Andrew Thomson John Owen.

The works of John Owen, Volume 14 online

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and that of iedaq^eoeable iiecenii^iDito lheired]fiea*kvv<><'8*omrtb
higieeeandlaiowlec^, whidilwieqiiiietktf tl^ IkthepraeN
tine of tiooa^ ordimasoe tnre the apaatkw rtwinaeheg minkm, and
comiMnided otheas ae to bet Se were tii^ m the psimitm: &ilow>*
iag tiiMB; asr yoa nuiy leam ftoai that aceettii gbros «a of ehntch
Meel&ag» by JuatJB Mad^ Mid TModtite

that have tmnamitted any tiiiag ante posterity oaBogrBmiytbOT!|t»>
eemUiea For tikia end, to hear the wonl preached^ Qiriati^
together} mot mJ^, or fdefyy or exdaai:vely ta Ae adaiiaailwitiiin of
ether onUaaDces^ but aat»a part of that marshipiidttdi Ck>d iai|Bnred
attheir hands, «m1 whareikaaaaafl patt.of their spiritndiadiMiftage
weaiannapped. Todeay thiayasyoadoiniymir^Viat^" lato denyr
tittfc the sua daneB at aooo-day; sad to eadeaaeor t»
roote of piety, hneiaiec^ and all OhriatiaBity> to* aJaot emb and
poipoaeB^aiulfortlto^eBtheaoiagaf a&ai oAerthiag in their laon^
let all mdifimnt na» jodga And I ahadl take Icaam ta aaj^ thst^ tor
mgp bast obaervatkHv I mnx met irith aa aasevtiont in any* aatiior,. o£
ivfaat P^ea 8oeier,Biofe Maate from trothv mbneAify aad madsaty;.
thoa that of yom M. yoat ^^Fiot;^ pL Sf&t ^ Ilbtr did the; pshnitEira
C9a«tiBaB fat Aie» hondiied yeara: eaar haar a\aena(m. made unta
thosKi wfon a tasitr ^^ meniy fr)cbed tafatho^ at theiirpciesta' ap^
poiatment, mite» then: meamchaf' ^Ehia^ I mji, ia aa bildly and
aatofiausljp UBtraa^ and ao> kaoavv. te ba ao to aU thai haro ef^
ledud into the atoaieaof theaa. timaa, that I am aamaaiat your ooui^
ftdeaee im tiw p^ablishing ef ' ite timi^lke^yoisaiU hopelb shdtao
yquxsdf under the ambigid^ of that a^paanion^ ^ Made^nntU' them
apoai a teaet^'' aiqapoaiag- duk aai inataaee: cannot bet gioan e£ tholt
laade of piaachihg> wheaeia aeme>e6tta]]i> tazt.iamaadat tiie:entranoa

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of a sermon, and principally insisted upon. But this ^/^^Z^o/* will nol> '
cover you from the just censure of knowing men; for, — 1. The fol-«
lowing adversative. ^' But merely/' is perfectly exclusive of all preach-
ing, be it of what mode it will 2. The reading of '^ one certain^
text " before preaching is not necessary unto it, ^nit all preaching is,
and ever was, upon some text or texts; that is, it consisted in the
explication and application of the word of Qod, — ^that is, some part or
portion of it 3. Whereas it is certain that our Saviour himself
preached on a text, Luke iv. 17^21, as also did his apostles, Acts
viiL 35, and the f&thers of the following ages, it ia sufficient y evident
that that was also the constant mode of preaching in the &:st three
hundred years, as may be made good in ike instance of Origen, and
sundry otiiers.

