Andrew Thomson John Owen.

The works of John Owen, Volume 14 online

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you soak agam to intiedMeei Ihe iaataaaai aheadtf girveai aaa safll!»»
aiiaiit teoeimMe the taaity of jour preteiiae^ tb^
tieii was made anta it

Of the eame mrfw^ m ihsA vAiAi ym aeatfy afimv of ''all the^
ikibopfraiid prSeelB e£ 1M9% Bg]qi^ Sjim^ Thmce^ Oitteaev ^
Ae GhmtiBii wevU, bjE a himdmd eiqwrkaeBlH^ admowtedlgiiig^ thfe
anpreaao apintiMd autkn^f of the Blmub patattMok'^ I mmt^ 1 8e%
ati^Biihuljreii of tdiat itisthat joaaratoqieakva^ Itienalitto
patriaachate of yoov pofM^ inth thoi anthiHiJfcy» pndlq^ attd pre^
amkienoes wUdii byimtee thei^flheikqDaclaiaftwi^
aaooeeooD to C^nat aad) Peter in the ahaolate haadidrip ef &e Tdbebi
aatiidfo diurdif thal^ yoa aee tieating abaytL Nom^ snppodi^ joait
megF' be better skUkd in the aOam of tin* oaBteaB cbareh thaiv fiir
aa^t aa I casi yet paroeive yon asa in ihoae o£ tibe vertaan, let vom
oniTe this ftMTour of yon, thafeyou imdA diaact me imte one of thoae^
fattBdled OKperimenta whereby Um acknowledlgmNik. you meaiiioa^
preeeding tha'OoiinrenDoii of the aealliaisLiiatioBi^ magi? br GBfifinutA.
It wiSy I oonlbasniitoyotiybeafliiigahirldBAMai^aeei^
wh^ve t^ ftudany oueof that iiabafewiihhx>tib» tiaoej Uautadi. aor,.
te tell^ yo« the^ tintt^ KDoe anta this decpp foe I sa^^

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imagine ib«4 tlM Argued ptafenit^it of MilijeolvQai^ wUob pOTeriy «iid
hopes of idppIiM ftcm the oo«rt of Rome fatth eitaited of lale from
some few inaea peteoii% wboee tittas only irere of waj oonsidemiieii
in the irarld, ym 6matm any pkoe in this diaqnUtien. TTntil yoft
ere pleeeod, <iMefoie,lo Ibtiyur me inth y^
in my ignoiweoeof eny euoheatperiments ae those whidi you Intimate.

Theertafioes, I a>nfe88, of yoiu* ponies in ftrmer daye to draw rneii^
e&peoiaUy in the eiBtem dinidii k> en acknowledgment of t^
rity which in their several eeasone tiiey okin^ed, hafe heen manyi
and their eocoeei various BonetinieB they obtained a seeming «x»h
pliance in some, and sometimes they proomed their nadion verf
durewd rebukes. It may not be amiss to reoonnt some of them:^^

L Upon all oooasions they set forth themselveB th0 dignU^ mnA
pre-wm m^w c/yetir Mf, with ewelKng oaeomhuns and titles^ arjogti*
ing their own primacy and power. Such self-Basamings are many of
the old papal ofdetleB stoflbd withaL Asober^ humble Chrisdaa
cannot but nauseate at the reading of them; for it is easily disoemible
how anti^evingelioal meh eonnes are, and how unbecoming all that
pretend tbemaelvei to be disciples of Jesus €!farist From these are
their chieiest teetimonies in this case taken; and we may say of them
all, they bear witness to themsdves, and that contraiy to ihe Scrip
ture, and their witness is not tnt&

2. Whf9n and ahmrmmr muk hUeri amd 9pieth8 ae proclaimed
their ptwikige$ km$e ieen mdimUtody thtough the inadvertency ct
mode^ ^ ti^em to ^ohom ihejf were emt, mmiUing to quarrel with
them (Aout the good optnion which they hmd of themedeee (which
kind of entertainmens they yet sometimes met not withal), the next
successon always took fbr granted and pleaded what their predeoe»»
sors had presumptuously broached) as thai which of right and un^
questionably belonged unto them. And this they made sore o^ that
they would never loee any ground, or take any one st^ badLwaida
firom what any of them had advanced unto.

