Andrew Thomson John Owen.

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Praying (together with prophesying and preaching) was theu* mi^
nistzy, not sacrificing. To the same purpose all ancient translations,
not one giving countenance imto your fancy. So well have you the
plain words of the sacred text for you I (7.) Are you not ashamed to
boast that you have aU antiquity for your sense and meaning? Pro-
duce any one ancient author, if you can, that gives the least coun-
tenance unto it This boasting is uncomely, because imtrue. Belkr-
mine, out of whom you took your plea from this place, and your quo-
tation of Erasmus in your " Fiat," cannot produce the suffrage of any
one of the andents fov your interpretation of the words ; no more can
any of your commentators. The homilies of Chiysostom on that
passage are lost (Ecumenius is quite blank against you; so is Ca-
jetan, Erasmus, and Yatablus of your own. And do you not now see
what is become of your boasting? And are not your countrymen
beholding unto you, for endeavouring so industriously to draw them
oflF from the institution of Christ, to place their confidence and devo-
tion in that which hath not the least footstep in Scripture or anti-
quity, but is expressly condemned by them both? But, to tell you
my judgment, you will prevail with very few of them to answer your
desirea Will they judge it meet and equal, think you, to change a

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4^ A YINDICAflOK 6F Hdt llTlMAdtStitiOlm 6^ FUT LUX.

MefiSed sacsrament thkt) C^irifil killii ttpfx^ted, to eulrttd^ A i^toifiel
Iha^ jroU hikve inV^ted? te l^ve eatiing upo& God^ aoccffdilig id tii^
eense Off thei^ irahtfl; idtb imciarstGUi^iig, am th#f do in Oaf edetxla^
tioll^<tf tiie eudMttist whieli i^0# tbey ei^oy, to att^d ttttto a pneA
tometimeft trm^^^HYi^, sometidittr Mfin$i aoiiietilii^ ^iingitig ft deld
trf Latm, wliete<^ t^y uad^Madd Hevtsf & ir^ot^r to fbrego tiiat ki^
teraid htimiUty^ dell-abfiseme&t, atid jmistarttfioii of i^til qbIo God,
wM(^ Ibey are iiltir^ u&tb in tihat liuartmieat,- to become «pifiMi/0^
of the ikeatrioal getfk^ite <rf yoo^ fiAdrifesendf Besides, Ibey Ift^ n#l
ttUo to &mp\f i^itk yottf req^^ aad %c> isdie yoitf mass Ibe siitn
(rf theiir derotkm and iHAAif d God, WitliMt offeiii^ th^ higfatti
vicdeficd to their fiiith fi6 Ukrf aiie Cfeis&mci, their retiSOti Us A^
a;te m^, and that sense wlii(& the^ have in eoa^oon itith othe^
ereatures. And what i^ yon^ oi^ whoit ha^e you doM ibf' th^ifii
that you diouM ait onde expeot mieh a ^liise lat]gene0iB at th^

I For your fidth, if H be gt'Otinded k the Sdripfe:^ ati ^ety tm^
Protestant's is, your sa(arifice, if admitted, wifl unquestionably eVert it>

1. To aooej^ of a if otship pretended to be of su<^ hi^ i]dq)ort«
ance as to be availalde fbr ti^ impetration of gtaee, m^^, pdi^on
of sin% remoTal of pnni^ni^nt, life etehial fbr the tiving and the
dead, destitute of all foundalaon ih ot countenanee frmi the 8<nip^
ture, [is] absolutely inconsistent with ther Ced^

2. It is no less, to hare a mcrarnent, whidi is given unto us of
God its a pledge and token ot hk lore and grade, turned into a ^oeri^
ftce, which is a thing by us offered tento God and aoo^ted by him|
so th^t they di£^, as in other things, do in thear termsi '^ a quo,'" a^
"ad quem,** from what they proceed, and by whom they ate tbCtiepteA

9. Beffldes, they will quidcly discover yoUr pretensions to be oo^i^
traiy unto what the ScriptntB teachetb theM, both Concerning the
sacii^ of Christ and also his institution of hk hst suppeiP, wfa^ id
your rulO) ahd ^oonipriseth the Whole of your duty in the adn^ix^st^
tion of ii They do not find that tharein Christ (^fered hkoself unto
his Fathet, but td his disciples: not to him, to be aooepted 4( hhn;
but to them, to be by fidth received.

