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only from the South African one in my possession, by being smaller and
of a lighter colour. They were probably male birds, and mine is a female.

Fam. ACCIPITRINA.

Bill convex, curved from the base, hooked, upper mandible
with a more or less distinct festoon on its edge, lower mandible
shorter and obtuse ; nostrils almost oval ; tarsi nearly or com-
pletely naked, slender ; claws large, very sharp ; wings shorter
than the tail, fourth quill feather the longest.

Genus ACCIPITER. Ray.

Tarsi generally slender, scutellated; body slender; claw of
inner toe very strong; nostrils rounded, transverse; wings ex-
tend a little beyond the base of tail, the latter rounded, gra-
duated or slightly forked.

Accipiter monogrammicus, Lesson. Ashy grey ; throat white
with a longitudinal black line ; belly finely striated with brown ;
tarsi and cere reddish.

Inhabits Senegal.

Falco monogrammicus, Temm. pi. col. 314.

Accipiter polyzonus, Lesson. Bill and cere brown, the base
of the lower mandible, and the festoon of upper, yellowish ; a
narrow space round eyes naked ; plumage above an uniform
ashy brown ; throat whitish, finely rayed transversely with
brown ; anterior part of neck, breast, and belly, dull 'white,
regularly rayed with transverse brown or pale rufous bars ; vent
and under tail coverts white, with some fine transverse brown
lines ; wing feathers light brown, banded with dark brown ;
inner vanes marked with white towards quills. Tail long, even
or slightly forked, beneath ash-white with transverse brown
bands, above brown with darker transverse bands, and the
inner vanes of central feathers with two or three narrow white
bars ; the tips of all the feathers white. Tarsi long, and with
the toes yellow ; claws black. Length sixteen inches and a
half.

Inhabits South Africa.

Falco polyzonos. Temm.

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Birds. 279

Accipiter niger. (Black Sparrow Hawk.) Colour a fine
black ; the feathers of nape and upper part of neck white at
their bases ; tail feathers above, each, tinted with three white
spots, and beneath, with four pure white spots, which form
transverse bands when the tail is spread ; the first band to-
wards the root, the next on the second-third of the tail, and the
last a little distance from the extremity. Primary quill feathers
grey- white with some small black spots variegated with ashy ;
secondaries black ; eyes yellow ; cere and feet orange. Length
nine inches.

Inhabits Senegal, very rare.

Accipiter Gabar. Bill dark horn-coloured ; cere deep red ;
eyes light crimson ; head, neck, inter scapular, back, and
shoulders, dirty brownish or reddish grey; chin, throat, sides
of neck, and breast, light bluish grey or pale slate colour ; belly
and thighs banded lightish black and clear white. Primary
quill feathers nearly an uniform dark brown on the outer vanes,
whilst the inner ones are marked by alternate bands of blackish
brown and dirty light white. Tail slightly rounded, feathers
brownish black, crossed by three transverse bands, which ap-
pear when viewed above, of a pale dusky white or greyish
white, and when seen below, of a pure white ; the tips of all
pure white ; legs and toes red ; claws horn-coloured. Length
from bill to base of tail six inches ; length of latter six inches
and a quarter.

Young. Bill nearly as in mature specimens ; cere and eyes
yellow ; head and neck variegated blackish brown and rufous,
the latter most abundant on the sides of the last named part
interscapulars and back an uniform dark brown, with the ex-
ception of some very slight variegations, occasioned by many of
the feathers being indistinctly tipt with rufous ; shoulder
feathers dark brown, tipt and edged more broadly with light
rufous ; tail coverts white. Chin, throat, and breast, light
rufous, more or less variegated by longitudinal stripes of dark
brown or blackish brown ; belly and thighs marked by alternate
narrow bands of dirty black and pale rufous ; primary and
secondary quill feathers nearly as in old specimens ; tail black-
ish brown, crossed by four white bands, besides each feather
having a white tip and some spots of a like colour near quill ;
legs and toes yellow ; claws horn-coloured.

Inhabits South Africa and Senegal.