Tou go on, and except against me for saying, ''That we hear-
nothing of your sacrifice.of the mass in the Scripture," and say, "Tou ,
will neither hear nor see. Say you, the passion of our Lord is our
Christian sacrifice? — do not I say so too ? but that this incruent saGri-^
fice was instituted by the same Lord before his death, to figure out
daily before our eyes that passion of his which was then approaching,
in commemoration of his death, so long as the world should last"

I must desire you to stay here a littia This sacrifice you make the
main of Chrktian religion. Protestants, for the want of it, you esteeno:
to have no religion at alL We must, therefore, consider what it is
that you intend by it, for I suppose you would not have us accept of
we know not what; and you seem both in your " Fiat" and in your
" Epistola" to obscure it as much as you are able. 1. You call it an
^ incruent sacrifice;" which, (1.) Shows only what it is not, and that
in only one instance, which is a very lame description of any thing;
and this also may be affirmed of any metaphorical sacrifice whatever,
as " offering unto God the calves of our lips," — it is an '' incruent sac-
rifice," (2.) Your expression implies a contradiction. Every proper
propitiatory sacrifice was bloody; and an incruent proper sacnfioe,
such as you would have this to be, is a proper improper propitiatory
sacrifice! 2. You say it " was instituted by our Lord to figure out
his pasfflon." (1.) This is a weighty proof of what you have in hand,^
being the orUy thing to be proved. (2.) I suppose, in the examina-
tion of it, it will appear that you sacrifice tiiat very body and blood
of Christy in your own conceits, which himself offered unto Qod ; and
how you can make any thing to be a figure of itself, as yet I do not
perfectiy understand. (3.) That the Lord Christ appointed the sacra-
ment of his body and blood, and our eucharistical sacrifice therein, ta
be a commemoration of his death and passion, is the doctrine .of Pro-'
testants, wherewith your sacrifice hath a perfect inconsistenqr, as we
shall find in the consideration of it This is the substance of whab


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you are pleased to acquaint us with about this *^ great business of our
region."' But because you shall perceive that it was not without
good grounds and reitsons that I affirmed the Scripture to be utterly
silent of this that you make the great work of Christianity^ I shall a
little £Eurther inquire after the nature of it, — ^that^ I mean, which by
you it is&nded to be; for it is a mere creature of your own imagina-

. 1. You always contend that it is " a proper sacrifice '^ which you in-
tend. The first canon of your councU accurseth them who deny it
to be " verum et proprium sacrifidum," a ^* true and proper sacrifice *"
wherein, as they say before, '^ Christus immolatur," '^ Christ is sacri^
ficed." Many things in die New Testament, in respect of their
analogy unto the institutions of the Old, are called ^* sacrifices,'' eyen
almost all spiritual actions that are acceptable unto Qod in Christ
The preaching of the gospel unto the conversion of sinners is termed
/' sacrificing," Bom. xv. 16; so is fedth itself, PhiL iL 17; so prayers
and thankflgiving are an oblation, Heb. v. 7, ziil 15; and good works
are called '^ sacrifices," Heb. ziii 16, PhiL iv. 18; and our whole
Christian obedience is intimated by Peter so to ba In the sacrament
of the eucharist it is that you seek for your sacrifice. And if you
would be contented to call it and esteem it so, upon the accoimt of
its comprismg some of the things before mentioned, or merely as a
spiritual action appointed by Qod, and acceptable unto him, there
would be an end of this contest But you must have it ** a proper
sacrifice," like those of Aaron of old; not a " remembrance" of the
sacrifice. of Christ, but a " sacrifice of Christ himself," wherein ''Chris-
tus immolatur," *' Christ is sacrificed," as the council speaka