8. Wherarver they heard of aiqrdifiarenoe among bishopSyeAsjfiiierw
etiU impoeimg tiieir wnpirage ntpcn them; which commonly, by the
one or other of the paitiee at vnianoe, to balance thereby some dis-
advantages that they had to wreade withal, wae admitted: yea^ some*
times they would begin to take part with them that were openly in
the wrong, even heretics themeelvesy that they might thereby procure
an address to them from others^ which afterward they would interpret
as an express of thmr eidgection. And wherever thdr tonpirage was
admitted, diey wen never wanting to improve their own interest by
it; Uke the old Boms&% who, behig chosen to determine a oontro*
veny between other people about some lands, adjudged them unto

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4. If a/ny person that was really injured^ or pretended so to be^
made any address unto them for any kind of relief, inamediately they
laid hold of their address as an appeal to their authority, and acted
in their behalf accordingly; though they were sometimes chidd^i for
their pains, and advised to meddle with what they had to do withaL

5. Did any bishops of note write them letters of respect, pres^tly
in their rescnpts they return them thanks for their profession of
subjection to the see apostolic; so, suppoemg them to do that which
in truth they did not, they promise to do for them that which they
never desired, and by botli made way for the enlargement of the
confines of their own authority.

6. Where any prince or emperor was entangled in his affiur%
they were still ready to crush them into that condition of trouble
from whence they could not be delivered but by their assistance, or
to make them believe that their adherence unto them was the only
means to preserve them from ruin; and so procured their suffiiage
unto their authority.

Unto these and the like heads of corrupt and sinful artifices may
the most of the testimonies commonly pleaded for the pope's supre-
macy be referred. By such ways and means hath it been erected;
yet far enough from any such prevalency, for seven hundred years,
as to afford us any of the experiments which you boast of

The next thing you except against in my story is my affirming
^' That Austin the monk, who came hither from Home, was a man, as
far as appears by the story, little acquainted with the gospel'' In
the repetition of which words, to keep your hand in ure,^ you leave
out that expresrion, '' As &r as appears by the story,'' which is the
. evidence whereunto I appeal for the truth of my assertion, and add,
to aggravate the matter, the words " Very, very little ;" and then add,
'^ Here is the thanks that good St Austin hath, who, out of his love
and kindness, entered upon the wild forest of our Paganism, with great
hazards and inexpressible sufferings of hung^, cold, and other cor-
poral inconveniencies!" But in the place you except against, I ac-
knowledge that God made him a special instrument in bringing the
Scripture or gospel amongst us, which I presume also he declared,
according to the light and ability which he had. But you are your
own mother's son ; nothing will serve your turn but ^' Absolute, most
pure, and perfect." For what I have farther intimated of him, there
are sundry things in the history of his coming hither, and proceed-
ings here, that warrant the suggestion. The questions that he sent
for resolution unto Qregory at Rome discover what manner of man
he was. Let a man be never so partially addicted unto him and his
work, he must acknowledge that their frivolousness and impertineni^,
> An obsolete term for MM. — ^Ed.

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consideriDg the work he had in hand, discover somewhat besides
learning and wisdom in him. So also did his driving of ten thousand
men, besides an innumerable company of women and children, all to-
gether, into the river Swale in Yorkshire, and there causing them to
. baptize one another. His contest with the British bishops about the
time of the observation of Easter, breaking the peace for a circum-
stance of a ceremony that hath cost the diurch twenty times more
trouble than it is worth, is of the samenature. And I desire to know
whence you have yottr story of his ineapressMe suffering here
amongst ua All that I canfind informs us that he was right meetly
entertained by King Ethelbert, at his first landing, by the means of
Bertha^ his wife, a Christian before his coming, with all plentiful pro-
vision for himself and his companiona The next news we hear of
him is about his archiepiscopacy, his pall, and his throne, firom
whence he would not rise to receive the poor Britons that came to
confer with him! Farther of his sufferings, as yet, I can meet with