Falco Gabar, Daud. Le Gabar, Le Vaill. pi. 33.

Accipiter Tachiro. Bill bluish black, with a small yellowish
spot on the edge of the tooth of the upper mandible, and
another opposite to it, on base of lower ; cere yellow ; upper

[83]



280 African Zoology.

parts dull brown ; the feathers of nape all white towards quills ;
chin and throat pure white ; sides of neck white, with narrow
transverse brown bands ; breast and belly white, banded trans-
Tersely with brown, the bands few towards the middle, but
numerous on the sides ; under tail coverts white, irregularly
crossed by a few narrow brownish lines ; thighs tawny white,
with broa'dish transverse brown bands. Primary wing feathers
brown, banded on the inner vanes by black towards their tips,
and by black and nearly clear white towards quills ; secondaries
the same as primaries, with the exception of the white being
more abundant on the inner vanes. Tail slightly rounded, of a
light brown colour, and crossed by four broad blackish bands,
the tips of all the feathers more or less white ; legs and toes
yellow ; claws black. Length fourteen inches and a half ; the
female nineteen inches and a half.

Young. Above brown, feathers edged and tipt with rufous ;
throat white, with a longitudinal black stripe ; under parts
white with longitudinal black blotches.

Inhabits South Africa.

Le Tachiro, Le Vaill. Ois. d' Afriq. pi. 29.

Accipiter Francesii. Head and hinder part of neck blue-
grey ; back and shoulders dark slate-colour ; sides of neck
fight blue-grey ; under parts and insides of shoulders pure white ;
wing feathers brownish black, inner vanes near quills white with
narrow transverse black bands. Tail, above a dark slate colour
with a greenish tinge, the lateral feathers of a lighter tint with
their inner vanes tinged brown, beneath white, more or fewer of
the feathers with five or six transverse black bands on the inner
vanes, the outer feather of each side with the bands scarcely
perceptible, the tips a dull white. Upper mandible horn-co-
loured, lightest towards the point ; under mandible yellow; legs
and toes yellow ; claws black. Length from bill to tip of tail
eleven inches.

Inhabits Madagascar.

To Lady Frances Cole I am indebted for the only specimen I possess
of this apparently undescribed species, and the name it bears in the
South African Museum is an indication of the high respect entertained for
Her Ladyship as a well known and zealous Patroness of Science.

Accipiter mmicus. Head, neck, and breast, light bluish
grey ; back and scapulars dark slate-colour ; upper tail coverts
white ; shoulders silver grey, finely mottled with black. Pri-
mary wing converts hoary, inclined"to greyish black ; secondary
coverts white, mottled with narrow tortuous black lines. Pri-
mary wing feathers brownish black, variegated on inner vanes
towards quills with lines or streaks of white ; secondaries pure

[84]



Birds. 281

white, here and there dotted or finely streaked with black ;
belly, thighs, and under tail coverts, finely banded black and
white. Tail slightly rounded, the two centre feathers blackish
grey, the rest blackish, or blackish grey and white in different
proportions, the latter particularly abundant in the two outer-
most ones of each side, all, with the exception of the two mid-
dle ones, broadly tipt with white. Upper and lower mandibles
at base orange-coloured, elsewhere black. Cere, tarsi, and
toes, red ; claws black. Length twenty inches.

Young.' Bill blackish, with a little of the base of each man-
dible yellow ; cere greenish yellow ; eyes greyish yellow, in-
clined to pure yellow ; head, neck, and back, brown, the
feathers of the two former white towards quills ; tail coverts
white, with a triangular brown spot near the tip of each ;
shoulders brown, with the feathers edged and tipt with reddish
white ; belly, thighs, and under tail coverts, marked with
alternate broad irregular brown and white bands. Primary
wing coverts brown, tipt with white ; primary wing feathers
reddish brown, banded with black, the outer vanes tinted with
grey ; secondaries bluish grey, banded with black, and tipt with
white ; tail with reddish grey and blackish brown transverse
bands, the former four in number; legs and toes somewhat
flesh-coloured ; claws black.