2. The sacrifices of old -were of two sorts: — (1.) Eucha/risticaly or
oblations of the firuits.of the earth or other thii^ whereby the sac-
rificers acknowledged Qod as the Lord and author of all good things
and mercies, with thanksgiving. (2.) Frapitiatarj/, for the atoning
of Qod,. the reconciling him unto sinners, for the turning away of his
wrath, and the impetration of the pardon of sin. This was done
typically and sacramaitally, by virtue of their respect unto the obla-
tion of Christ, by the old bloody sacrifices of the law; really and
effectually by that bloody sacrifice which the. Lord Jesus Christ once
offered for alL Now beouise, in the sacrament of the eucharist, it is
pur duty to offer up unto Qod our thankful prayers for his tmspeak-
able love in sending his only Son to die for us, we do not contend with
any who on that account, and with respect unto that peculiar act of
pur duty in it, shall call it a eucharisti€»l sacrifice, yea, affirm it so to
be. But you will have it a " propitiatory sacrifice ;" a sacrifice of
atonement, like that made by Christ himself; ** a (sacrifice for the sins
of the living and the dead/' makiog reoondUation with Qod, obtain-i

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411 AyiNDicjLTiooior9BSiiaDC0V»m]nioirFiA^

ii^ prnlM of a% aod etenal life; - 4ki^
ctf CloiBt in Vm death and psflBiaiLr

700 do wiMly^ tittt it iiMiy ha<« so offiui^ wHlt tti^ faMttMidtt of

one act or flw^ in yottf iBMi^ birt iQidfid it Mfl^yfitd
the manner of its celebration, firom the first setting forth of the ek»-
mento at btvad and mne irt»id wilh nvter, niKo' Acr tad of the
^Bniory, aftev Aeir transolBtaaliatbn wd veKgioas a^rsCien t&«f9-
t^o»^ and their ofbfi^mpttntoOodlii^b^ and Ucwd of Christ
imdcr th# aneidenlsi cS hi«ad aad irfne. The pt am t Mio n^ 9t the

bread and i«» yen wootd i^eve la b^ngf «nC» wur aaenfice ftoM
tiM ezampia of Metdiisedeh. Ymt hm m ^ki t m ti aumiB dsoef tfte
amnceaf il; fo»''irt;iafeqaimd]HaflncriA0^'^sajvyo«rBeflar^^
*'tiKt tiu^ smsibk Asng te be> effined wto God hd Aobj^ and
filnBlfd0itreyed^''I)olfifltt,liiKicaip 2: n^ehyra esteem ti^ stib-
atonoeef jroarhxeadaftdwiaetoheinyonrtaMnso^^ Toor

fcUgiowadofBtioo of the eoosecsrated be»ibel9fl|;e ako nttta it, fer
that in idM^ oaaon of the Buas^ laiiniediMCely csMiea y^
tktinf coaaecsafticxn hefovo the oMation itseli^ and so mM ttseesssnSy
be a pa»l of yMT saeriiceu Tour **olfefifl^ up )GWIo God ef Jesus
ehiJst^''pfqing'hittt9'ai0cept ef him «t the ]pdesfs:haiMhi(*'8eim
qrnspfiqAioctssmBd'^anMu ussp i e e re d%Mmel noeeplft^ hohefe^
briongsiatsO'UBt^it Sadoth yeurdiyeefioBof itt^AefmpitMngf
of God, ndtho osptetfoa of the^sins^of t^ qsach aatd the dead^; Che
cnnaonioi abo w hCT Sw kh' your taass m oelehratec^ as- 1 sappesr,
mostof tiMDihel(»{('toyoursacvtf»e. And tibese who bidfes*^ tiiem
i»ttabe»daiiM^ofpietyareaecat8edlMf yo«vconneSiof Tr^ The
|aeiast'aeatifli7 0fthS'hiestbelei!^ta'lAie^saovifie^ yeO) siith BeBM^
■Bae,iiis'"|Mn» ca gs nti al»g&er&eii^'''thoqgbn»t **tet&essen<^

not oonnt AiCManh t know' J9im ave alP i^ gmat hm and yarianee
$mumg pittselyee to ind ent wbaid it is thne is* pmpet^ f&9aR saeti-
fioa^ or whsNii^ Ae^ ODfl sa m of it diftthi oonsistL 0€me of yo«p £s*
otQpaoi'OpinisAsafftgiTeftusl^yoitfibiofn^ ''^San^'^

