennial root, bearing
all the leaves at the ground and sending up simple
spikes of flowers, varying fh>m light blue to purple,
which are succeeded by upright cylindrical pods about
an inch long. The plant is wide-spread over the pltiua
and among the lower mountain ranges . No . 4 is a shrub
peculiar to the Eocky Mountains, nearly related to the
Hydrangea, and is botanically known as Jametia AtHir-
icana, T. and G., in honor of the discoverer, Dr-
James, the Botanist of Long's Expedition in 1880.
No. 5 is a plant well known in the Western SUtes,
occurring in hazel patches and the borders of prairies,
and Is sometimes called Shooting Star, sometimes Pride
of the Prairie {Dodecaihson Meadiay L.) It is a unique
and beautiful plant of the Primrose FamUy. We do
not mean the Evening Primrots Family, but the true
Primrose Family {Primvlacem) . The type of this famUy
is the Primrose of Europe, of which genus -we have but
two species (both rare) in this country. The Dodeca-
theon has a number of large, oblong, smooth leaves at
the surfiice of the ground, from which rises a long
naked stem a foot or two in length, and surmounted at
the top with an umbel of from five to twenty flowers,
which are nodding when ftilly open, but in flruit
are strictly erect. It has been somewhat introduced
into cultivation, and is well worthy a place in every
garden.



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wood Engravings of Flowers and Vegetables . and a beauti-
fhl Colored Plate^consisting of seven varieties of Phlox
Drummondil, making a flue

BOV4IVET OF PHI^OXES.

It Is the most bcautifUl, as well as the most instructive
Floral Guide published, giving plain and thorough direc-
tions for the

OUIiTUBJB OF FIiOWBBS AND VBGBTABZJIB,

The Floral Guide is published for the benefit of my cus-
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for Ten Cents, which is not half the cost.

Address, JAMES VICK.

March— 2m Rochester, New York.



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CONNECTIONS:

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THE AMERICAN

Entomologist and Botanist



CHARLES V. RILEY,
GEORGE VASEY,



> Editors.



WHAT IS SAID OF US:

Among all the periodlcalg, however, there is none
more absolutely necessary to the gardener and farmer
than the American Entomologist, published at
St. Louis, Mo. , and edited by the Entomologist of that
State. From the very, praetical pageis of this jdohial we
may gftther hints of the greatest value. This paper is
the. bote valuable and essential to us ttom the faet that
it is the only one of the kind in the country, and be-
cause we have no officer in our own State whose duty it
Bhould'be'to'supply the needfUl information to enable
us to counterwork our insect enemies, and to protect
ourselves flrom their terrible ravages.— />r. John A.
Warder.

The American Entomologist contains a large
amount of information about the habits ol predatory
injects, and the various modes of destroying them or
preventing their increase. It should be in the hands of
every fiurmer and fruit-grower. The precepts learned
by the attentive study of the best authors, may have a
very beneficial effect when carried into practice in the
orchard or garden at the right time. The damage done
annually to flruit by predatory insects is incalculable.—
WutemBural,

This beautiful and useAil periodical is being well kept
up under the supervision of C. V. Biley, Esq., State
Entomologist oiF Missouri. The last number contains
an exceedingly life-like steel portrait of the late Ben-
Jan^ D. Walsh; of Illinois, formerly associated vdth
Mr. Biley in the ' editorial management of the Ento-
mologist. We notice that Dr. Wm. LeBaron, of lUi-
nois', is contributing valuable papers to this Journal.
Mr« Biley has. done well to secure the aid of this able
and accomplished entomological writer.— iVatrM Farmer.

The number of the American Entomologist for
Apr|l,'now received, appears with an expansion of its
title; it will henceforth, be styled The American Sntomot'
ogist and Botanist. The conductors very justly consider
tiiat Botany and Entomology should go hand in hand,
and hence they have opened a new department in their
colunms. . A series of entomo-botanical papers has been
commenced in this number, and will be found of much
interest.— -SdW*^ Opinion.

<* Thoroughly scientific yet eminently practical, con-
tainlQg.an amount of information in regard to insects
hostile to fruits and vegetation, and the means of pro-
tection from their ravages, most valuable to the fanner."
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No. 9.



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THE AMERICAN

Entomologist md §otdnist

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TOMOLOQIST, whioh can be had for $2.50
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publishers, and entomological queries or articles
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The American Entomologist and Botanist has
a circulation, monthly, of FIVE THOUSAND. As
it has a large circulation in the East as well as the


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Online LibraryAndrew P. (Andrew Preston) PeabodyThe American entomologist: → online text (page 17 of 26)