Inhabits Africa, common in South Africa.

Fak-o Musicus, Daud. Orn. p. 116. Le Faucon chanteur,
Le Vaill. pi. 27. Blaauwe Valk of the Cape Colonists.

Accipiter rufiventris, Lath. Head, upper part of neck, back,
and upper tail coverts, blue-grey or ashy brown ; sides of neck,
throat, breast, anterior parts of belly and thighs, light rufous ;
hinder part of belly, vent, and under tail coverts, pure white.
Wing feathers dirty brown, the inner vanes banded with black
and blotched towards quills with white. Tail above brown-
black with four brownish grey transverse bands, beneath white
with dark brown bands ; tips of all the feathers white. Bill
black, the festoon and base of lower mandible yellow ; legs,
toes, and cere, yellow ; claws black. Length of male ten inches,
of female fourteen inches.

Young. Above brown, the feathers of head, neck, and
shoulders, margined with rufous ; beneath light rufous or ru-
fous-white, variegated with slender longitudinal streaks.

Inhabits South Africa.

Accipiter mmullus, Lath. Head, neck, and back, a dark
slate colour ; upper tail coverts white, spotted or banded with
black. Chin and throat white, finely mottled or indistinctly
rayed with black ; sides of breast and belly rufous, middle of

N n [85]



282 African Zoology.

breast and anterior part of belly, pure white, all rayed trans-
versely with narrow brown-black bands ; hinder parts of belly
and under tail coverts pure white. Primary wing feathers
brownish, the inner vans with transverse dusky black bands ;
secondaries brownish, inner vanes edged with white and crossed
bv black bands. Tail slightly rounded, the outer vanes of
feathers bro wn-black,spotted or irregularly banded with reddish
brown ; inner vanes black, and partially crossed in three differ-
ent positions by white ; tips of all the feathers white. Bill
black ; cere, legs, and toes, yellow ; claws black. Length
of male ten inches, of female twelve inches.

Young. Above brown, feathers margined with rufous ; be-
neath rufous, blotched or banded transversely with black -brown ;
throat but slighly spotted.

Inhabits Africa, forests of South Africa.

Le Minule, Le Vaill. pi. 34.

Accipiter melanoleucus, Smith. Above black with a faint tint
of brown ; below deep black. Primary quill feathers black, the
inner vanes towards quills spotted or irregularly banded with
white ; secondaries dusky brown clouded with black, and the
inner vanes spotted with white ; scapulars brown with some
white blotches on both vanes. Tail slightly rounded, black,
with four or five tawny brown bands, the outer feathers more
or less blotched with white towards quills, the centre ones
without variegations. Bill black, with the festoon and a spot
on the lower mandible yellow ; legs and toes greenish yellow;
claws black. Length about twenty inches.

Middle age. Above black, beneath white blotched more or
less with black.

Young. Head rufous, longitudinally streaked with brown ;
back brown, the feathers margined with rufous ; under parts
rufous, variegated with longitudinal brown stripes. Tail slight-
ly rounded, each feather with four or five transverse black
bands, and the spaces between them brown, finelv mottled with
white ; some of the black bands are somewhat arrow-shaped,
with their distal edges margined tawny white.

Inhabits South Africa.

Accipiter melanoleucus, Smith, South African Quarterly
Journal, vol. i. p. 229.

06*. Naturalists who see reason for separating the larger and more
robust species from the smaller and more slender ones, would rank this
as an Astur.

Accipiter Madagascariensis, Verreaux. Above dull brown
with an irregular white spot on the nape ; below white, finely
barred with brown-black ; vent and under tail coverts pure

[86]



Birds. 283

white. Wing feathers brown with transverse black bands,
inner vanes towards quills white ; insides of shoulders white,
barred with black. Tail brown above, ashy white beneath,
and both surf aces marked with eight narrow brown-black trans-
verse bands. Length thirteen inches and a half.
Inhabits Madagascar.

SUB-FAM. MILVINA.