aaidk he^ * qui patant latibnom saigv^stf tetisMH cettslittti in verbis
pradb«% eeveuoniifii ot nCH^ni^ f» in oonseotntioAe aAsbenlor, eo
fnod sflsriiioii: mtiOj inftiunt, neqiit ia ^^e^KmraCimef eon»steiN»,
<|uin • oanlHu^ conseenrtiot ad mtbnom saer^^
natt&M& saceiicii peitmet MM e»s«iaMMit saeiiMi^ teAMem fribuo
saDee(hit]vaoliottbua)Oon0tee; o onoe ga wtio no, oMMIfidn^ et somftione.
Alii cpiAmi aensteofld ftiliiHiOBi hujns ancri^fieiif quittnor itno^itoinqoni
setaonea oobomrw^ eonseemlfoneai^ oUtttienem^ ftaetienem', somp^

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tione et oblatione. Alii constituunt totam rationem sacrificii in una
actione, viz., consecratione;" — "There are who think the nature of
the sacrifice to consist in the words, prayers, ceremonies, and rites
which are used in the consecration, because, they say, the nature of
the sacrifice cannot consist in the consecration itself, which rather
belongs unto the nature of a sacrament than of a sacrifice. Others
think that the sacrifice consists in three actions of the priest, — con-
secration, oblation, and sumption, or receiving of the host Others
in four or five, — as consecration, oblation, firaction, sumption. Others
in two,— consecration and oblation; and some in one, — consecration.''
And is not this a brave business, to impose on the consciences of allt
men, when you know not yourselves what it is that you would so'
impose! A sacrifice must be believed, and they are all accursedly
you that believe it not; but what the sacrifice is, and wherein it doth
consist, you cannot tell! And an easy matter it were to manifest that
all the particulars which you assign as those that either belong neces-*
sarily unto the. int^ity of a sacrifice, or those wherein some of you,
or any of you, would have its essence to consist, are indeed of no
such nature or importance; but that is not my present business. I
am only inqi^iiring what your sacrifice is, according unto your own
sense and imagination ; and that we may not mistake, I shall set
down such a general description of it as tiie canon of the mass, the
general rubric of the missal, the rites and cautels of its celebration,
will afford unto ua Now, in these it is represented as a sacred action;
wherein a proper priest or sacrificer, arrayed with various consecrated
attire, standing at the altar, taketh bread and wine, — about which he
useth great variety of postures and gestures, inclinations, bowings,
kneelings, stretching out and gathering in his arms, with a multi-
tude of crossings at the end and in the midst of his pronunciation
of certain words of Scripture, — turns them into the real natural body
and blood of Christ the Son of Qod ; worshipping them so converted
with religious adoration, showing them to tiie people for the same
purpose; and then offering the body and blood unto God, praying
for his acceptance of them so offered, and that it may be available
for the living and the dead, for the pardoning of their sins and sav-
ing of their souls: after which he takes that body of Christ, so made,
worshipped, and offered, and eats and devours it I By all which
Christ is truly and properly sacrificed!

This is the sacrifice of your church, wherein, as you inform us, the
main of your devotion and worship doth consist Of this sacrifice I
told you formerly the Scripture is silent; and I now add, that so
also is antiquity. . You cannot produce any one approved writer, for
the space of six hundred jeai^ that gives testimony to this your
sacrifice; for, whatever flomrish you may make with the ambigiiityJ

VOL. XIV. 27

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;416 AyiNDiGAiivW0rtfiBA3nKU)^nBKm<^

'of the Irani ^sioriiee,^ yAAfk ire deared before, jmir traittiibstaii-
-tiatioii, «nd oth«r4hiiigB«unerted by ycm to brioi^ unto the integrity
•if not die eaieiioe of yeur aAcrifiee, axe «traiigem mito an^^jtiity, as
'haAh baen liit^ fmȴed unto you, aad idH, no ckxAt^ be yet ftrther
'Miifiniied ao to ba.