4 And whereas the apostle expressly afflroto thAt '* he od^ed idtik*
self but once,'" if he ofifered himsdf a sacrifice in his last su^f, yM
must m^dntlim that he ofiered himself twice, nnlesi^yoiiw^ deny hi8
sacrifice on the CTo^

, 5. Moreover, it is greatiy oppoiate to yotiT dountiymen's &£& Itbouft
the priesthood of Qirist and his reid sacri^ce j which iate %» them
things of that moment, that whodoet<^ iih^es th^ M^ m knd
about them diake& the Very foundations ot their hope, comK^ation^
and salvation. They have been taught that Chrifi^ ir^nabs a high

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{nieBt far ever; afid tiie mtdtipfiesticm ofipiieirt8 in faeoeaHbii aoruing
merely from the mortality and death of them thai piooeded, ih&f
belieire that xuy pnesfr can be aabalitatad vnto him in faia office to
aflEbr a proper aaoASea mito Qod» the same which he oftced himaelQ
wiAopt a toppoBJiJOtt of aai iMnffifiency iit him for his work. Ibis
true, there aie psoKms wh<^ bk hb name aDdantfaortly, as he is the
great prophet <^ tbeehumhy do miniBtflr UMlo ity whom some of tb
either as the word may be an abbre?ie(lum dT ptesbyte r , or oat of
analogy mito them who of ddserKedaA the altai\ do Ofldlpriesta: but
that any sboold intsv^ene between Gbdand CSurist in aaciifioiiq;^ or
the diidiaige of his puiesHy eSee^ yea will not find your ooantiynMi
iea<fy to bdBe^e^ for thqr ate penroaded tboM are as man^
and sureties as priests or samfiopin of the asw oevenaail

6. llereover, they believe that the saciifide of the mass is a Ugh
d e rogation from the virtoe and efficacy of the saorifise of Christ oa,
the crossy and tobe set up ia oompetitam wiih it

7. They are at a stand at the whdb niattes^ - «4o see yoa tumiiig
bread and wine into that Teiy body and blood of Christ wh^

en the erofls^ and tilien to wordnp them, and then to pmy to Qod to
aooept at your baodfa that Christ which yoii» have mad^ and then to
eat himl But when they conader that by so doing you suppose
youisehnes to efEbot that whkdt they briiete to be wrought only by
the Uood of the cross of Ohristi^ onoe offsred for aH^ and therein imoy
a sacrifioe of Christy wherein he dMt not^ oontrary to so many ex-
press testimonies of Seripture^ they are utterly averse from it: for
whereas they look for redemptioB^ forgiveness a( am, and recondliai>
tion with God, by the one saorifiee of Christ up<m tfie cross (wberaia
consists the fouadatiDBrof their hope and oonsolation; beoaiuse it, being
absotutely perfect, was everyway able and suffident, wi&out any re*
petition, as the apostle teacheth them, to take awi^ sin, and for ever
to consunaoate them that ase sanctified), you teadi them now to look
for the same things from tUs saarifice of yotire; which would make
them question the validity and perfodaom of that of Christ

8. And when they hove so <k)ae^ yet they would stffl be forced to
qtnstbn the validity of yoms, because it is a preteonded sacrifice of
Ohffkt without his deodt, which they know to have been indiqpenr
saUy required to render hie sacrifioe valid and effectual

9. And they oannat but tluak that thia repeated sacrifioe, being
petended to be for the veiy same ends and purposes with iksA of
Christ himself is very apt to take e£f the loinds and confidence of
nraii from that one sacrifice performed so long ago, which they have
not seen, and to fix them on that which their eyes daify look upon,
as the '^ prsesens num^' that they can immediately apply themselves
unto, liius they fear that insenribly all foith of l^etiue propitiation

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wrought by Christ is obliterated, and that which they think an idol
set up in the room of it

10. And, which farther troubles them, they are jealous that by
this your fiction you quite overthrow the testament of Christ, which
certainly no man ought to endeavour the disannulling of; for whereas
in this sacrament believers come to receive from him the great l^acy
of his body and blood, with all the firuits of his death and passion,
you direct them to be ofifering and sacrifidng of them unto God:
which quite alters the will of our great testator. And very many
other things there are wherein your countrymen affirm that your
sacrifice is contrary to the Mth wherein finom Scripture they have
been instructed, and that in things of the greatest importance to
their consolation here and salvation hereafter.