Bill moderate, curved from the base ; cere naked ; nostrils
oblique, oval, or ellipitical ; tarsi short, slender ; toes weak ;
wings very long ; tail slightly or deeply forked or graduated,
and composed of twelve feathers.

Genus MILVUS. Cuvier.

Bill moderately robust ; nostrils elliptical, oblique ; tarsi short,
slender, and scutellated; fourth quill feather the longest. Tail
deltoidal forked or graduated; claws robust.

Milvus parasiticus. Bill and cere yellow ; eyes dark brown ;
head and neck pale tawny, each feather with a longitudinal
blackish brown streak which includes the shaft; interscapulars,
back, tail coverts, and shoulders, brown, the feathers tipt with
a lighter tint ; chin and throat streaked longitudinally with
brown and dirty white; breast and belly dirty dull rufous, with
a narrow stripe of black along the centre of each feather;
under tail coverts and thighs rufous ; primary and secondary
wing coverts blackish brown, with light tips. Primary wing
feathers black, mottled slightly with white on inner vanes to-
wards quills ; secondaries brown, with the inner vanes crossed
by indistinct dusky bands. Tail slightly forked, reddish brown,
with eight or nine narrow blackish transverse bands, and the
tips of all the feathers reddish white ; legs and toes yellow ;
claws black. Length twenty inches.

Young. Bill black ; colour above dark brown, the feathers
tipt with tawny white or pale rufous ; beneath brown, feathers
tawny white towards tips, shafts black ; under tail coverts sub-
rufous.

Inhabits Africa, common in South Africa.

Le Parasite, Le Yaill. Ois. Afriq. pi. 22. Kucken-duif of
the Cape Colonists.

Genus ELANUS. Savigny.

Tarsi short, reticulated, and half covered with feathers below
the knees ; wings long ; tail slightly forked or moderately gra-
duated.

Elanus Ccesius, Savig. Bill black ; cere yellow ; eyes red ;
front and eyebrows white ; crown and back of neck light

[87]



284 African Zoology.

bluish grey ; interscapulars, back, rump, and scapulars, bluish
grey ; shoulders jet black ; chin, throat, breast, belly, vent,
and inside of wings, pure white. Primary and secondary wing
coverts bluish grey, with the edges of inner vanes white, and
some of the feathers distinctly tipt with that colour ; primary
quill feathers hoary grey, shaded towards tips with reddish
brown ; secondaries bluish grey. Tail slightly forked, pale
bluish white ; shafts dark reddish brown ; legs and toes yellow ;
claws black. Length eleven inches.

Young. Bill black ; base of under mandible, and the part
of the upper one adjoining it, yellowish ; front reddish white ;
crown and back of neck dusky, slightly variegated with very
fine reddish tawny streaks ; interscapulars dirty blackish blue,
with fine reddish white tips ; back uniform dusky blue ; scapu-
lars dirty blackish blue, with a tinge of brown, and all broadly
tipt with dull white ; shoulders black, many of the feathers
faintly tipt with white. Primary and secondary wing coverts
bluish grey, many of them with white tips ; primary wing
feathers blackish blue with white tips; secondaries with reddish
white tips. Chin and throat white ; breast and belly pale
tawny or dull reddish white ; thighs white. Tail a pale dusky
blue with shades of brown ; part of edges of inner vanes white ;
tips of feathers white or tawny ; legs and toes yellow ; claws
black.

Inhabits South Africa.

Elanus Melanopterus, Leach. Falco melanopterus, Daud.
Orn. Le Blac, Le Vaill. Ois. d'Afriq. &c. 36 & 37.

Genus NAUCLERUS. Vigors.

Bill weak, compressed ; nostrils sub-oval, oblique ; wings
long, second and third quills longest ; tail long and deeply
forked; tarsi short, weak, and reticulated ; feathered below the
knees.

Nauclerus Riocourii, Vigors. Body above ashy grey ; be-
low pure white; a white stripe on the forehead ; a line before
and behind the eye black. Tail grey ; bill black ; cere and
tarsi yellow ; second quill feather the longest. Length fourteen
inches and a half.