I told you, aa you obaen^ that thia aacfttoe-iaaai titter aliaxiger
4o SeriptUTCi, aaaladttwt k kiaeoBBiateBi^nA^hatiB therein ddi*
•veied. The apoikUie» ia theBiMle to the HcAxrewa, phiidy alBmi«
iiiat the aMsifice of ibe diiflrah of the CSnialiaika'ia bat one, and {bat
"^40106 oflEeied fir «U»^ ^aveaatkaaeofthe^em, by reaaon <rf their
Impaifeotion, irare oAmi npMted; ^rfakh yea thooae out to lef^'
amtOi^and aay, '^li ii trueytbaaaaASneof oiirliord'apa8aioii,of which
the epoatla, in that arhola dfaaooraa, intenda only i» treat in oppod-
ikn unto that of balla and goiHa^'waaao dene biitonoe,^-^tbat it ooold
Slot be done <l«^; but a« tha aaor^easef ihe okl hew irere inala-
-tnted by Almigbty Ood, to ))a often keiated, before the passion of
^ MeasHUi, for « eottthuMl avetciae of reKgion, ao did tiie aame
Iioni, for tbe^Mryaama fVipaa^^ institiite another, to be iterated
After his death, unto wfaidhit -was > to 'hare lofcire ttp o -when it ahould
be paat, as ihafonner had %o the anmedeidiiivhen it wm to eome.^
Bo yon.

Bnt^ — l.Tmb^4lh$fm$tSon; for yon only wpest and say tiiat
pnh a saenfioa wem instituted fay Christy whieh you know is by na
utterly denied.|dahilycan^rafi»6e«^apo^, andorerthro^
bis whole tttgamant and dai^ {1.) It eoatradiots him in express
terms; for whereas he fis^a net only that ^^Ofariatonee offered'' him*
self, but also that be was ^ooceofiered^'ferallr-^^hatis, ^'nomore
to be offered,''— you ^JBnn that he is eften e&<ed, and that «7ery
day. (2.) His design is to daoooastiate the eseellenoy of the oondi-
tion<cf the church of the New Teatamant, and tbe worBhlp of God
therein above that <9(f the Old. JLnd thi» he proves to consbt herein
in « special maimer, that they had immy mwr^ieee, w)3ich were of
neoesB^ to be reiterated beoaosetheyoauld not take away am. ^For,"^
aaitli he, ''if tiiey could, l9ien should diey not have been repeated,
9or would there ha^ been need ef any other saerifieei But now/
salth he, ''this is done by the^ona ^oof^/Sotf of (%ri0t, whi^ ha4& ao
taken away sin as that it hotih made the repetition of itself orthe
institution of any other sacrifice, needless; and tlherefore we hare
no more but fliatxme, and that •one ian(M performed.^ Now, unless
you will deny the apaatievs aaseitions, eilber, — (1.) Thai if <aie sacri*
fioe can taloe sway ein, ihiaie is no need ^another; or, (2.) That the
one sacrifice of Christ dkl paifcolily take «w»y sin as to atonement;
and also, (8.) Assert that tiite OGnditi^ of the fospel church is siifl
the same wiUi that of ih^Jtm, aad that we have need of a aacrifice

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viiB Aim mAmufiB'uumATie^ iH

to be vepaite^ not oiilj as tiiein wfts, year bjr year, fron whence he
^igaeB (lie ippevfeotioii of the gmateet aoleiim 890iiAee of expiation,
hut ^7 by f^r, with a ftrtber wd greater weekmm (r^petttum, in
Ibe judgmoDt <^ tSm upesUe, being aa eyidenoe tbefeof),T-tbef?e will
be OP [dliioe h&f fi^r your sacrifice; tbttt is, your main worship be?
longs Mt to the ebuiqh of Ood at tXL (4) You pretend that in thie
wovsMp (3mst himself is escrifioed unto Qod, but ''inementer/' and
wilj^out sc^Eering; bnt the apostle pUbly i^ls ns that if be be od^&a
efiiBiedfaemiist'!oftenso$er/'Heh.ijL8& AndtheaacriftceofOhiist
without bia peasion» bis offering withootsttffering, emacnatee boOi tii»
eoe Md t\» 0lkm.