IL Neither ia this all: your request also lies cross to your rect$on
no less than to your faith; for your sacrifice cannot be performed
without a supposition of a change of the substance of the bread and
wine into the substance of the body and blood of Christ, and the
substance of that body and blood in eveiy consecrated host^ under
the species of bread and wine, Christ himself alive being in ev^
host and every partide of it Hence many things, they say, ensue
which no man can possibly admit of without offering violence xmto
the main principles of that reason whereby we are distinguished firom
the beasts that perisL Some few of them may be instanced in: —

1. Accidents subsisting withaui a subject follows hence necessarily,
in the first place: so that there should be whiteness, and nothing
white; length, and nothing long; breadth, and nothing broad; weighty
and nothing heavy, — ^for all these accidents of bread remain, when you
would have them say that the bread ia gone, — so that there is IcdPt a
white, sweet, long, broad, heavy nothing! This your countrymen
cannot understand.

2. Besides, they say, you hereby teach them that one and the
^ame body of Christ which is in heaven is also on the altar; not
by an impletion of the whole space between heaven and earth, that
some part of it should be in heaven and some on earth, but that the
one body which is in heaven, and whilst it is there, is also on the
tJtar, in the accidents of bread; which upon the matter is, that one
and the same body is two, yea, a hundred or a thousand, according
as in the mass you are pleased to multiply it Now, that one and
the same body should be locally divided or separated from itself^ —
that whilst that one body is on the altar, that other one body, which
is the same, should be in heaven, — your countrymen think to imply
•a contradiction.

3. And so, also, they do that a body should be in any place, and
yet not as a body, but as a spirit. For whereas you say that whole

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Christ is contained tinder each species of bread and wine, and under
eveiy the most minute part of either species^ as your council speaks,
you make the body of Christ to be whole in the whole, and whole
in every part; when the veiy nature of a body requires that it have
" partes extra partes,'' — ^its parts distinct fix)m one another, and those
occupying their distinct particular places. But you make the body
of Christ neither to be compassed in nor to fill ti)e place wherein it
is; that is, to be in a place and not to be in a place. For if it be a
body, and be under the specied of bread and wine upon the altar, it
is in a place; and if it be not comprehended in that space where it
ia, and doth fill it, it is not in a place: and therefore is there and is
not there at the same tima

4. And, moreover, we all know that the consecrated wafer bears
no proportion to the true natural body of Christ; and yet this is
said to be contained under that: so that the body contained is much
greater and farther extended than the body that contains it or the
space wherein it is; for it is so under the host as not to be elsewhere,
unless in another host

6. Nay, it is in every minute part of the host; which multiplies
contradictions in your assertion.

6. Of the same nature is it that you are forced to feign the same
body in ten thousand distant places at the same time, and that with
all contradictory adjv/ncts and affections. Now, your countrymen
think that these and innumerable other consequences of your tran-
' ^substantiation, which you presuppose to your sacrifice, or rs^er make
a principal part thereof, are sudi as overthrow the whole order of
nature and being of things, and leave nothing certain among the
sons of men.

III. Their sense is equally engaged against you with their reason.
Your host is visible, tai^ble, gustable. When they see it, they see
bread; when they feel it» they feel bread; when they taste it, they
taste bread ; and yet you tell Uiem it is not bread. Whom shall they
believe? If things be not as they see th^m, feel them, taste them,
it may be they are not men, nor do go on their feet, but are deceived
in all these ttdngs, and suppose they see, perceive, and understand
what they do not You tell them, indeed, that the bread is changed
into the body of Christy that body that was bom of the blessed Vir-
gin, and was crucified at Jerusalem; that all taste, length, breadth,
weight is taken away firom it; and that the taste and weight of the
bread is continued, which are the things they see, feel, and taste.
But they likewise tell you that your persuasion is an inveterate pre-
judice, which you have blindly captivated your minds unto, and that
if you would but give yourselves the liber^ of exercismg any reflex
thoughts upon your own acts^ you would find that, upon the suppo-

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tttions 70a prboedd on, you hasm nofc ajjiasl groancb to (bucfaiidb
younelve§ to be linng moi; for yoo tesrii mdn to dJ&aj^ and q«e»*
tion all that from laason or aenn you can itiaist tipon to jftom tliat.
80 jrou ava On thoM and Ae like aoooimti^ tha enoomimas you gite
of your aacnAoa will aoavos pnvail idA ywff oouaferfinoa to^ retin-
quiah all the wonhip of Qod^ whereiii. tbey find daify comfcrt waA
iKbrantaga to their aoak^ for tbe eml»aoem«nt of k