Inhabits Senegal.

Elanoides Eiocurii, Vieill.

SUB-FAM. BUTEONINA.

Bill curved from the base, the edges entire ; tarsi naked or
covered with feathers ; wings almost as long as the tail ; figure
rather robust.

[88]



Birds. 285

Genus PEENIS. Cuvier.

Bill curved from the base, edges sharp, culmen nearly sharp ;
tarsi short, moderately strong, reticulated, and with scutce on
the toes; space between angle of mouth and eye covered ivith
feathers like scales ; nostrils, oblique narrow slits at the anterior
edges of cere; tail and wings long-, tarsi half covered with
feathers below the knees.

Pernis Madagascariensis, Smith.* Above, dark brown of va-
rious tints, the feathers of the head more or less distinctly mar-
gined with rufous ; beneath, dull brown dashed with white,
particularly on the throat and the breast ; most of the feathers
on belly narrowly tipt with white ; hinder part of belly, vent,
under tail coverts, and legs, white ; some brown spots on the
outer sides of thighs. Quill feathers light brown, .transversely
banded with dark brown, and the inner vanes towards quills
crossed with white ; the tips of most of them dull white. Tail
above dark brown ; towards base banded with white, towards
tip with brown grey, the tips themselves white ; beneath, white
crossed with about four dark brown bands. Bill dark horn-
coloured ; lower mandible yellow towards base ; naked portion
of tarsi and toes yellow ; claws dark horn-coloured. Length
eighteen inches.

Young. Above, light brown; the feathers, particularly those
of the shoulders, tipt with rufous white; beneath, fulvous
dashed with white, and the feathers of breast and belly tipt
with white.

Inhabits Madagascar.

Obs. Most of the feathers of head, neck, and body, pure white to-
wards quills.

Genus BUTEO. Bechst.

Bill curved from the base ; edges a little waved, culmen
rounded ; angle of mouth under the eyes ; spaces between nostrils
and eyes covered with hair ; nostrils irregularly rounded, naked
and open ; tarsi robust, scutellated before, reticulated behind ;
tail slightly rounded.

Buteo Jackal. Bill black with the exception of a little of
the lower mandible at its base, which, and the cere, are dull
yellow ; eyes dark brown ; head, neck, back, shoulders, chin,
and throat, black or blackish brown ; breast deep chestnut or
ferruginous red ; belly, under tail coverts, and thighs, black ;
all the feathers broadly tipt with white or ferruginous red.
Primary wing feathers black, with a tint of hoary upon the

* This species has not the scale-like feathers of Pernis, but in other
respects it exhibits most of the characters of the genus.

[89]



280 African Zoology.

outer vanes, and the inner ones towards quills broadly edged
with, if not altogether, white ; secondaries bluish grey, with
many transverse narrow black bands, the very tips of some of
the feathers are white. Tail short, nearly even, and deep ches-
nut or ferruginous red, each feathed marked by a black blotch
close to tip, and all, more or less mottled with white towards
quills ; legs and toes dull yellow ; claws dark horn-coloured.
Length from bill to base of tail twelve inches ; length of latter
eight inches.

Young. Above dull brown, most of the feathers edged with
tawny ; beneath, pale fulvous ; the throat and sides of neck
with longitudinal black blotches ; tail grey-brown banded with
black.

Inhabits South Africa, very common.

Falco Jackal, Shaw. Tiool. vii. p. 173. Le Eunoir, Le Vaill.
Ois. Afriq. pi. 16. Jackal- vogel of the Cape Colonists.

Obs. The plumage of this species is subject to endlesa variety.