B^wb»tofaUtUe? Xf the apgsUesueedltiieeacriBce yon talk o^
that of the masi^ is it meet we ahenild do so elso? Heii^ you 09,
^ Wem not the i^pofsfles aooordii^ to this rite Xfrnu^mims r4» Kup/^,
^i9arifisingto pur gjDeat Xiwl Ood,' when Fanl wm by umosition of
\(m4fh segnytad ftv>in the laii^ to bis divine aearyice, as I clearly in
yqr |iAiagm|At evineed out ef the histoi^ of the Aots of the AposHes}
* jl^o/ say jfMf 'the appetles wieie npt tk^n about any sacrift»> b»t
only p9eiiii(N»gGod!8 w»rd» or a^me sudi thing; to the peoide, in the
Mine iand behalf of Qed*' But; m, m this to be in eamert, or jeetf
The MiGip^ teitsagw thej wens sa^ mrl4>ifi, lituigying and

f^iftigtering mto him; yon ai^ th^y w^sfe not sacrificing to Ood, but
wfy preeid^{i« to tbe pe^e. MA «ew the ^f/i&stiim is, wh^er
yp^prIi]Qi(»»righ4y!inid^pst^ For my sense

end meaning I ha^eidjantj^qpnjl^y.asw^aslhe plain wnrde of the
^korod tc«t; jm hare neither/'

Sow empty md jm Him di^^couiae of yoms is, wheprein you seem
gveetly to triumph, witf^cUy be diai^v)^^ ^J^youareamenj
man, if yoi^ tbink by 9^#b aq^pmenta m these to persuade m that
ijke apostles sacrificed to Qod aooprdkig to the rite of y«ur mass; ae
though we did wt know by whom the ehjyaf pi^ of it, particular^
^Mse whesein yoM fhc^ your imrifice, were invented, many hundreds
pf years affasr they fell adeep. 1. You say they were Xifrov^ouvrr^ ^f^
KMfi^y ''sacrificing to ou^ gueat LpQd Qod,"' as dKMigh it were Ood the
Father, or Ood abeplu^fy, that is mtended in that ^xpDe8sioD, f^
Kvf/|i, " To the Lpri'' 'p M.iff$^ '' The Iiord," is, air, pecrfiady denor
tatiye of the peifson of the mediator, ^eeps Christ, lOod and man,
eceording to that nde pven us by the apostle, ) Cor. yiiL 6, - To
us there is one Qod, the Fa^bffnr; .*c^ $k K(/yof, and one Lord Jesus
Christ"' Aijd this is the constant denotation of the word when used
^bsoltttely, as heie it is, throMgfaont the whole New Testamendi;. To
Chriflt the mediator wens the churches ministering, AotsxiiL 2; that
is, in his n<a)(^.and wthoritj, acoording to his appointment, and unto
biaseryice* ijad this one obe^tva^on sufficiently discpy^