Uim> the ISili cbiptet of tho ^ Animadfeittoiifi,'' dirootod to
pacagrojdi of ikn bleated .^nrgin^ you oanfindj it aeenui noAmgto aay;^
and therefero betake yotuaelf to olamonma levSing^ All tibnt yoa
aay in your " Fiat'' on this h«ad ia but a heay of fidaa aooaaatiooa
against Protestants for dishonouring her; and all thatyoH aayin yoor
opisUe in its vindication ia raJlii^ at me for niinding yon of 3^our
miscarriage. My whole book, you say, ianothing but *^ cnhimniffl, a
bundle of slanders^ a mere quiTor of sharp arrowa of deaolatidn." I
am not aony that you are aensiUe that it hath airows in it^ tending
to the deeolation d your abominataona; but I challenge yoa to gif%
an instance of any coo calumny or sbouler in it, from the beginmng
to the end. If you do not do so^ I here declare you to be really and
highly guilty of that whidi you would felsely impose upon another.
Free yourself by aome one instance if you can ; if you caimot^ yoot
reputation will follow your conscience whither it will be haid fer you
to fiikl them again. The substance of that d&apter ia this, which ia
all that I shall now say to your nothing agunst it : — ^Protestants yield
to the blessed Yiigm all tiie honour that the Scripture aUows them
or directa them unto, or that the primitive diuroh did aambe imta
her; and the Papists give her the honour due to Qod alone, whereby
they horriUy didionour God and ber.


biagM^^Dootrin^ ef ^th« Mvoeil of TusnU-Of the ieotmd Nieeaa— The avgur
ments for thm adoration •£ imago — Doctrine of the ancient church — Of tha
chief doctrine of the Roman church — Practice of the whole — ^Vain foundi^
tions of the pretences for imag^worship examined and disprored.

YouK n^tt {moednre is to your dBoourse of figures or fana^gesi
atiid my animiidvetaioiia upon it And here you aay, '' you will

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eoftid up d&ee linio iile;.^^-«-yoa meaiv in ref^lyiog Tmt6 what I del^
vered about it But, mx^ I thotij^ tliit had been oontraty to your
design; you profeawd^ at the beginniiig of your epistlei that it was
£0, and hme maA6 good use of that dedamtion of youiself by avoids
iBg eveiy thing inmy disoourae that you found yomvelf preesed witfa^
Ittd t<k) (UffiouH a tadi for you to deal withaL Why do you now
begin to foiget youl:fe€d^ and to oast oS the pretence you have hitherto
shadowed ydui^self under,, and elcused younelf by^ from terg iv cwa-
iioai Surely you think you are upoik this head able to say JOfM*-
what td the pnrpoeef whioh you despaired ci doing upon others of as
g#eat importanoe; and therefove now you may argue and diqmte^
which before the desi^ ^your ^^i^'' would not pennit yout6 d(X
As for a0 1 can obsevrei yoti slpeak nothiikg at any tame but what you
think is at present for your tuAn; but whetiier it hare any consist^
ency with Uiat which elsewhere you have delxveifed, you make it no!
feuieh youj^ oonoemment to inquira. But we shall quickly see whe«
thef you had any just ground of enoouiag^ment to harness youiseU^
and to come up^ as you speak, '' dose to me'' in this business or na
It Inay be^ heiote the close of our diaoourae, you will begin to think
it had been as well for you to have persisted in your former aivoid*
ance, as to make this profession of a dose dispute. And^ whatever you
pretend to the ccmtrary, leaHy you have done sa Ton hide the opi«
nion and practice of your chiuch about the worship of images^ wUch
you seem to be ashamed o^ instead of defending them; and etcepi
against some passages in my '^ Animadversions,'' instead of soswering
ike whole, which you seem to pretend unto. I shall, thereforo> de*
dare what is the true judgment of your church in this matter, and
then vindicate the passages oi my discourse which you take notice of
in your exertions; oad under both heads declare the abomination
of your £aith and jttactice in your doctrine about images and worship
of them.

The doctrine of your diurdi in this matter I suppose we may be
acquainted with from the determinati^ma of your couneih, the expli^
eation of your most famous cbciort, the practice of your people^ and
Ihe distinctions used by you to quit yourselves ficom idoh^ in youv
doctrine and practice. And you will thereby leam, ot may, at leasti
to what purpose it is foi^ you to seek to palliate tad hide the de^
formity of that whidi your mother tad hat wise men have made
naked to all the world

Your council of Trent is v^ waiy in this matter, as it was in most
o( its oth^ afiGEdrs; and, indeed, seeing it was resolved not to give
place to the truths it became it so to be, that it might keep any
footing in the milids of men, and not tumble headlong into contempt
and reproach. Many difficulties it had to wrestle wiihal It saw thQ