And these are the things which you thought yourself able to ex-
cept against in my story of the progress and declension of religion.
The sum of it I shall now comprise in some few assertions; which
you may do well to consider, and get them disproved : —

1. The first is, That the gospel was preached in this idand, in the
days of the aposUes, by persons coming from the east^ directed by
the providence of Qod for that purpose, — ^most probably by Joseph of
Arimathea in chie^ — ^without any respect to Bome or mission from

2. That the doctrine preached then by them was the same that is
now publicly professed in England, and not that taught by the
church of Bome, where there is a discrepancy between ua

3. That the story of the coming of Fugatius and Damianus into
the province of Britain, sent by Eleutherius unto Lucius, is uncer-
tam, improbable, and not to be reconciled unto the state and condi-
tion of the affisdrs in these nations at the time supposed for its accom-

4. That about the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries, the generality
of the professors of Christian religion in the world were wofully de-
clined from the primitive zeal, piety, fEuth, love, and purity in the
worship of Gk>d, which their predecessors in the same profession glo-
rified Qod by; and that in particular the British church was much

5. That the bishops of Bome for five hundred years never laid
daim unto that sovereign power and infedlibility which they have
challenged since the days of Pope Qregory YII.

6. That the bishops of Bome in that space of tim^ pretending

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408 A VINTMfOlfllOy Of TBS AmUSmBttOM 4Mr tux LXTX.

wtp fOjP0 <Ki^ni^ tnprgmaay over otliMr bUMpt ttod <aHirehe$»
tJbypDgb inrxiyniWIlMy dust of thab after tad pvesent pFotonaes^ irere
l^bvJkod'Md ^offiMid bj liie bMt and nuMt learned msxL of (Sioae

7. Tb^t tbo 4S8tiM(uin of I3i6 pimii^
empire by iGfoifal^ Yandaiif, H]ui% Sa»ms, Alms, Franks, I^sngobards,
1^4 tb^ anf^fiteB» waa so Ibbs jnat^ in the holy {mvk^iioe of Qod,
upon tb^ a^powt of the moml evik and anperBtitiens of tlie profeBBocs
pf Cbrifltjwify SRMOgit tham, thaii ^v»« iluit 'wbioh afterward enaaed
pf ih^ ea^t^m proTioow Iqr ^ fk m imsR and Turka.

3f Tbc4 (b^«^ MitioM bM^ plwted tbamaalvaB in the p rofincqp
pf the ^ffipkf^ tagatbir triidi Glhriaiianity, aither received anew or
r6<a&^»e({ DMMlf fflflr^^h cuitainfl^ oapamonie^ rHea, and oj^on^

9. Tbut ibwr kiBgib fajr jPfHttfe of pivilagei, donattona, and oon-
eemotiA pf ppw«r, ipada pyf^ oxxt of blind smI, parilj to aeeure aome
interests of their own, exceedingly advanced the papal power, and
cm&mei tbm fonnari^ rejediod pra(enaion&

10. Th^ Whp» tbi^y fa^F^ ^ perceive luid M ike pemdctw^
fffe^ ap4 ppamquaocaa of their erm fiaoili^, their grants beii^ made
a ground of figibar aDOoaebmentf) thay oppoaad. themaelvesi fai their
law9» aod ^dioti, md piMtiaafl^ agauiai th^

11. Tbfrt tb^ waci on i^ bands n sad d^^endtm, in the weatom
phurch, ip 4oetama» wocdup, and mfuiaars, oontinaalfy pro^reaslre,
imto iim time ^i^fafonoaldmL

These are the principal assertions on which my story is buiM^ and
wbich it duppoaeth* If you hav» ik mind to gel tl^m, or any of
tJiQU), c^ed tP m Aooonnt and aiaipinedy I aball, if God will and X
live, give tbom tbm confinnation from aoeh nndoubted recgrda aa
yptt l^yp Q9 jnsk OWW to azcepi «gainai


Rt^lnmadoB ef reliq;ioa — ^Papal ooatradlctioiis— ^^Ejiee pngill^ni.*

SoifS pf yonr fblkwing leavea are aoeb as admit of no naefbl con-
aderation. Wilful mistakes, diversions from the cause under debate^
witj^ Ywx ^cmmhas^ make up both pages in &em. I shall pas^
thrpugb tbem briery, and give ycm some aeoount from them of your-
self, and your prevarioaliop b^ the (sause wboae defence yon have
u|)d§rtiJ(m* faga 75, you undertake the ISth chapter of tbe