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of your argument; for you will not say that they offered sacrifice to
the Lord Christ emphatically and reduplicatively, seeing, if you may
be believed, it is he whom they offered in sacrifice. Of such force is
the sophism wherein you boast I And, 2. Tou wisely observe that
Paul, by the impocdtion of hands there mentioned, was segr^ated
firom the laity; whereas he tells you that he was ''an apostle"
(wherein certainly he was segregated from the laity), ''neither of
men, nor by men, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father," GaL
L 1 ; that is, there was no intimation or interposition of the ministiy
or authority of any man in his call to that office, which he had fn'
sundiy years exercised before this his peculiar separation to the work
of preaching anew to the Gentile& So well are you skilled in the
sense of that apostolical book ! 3. And not to insist on the repeti-
tion of my former answer, which in your wonted manner you lamely
and unduly represent, could you by other arguments, and on other
testimonies, prove that the sacrifice you j^ead for was instituted by
Christ and offered by the apostles, there might posdbly be some
colour for a man to think that they performed that duty also when
they were said TairottpytTy in the service of Ood; but from that gene-
ral expression, intimating any kind of public mimstry whatever, and
never used in any author, sacred or profane, precisely and absolutely
to signify sacrificing, to conclude that they were offering sacrifice, and
to use no other testimony to prove they had any such sacrifice, is such'
a fondness as nothing but insuperable prejudice can persuade a man in
his right wits to give countenance unto. St Paid tells us that the
magistrate is Xurovpyhi ei oD, — doth he mean that he is Qod's sacrificery
or his minister? And he isays of himself that he was Xuroupyhg rcS
Xpi^rov, — doth he intend that he was Christ's sacrificer, or Ins servant?
Bom. XV. 16, 27, he says that it was the duty of the Gentiles, >mtw^
yfjtfat 9¥ roTi <fapxixoTi, — doth he mean to sacrifice in your carnal things,
or to minister of them to the Jews? But you will, it may be,
except that they were not said \tirwpyi^ rf Kupif, as those h&re
(that is, the prophets of the church of Antioch, and not the apostles,
as you mistake) are said to do, " to liturgy to the Lord ;" it must needs
be sacrificing, because it was '' to the Lord" But^ (1.) I have diowed
you how this pretence is perfectly destructive of your own intend*
ment, in that rt is the Lord Christ that is especially meaot, unto
whom distinctly you will not say they were sacrificing. And, (2.)
Were it not so, yet the expression would not give you the least colour
of advantage. What think you of 1 Ssaa. iii 1, Kai ^h woutaptw
So/DwuiiX ?r UtrovfiyHf rfj Kupftgf ivttMiiw 'HX/' — " And the child Samuel
was liturgying" (seeing you will have it so) ** unto the LoBD be-
fore Eli?" Do you think that the child, which was not of the
family of AarcHi, nor yet called to be a prophet, was oSenng sacrifioe

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MASS AND transubstantiation; 421

to God, and the high priest looking on? Do you not see the fond*
ness of your pretenaon? (3.) I told you before, but now begin to
fear that you are too old to learn what you do not like, that the
LXX. never translated ^^J, " sacrifice/' or to sacrifice, by Xurov^yia
or' Xnrovpyu, nor intimate any sacrifice anywhere by that word, ^d
you may, if you please, now learn, by the instance of Samuel, that
what men perform in the worship of God according to his command,
they may be said therein to " minister unto or before the Lord in."
(4) The note of your own Cajetan upon the place is worth your c(msi-
deration : " Non explicatur species ministerii ; sed ex eo quod dixerant
(prophetsB et doctores) insinuatur quod ministrabant Domino, docendo
et prophetando;" — ''What kind of ministry is spoken of is not explain-
ed ; but by saying they were prophets and teachers (that were employed
in it), it is inonuated that they ministered UQto the Lord by teaching
and prophesying." What have prophets and teachers to do with
sacrifice? If as such they administered unto the Lord, they did it by
prophesying and teaching, whidi were accompanied by prayer. Here
is no mention of sacrifice nor work for priests; so that the context ex-
cludes your sense. The same is the interpretation of Erasmus. (5.)
Your vulgar Latin [the Vulgate] reads the words, " administrantibus
Domino," as they were " ministOTUg unto the Lord," excluding their
notion of sacrificing. And, (6.) The Syriac transposeth the words,
and interprets the sacrifice intended in them pDBOnDI X\n )^>v ppi nat
Kr6«^,— ^and when they " were fasting and praying unto the Lord."

Online LibraryAndrew Thomson John OwenThe works of John Owen, Volume 14 → online text (page 51 of 67)