Buteo tachardus. Bill black, with the base of lower mandi-
ble, and a small portion of the upper adjoining it, yellow; cere
yellow; eyes brown. Head, neck, back, and rump, brown, with
the edges and tips of the feathers rufous, and the bases of many
of them, particularly on the head and neck, white ; many of
those of neck, back, and shoulders, clouded, spotted, or crossed
by irregular white streaks. Under parts white, the throat
streaked with longitudinal brown lines ; the breast and posterior
part of belly more or less spotted with oblong or roundish
brown blotches ; centre of belly white ; thighs reddish brown.
Primary quill feathers black, the inner vanes towards quills
white ; secondaries brown, with irregular transverse blackish
bands, the edges of the inner vanes white. Tail moderately
long, slightly rounded, of a greyish or rufous colour, with ten
or more narrow waved transverse blackish brown bands ; tip of
each feather dirty reddish white. Legs and toes greenish yel-
low ; claws black. Length eighteen inches.

Young. Above brown, verging towards blackish brown ;
below brown-red or dull rufous, the shafts of the feathers
black ; chin with a slight mottling of white. Tail feathers
greyish, on outer vanes, crossed by many waved or oblique nar-
row blackish bands ; on inner vanes reddish white, or reddish
brown, with similar black bands ; tips of all the feathers dirty
reddish yellow. Legs and toes greenish yellow ; claws black.

Inhabits South Africa.

Falco tachardus, Baud. Le Tachard, Le Vaill. Ois. d'
Afriq. pi. 19.

[90]



Birds. 287

Buteo desertorum. Bill and cere yellow ; eyes red ; head,
neck, back, and belly, ferruginous red ; the latter with dashes
of black; throat, breast, and under tail coverts greyish white.
Primary quill feathers black. Tail ferruginous red above ;
greyish white with indistinct transverse bands, beneath. Legs
and toes yellow ; claws black. Smaller than Buteo Jackal.

Inhabits South Africa, rare.

Falco desertorum, Daud. Shaw, Lath. Le Eougri, Le Yaill.
Ois. d' Afriq. pi 17.

Genus BUTAETES. Lesson.

Bill slender, arched from the base ; nostrils oblique ; wings
nearly as long as the tail, fourth feather the longest; tarsi
feathered to the toes.

Butaetus buteo, Lesson. Over each eye a narrow black
stripe ; head, neck, breast, anterior part of belly, and legs,
white, with longitudinal brown stripes, largest on the sides of
breast and belly ; interscapulars, scapulars, and shoulders,
brown, margined with rufous or white ; back nearly an uniform
brown ; upper tail coverts white, dashed with brown ; centre of
belly and flanks dark brown, variegated with rufous or tawny
white ; hinder portion of belly and under tail coverts an uniform
dull white. Primary wing feathers brown, both vanes towards
quills white ; secondaries brown, inner vanes white towards
quills ; all the feathers obscurely tipt with dusky white. Tail
white towards base, grey-brown towards extremity, with an in-
distinct dark band immediately behind the tip, which is dull
white. Bill dark horn-colour ; the base of lower mandible,
cere, and toes, yellow ; claws black.

Inhabits South Africa and Europe.

Falco lagopus, G-mel. Buse Gantee, Le Yaill. Ois. d' Afriq.
pi. 18.

Butaetes Lessonii, Smith. Above brown, the shoulder
feathers margined with brown-white ; ears and space behind
base of lower mandible brown-black ; under parts white ; the
breast and anterior part of belly streaked with brown-black.
Primary wing feathers black-brown, the inner vanes towards
quills white, secondaries with blackish transverse bands on
inner vanes, and all tipt with white ; inside of shoulders white,
spotted with black. Tail nearly even, the feathers black-
brown, variegated with narrow waved irregular bars of a darker
tint, and all tipt with obscure white. Bill bluish black ; cere
and toes yellow. Length eighteen inches.

Young. Cere and toes greenish yellow ; head and back of
neck light brown, feathers margined with rufous ; interscapu-



288 African Zoology.

lars and back dark brown ; throat, breast, and belly, tawny
white, more or less variegated with longitudinal brown streaks.

Inhabits South Africa, near Heer-logement.

Morphnus dubius, Smith. South African Quarterly Journal,
vol. i. p. 117.

Genus CIECUS. Bechst.

Bill moderately compressed ; spaces between eyes and nostrils
covered with rigid hair ; nostrils oblong rounded ; a colter et of


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