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ECTomrATyoir or beuoion* kic. 400

^ Ax^jBrnifwdom," wUch dUru^Mth tbe ttory <£ ih% reformition of
r»%iaii» wbrah you took up m oommon luoe^w^

<«Tftiii% malum <)ao Bon aliii4 T^ilodiietilliim.*'— YIi;^ iEa K HC

And thttk you mgr bo «Ue to sty somewliat to ibo diocoune beforo
you, or to meiui * pretenee of dobg so, y oo idioUy pais by esyetj
tbJAg ihftt ii ooDtMned in it» md impooo upon mo that which is not
in 14 #( iJJ, wbidh yon itraDUOody f^TOgitmbo. For wbawa, » littla
to toko off your edgo in xofleottng <» tho peraow wbom yon flupposed
iiiwtrumqil^il in tho Befonnation, oqiooially King Henry YIII, I
mindod you hair aaqr « thing it wm to deprivo yon of your jn^tended
tAwsdfi^ by gxring you an aeooioii of the wiidced Uvet, with iha
bnrtiah wi dvSboWad pmctieas, of miuiy of your TpofeSy whom yon
•ooount tbo hoadt of yonr chondi, and the Tory oentre wherein all
the linea of yowr prtrfeeaion meet, yon feign ae though I had imposed
aU tbo cnsiQS I intiinated them to be giu% 0^ ftnd many m<ure whose
namoi you heq> together, upon Popery, or the religicm that yon pro*
less; yea» that I should say that it is nothing dse but only a heap of
the wickednesses by you enunmated. Now this I did not do; but
you feign it of your own head, tiiat yon may haye somewhat to speak
against^ and a pretence of intimating in the doas of your disoonraa
that you hare oanodered the chapter about B^armation, whtxem in
truth you have not spoken one word unto it^ nor unto any thing eon*
tainedinit And yet when yon have dime, as if yon had beentaUc*
tng about any thing wherein I am in the least measure oonoemed,
you 0(Mne in, in the dose, with your graye adviee, '' lliat I should
lake heed of blaq>heming that innooent Cklholio flock, which the
angds of Oodwatdi over to protect them.'' As though a man could
not remember the wicked crimes of your nocent popea, but he must
be thought to Uaspbeme the innooent flock of Ohnst, which nerer
hadgreater enemies in this world than aoine of them have been. If
this be to Uaqpheme, thm some of your own oouncQs^ all your hie*
torians^ many of the most learned men of your church, are notorioua
Uasphemem But yon wilfiilly mistake, and beg that ikeir $ehi$m
matioal papal JaaHon may be esteemed Ihe innooent eatholi^ d^nreh
of Christ; without a oonoession whereof, your inferences and persuik
aions are Tery weak and feeUa

Of the like nature unto this is yonr ensuing discourse about the ooi»»
iradietioni which ycm fknded in your ^ fiat Lux^ to be imposed <m
Papists, p. 77. Two things yon insist upon, waiving those that you
had formerly mentioned, as finding them in their examination unable
to yield you the advantage you thought to make of them. Tou feign
a^'newoontradiotiou,'' WdiyonsayisimposedonP^pista ^'For,^
say yon, ^ while our kings reign in peace, ^en the Fl^ist rdigion ia

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persecuted as contrary to monarchy; when we have destroyed tha^
government then is the Papist harassed, spoiled, pillaged, murdered,
because their religion is wholly addicted unto monarchy, and Papists
are all for kinga These are contradictiona Is there not somewhat of
the power of darkness in this?'" But you again mistake; and that, I
fear, because you will do so. There was no persecution of Pi^Hsts in
this land at any time but what was in pursuit of some laws that were
made against them. Now, not one of those laws intimate any such
thing as that tbey were *' opposite unto monarchy," but rather their
design to promote a double monarchy on different accounts in this
nation; — ^the one of the pope, and the other of him to whom the
kingdom was given by the pope, and who for many years in vain
attempted to possess himself of it And on that account were you
charged with an opposition to our monarchs, but not unto monait^y
itself And yet I must say, that if what hath been before dis-
coursed of your faith and persuasion concerning the papal sovereignty
be well considered, it will be found that if not your religion, yet
the principles of some of the chief professors of it do carry in thdr
womb a great impeachment of imperial power. Nor can I gather
that in the times of our concision you suffered as Papists for your
friendship and love to monarchy, whatever some individual per-
sons amongst you might do; seeing some of you would have been
contented with its everlasting seclusion, so that your interest in the
land might have been secured. And whether your popes themselves
be not of that mind, I leave to all men to judge who know how
much they are wont to prefer their own interest before the rights of
other men. In the meantime, you may take notice, that whilst men
are owned to pursue one certain end, they may at several times fix
on mediums for the compasdng of it opposite and contrary one to an-
other. " Haec non successit, alia aggrediamur via ;" — " When one way
fiedls, another quite contrary unto it may be fixed oil'' And whilst it is
supposed that their end is the promotion of the pi^ interest^ it is
not improbable but that at several times you may make use of seve-
ral ways and means, opposite and contrary one to another, and that
this may be imputed unto you without the chai^ of contradictions
upon you. But you may, if you please, omit discourses of this nature.
I am none of those that would charge any thing upon you to your

-disadvantage in this world; neither do I desire your trouble any
more than mine own. My aim is only to defend the truth, which
you opposa

Your next attempt is to vindicate yourself from any such inten-
tion in your application of " Ejice ancillam cum puero suo,'' as I ap-
prehended. Whether what you say to this purpose will satisfy your

. reader or no I greatly question. For my psuii, as I shall ep^k no-

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tUng but what I believe to be acoording unto truth, so if I am, or
have been at any tune, mistaken in my apprehension of your sense
and mind, I am resolved not to defend any thing because I have
spoken it ''Homo sum/' and therefore sulgect to mistakes; though
I am not in the least convinced that I was actually mistaken in my
conceptions of your sense and meaning in your " Fiat*' But that
we may not needlessly contend about words, yours or mine, I shall
put you into a way whereby you may immediately determine this
difference, and mamfest that I mistook your intention, if I did so
indeed. And it is this, Do but renounce those principles, — ^which if
you maintain, you constantly affirm all that in those words I sup-
posed you to intimat^: — and this strife will be at an end. And they
are but these two: — 1. That all those who refuse to believe and wor-
ship God according to the propositions and determinations of your
church are heretics. 2. That obstinate heretics are to be accursed,
pereecu/ted, destroyed, and consumed out of the world. Do but re^
nounce these principles, and I shall readily acknowledge myself mis-
taken in the intention of the words you mention. If you will not
so do, to what purpose is it to contend with you about one single
expression, ambiguously, as you pretend, used by you, when in your
avowed principles you maint.ain whatever ia suggested to be intir
mated in it? Thus easily might you have saved your longsome dis-
course on this matter. And as for the emblem which you dose it
with, of the " rod of Moses," — ^which, as you say, " taken in the right
end was a walking-stafi^ in the wrong a serpent," — it is such a cMdr
ish figment, as you have no cause to thank them that imposed it upon
your credulity.


Of preaching — The mass, and the sacrifice of it — Transubstantiation — Service of

the church.

We are arrived at length imto the consideration of those particulars
m your Roman iaith which in your " Fiat" you chose out either to
adorn and set off the way in religion which you invite your country-
men to embrace, or so to gild it as that they may not take any pre-
judice from them agsunst the whole of what you profess. The first
of these is that which you entitled " Messach," which you now in-
form us to be a Saxon word, the same with " Mass." But why you
make use of such an obsolete word to amuse your readers withal, you
give us no account Will you give me leave to guess? for, if I misr

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take Bol;, I tn^ not iiaa- itom yxmr hacy. PUdn, dowuight ^Mmb^
is A iUng tliAl faatk gotten a very ill nttno amongst your countrf-
men, eepeeMlly snoe so many of their foMfisiAhers irero bomed ti>
deacth for iBftning to loeort unto it Eonoe, it may be, you thiMigirt
viaet to wttYn that nane^whioh both the thing known to bemgnified
by it in its own natare^ and yoor procedure afcoa% it, had rendered
obnoxloos to mspieion. 80 yon eall it by a new old name, or an ofcf
new namey that men might not al first know what yon intended^
Qpon your invitation, to entertain ihem withal; and yet, it may be,
that they would Uko it tmder a new dress, which the old namemi^
have startled them fiom the consideration o£ Bat ''Mass," or ^Me»-
sadi," let it be as you please, we shall now ofpsider what it is that
yon oflsr aficnsh concerning it, and hear you speak out your own
worda Thus yon say, p. 81 : —

^ Having laughed at my admiration of CaihoUc service, yon eaip
at me for saying that the first Chrislaans were never called together
to hear a sermon; and to convince me you Iffing some places out cf
€lt Paul's epistles and the Acts, iriik^ commend the ministry of the
word. Thk,indeed,t8yourusualway of refuting my speeches. Toa
flourish copiously in that which is not at all against me, and never
apply it to my woids^ lest it should i^pear, as it is, impertinent I
deny not that Converts were iuiher instructed, or that the preachii^
of God's word is good and useful; but that whk^ I say is, that tb^
primitive Christians w«re never called togeth^ for that end as the
great work of their Christianity. This I have dearly proved.^

Well, sir, without retortion, which just indignation against thn
unhandsome management of a desperate cause is ready to suggest^
be pleased to take a little view of your own words once more. Page
279, you tell us that "the apostles and apostolical Christians placed
their religion not in hearing or making sermons, /or ikey had rume^
but in attendiiig to their Christian liturgy; and the sermons men-
tioned in the Acts were made to the Jews and Pagans for their con-
version, not to any Christians at alL'^ Could I now take any other
course to confute these faiee and impious assertions than what I did
in the ** Animadversions?" I proved unto you that sermons were
made unto Christians by the apostles fer thdr edification; that order
is given by them for the instant preaching of the word, in and unto
the churches, unto the end of the world; and that those are by them
signally comm^ided who laboured in that work: and what can be
spoken more directly to the confutation of your assertionf You
would now shroud yourself under the ambiguity of that expression,
^^ The great work of their Christianity," which yet you make no use
of in your " Fiat'* The w<Hds there from which you would get
countenance unto your present evasion are these: ^ Nowhere waft

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MjLm AHD TBiiKUBiiijrrxiaiDK 4ia

#9er ftermoB Hade to fcrmal ChriHthnB, eittier bjr Bt Betar ai tmai,
0t aay other, m the woik of ibeit rehgkni thai tlwy camei together
ibr; nor diA tiw Christians ever dieaon of lendng^ Cbd after Hbrnt
warmoa by aajswh meftn% bat otdjf hj the eudbeiisfter liimtgj^^
Here ie aonewfaal of the ^ wvik of dieir niigiaii vUdx they canw
tagedier fm;" mcAhkig of the "^ gveat m)ric of thchr ChiiakiaBitir;'
Haw, that preoduAg wm a trotk ot ilMirrei^iniLthatttiey eaaMi te»
g^her for, though not the ealtf woric of k, Bi»r onfy end ifrr wbidi
they seeaiTeDed,i)diIchmeaaaae¥etdieaBadLtbailHwas^ eadthslt
tiie primitive CSttistiaii&cUy by asdl iatdbatireric^MBfe Ckxl; hath
boM paotied unto you from fhe Se ri p ta ffe And att aniiifuity; ytbh
thewMe atoayof tbedutfok, gives attatKtieK to ibs Mmie truti&.
Sir, it were hx more honourable for you to renounce a fakm and bd—
dalouft assertion whea yeu «e oonjaoced tha* aoch ife is^tiiaca to seek
ta palliate il, and to aecate yoererif byecBdumfaaKbome %ynmaaaL
** freaoUeg ef the wwd nnta believen:"' istea ocdinQcecC Ghint^

Online LibraryAndrew Thomson John OwenThe works of John Owen, Volume 14 → online text (page 50 of 67)