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428 A vindication: of the andcadvebsions on fiat lux

practice of their church, which was not totally to be desertedi lest
the great mystery of its infedlibility should be impaired, and its
nakedness laid open; the general complaint, on the other side, of
learned and sober men, that, under a pretence of image-worship, as
horrible idolatry was brought into the church of God as ever was
practised amongst the heathen, did not a litUe perplex it It had
also the various and contradict(»y opinions of tiie great doctors of
your church and masters of your faith about the kind of worship
which is due to images ; all which had great followers ready to dispute
endlessly in the maintenance of their several conceits. Amidst tiiese
rocks and oppositions, the fathers found no way to sail safely, but by
the help of general and ambiguous words, — a course which, in the like
difficulties, had frequently before stood them in good stead: where-
fore they so expressed themselves, that no party at variance among
them might think their opinions condemned, that the general practice
of their church might be countenanced, and yet no particular asserted
that was most obnoxious to the exceptions of the Lutherans. Thus,
then, they speak: '^ Imagines porro Christi, Deiparse Yirginis et
aliorum sanctorum in templis prsBsertim habendas et retinendas;
eisque debitum honorem et venerationem impertiendam, non quod
credatur,* — quoniam honos qui eis exhibetur refertur ad prototypa,
quae ilto representant;" with much more to that purpose. And we
may observe, that the decree speaks only of the images of Christy
the blessed Virgin, and other saints, not expressly mentioning the
images of God the Father, of the Trinity, and of the Holy Ghost^
nor of angels, which they knew to be made, and to be had in vene-
ration in their church. Nor do they anywhere reject the use, making,
or worshipping of them; yea, in their following words they do
plainly allow of the figuring of the Deity. " Quod," say they, " si
aliquando historias et narrationes sacrsB Scripturse, quum id indoctae
plebi expediet, exprimi et figurari contigerit, doceatur populus, non
propterea divinitatem figurari quasi coiporeis oculis conspici, vel co-
loribus aut figuris exprimi possit" The words are, as most of the rest
in this particular, as ambiguous as the oraHes of Delphi This
cannot be denied to be in them, however, — 1. " That the unlearned
people are to be taught that the Deity is not painted or figured, as
though it could be seen or expressed by colours, but for some other
end," as it seems for their instruction: which, indeed, is honest and
fair dealing; for they plainly tell them that by their pictures they
teach them lies, the language of the picture being that God may be

> The words are extracted from Can. et Deo. Cona Trid. sees. 25. The sentence is
obsenre^ as it stands aboTe, fh>m the omission of tiie following words after "« credatnr :**
— " inesse aliqna in iis divinitas Tel Tirtus, propter quom sint colendfie, vel quod ab eia
sit aliqnid petendnm, vel quod fiducia in imaginibus sit figenda Teluti olim fiebat a gau
tibus qu» in idolis spem suam ooUocabant; sed — — w" — ^Ed.

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80 pictured, whereby all your pictures and images of Grod the Father
as an old man, of the Tnnity as one person with three faces, and the
Holy Ghost as a dove, are approved. 2. Religious worship of images is
confirmed. "Due honour and veneration," or worship, " is to be given
unto them,'" saith the coundL Now, it is not mutual compliment
they are discoursing about There is no such intercourse between
their images and them ordinarily, though sometimes dvil salutations
have passed between them; nor is it any token of civil subjection, for
images have no eminency or authority of that kind : but it is divine
or religious veneration and worship which they aflSrm is to be assigned
unto tibem. 3. They say that " due honour and veneration,'' that is
religious, is to be assigned unto them, but what in especial that
honour and worship is, they do not determine: whether it be the
same that is due to the sampler, as some, the most of your divines
think, or whether it be an honour of some inferior nature, as others
contend, " pugnant ipsi nepotesque," the synod leaves them where it
found them, sufficiently at variance among themselves. 4 They
£Eurther assert the worship that is given by them to in^es to be re-
ligious or divine, in that they aflSrm the honour done to the image
is referred unto the prototype which it doth represent Now, suppose-
this be Jesus Christ himself: I suppose that they will grant that all
the honour we yield to him by any n^ay or means is divine or religi-
ous; and therefore so, consequentiy, that which they would have to be
given unto his image (that is, a stock or stone, which they fancy so to-
be) must be so also. Now, sir, you may see from hence what it is
that you are to speak unto and to defend, or else to hold your peace
in this matter. And I shall yet make it a little more plain unto
you. Your Trent council approves and commends the second coun-
cil of Nice, as that which taught and confirmed that doctrine and
practice about images and their worship which your church allow&
I shaQ, therefore, briefly let you know what was the judgment of
that council, and what was the doctrine and practice confirmed in it,-
under many dreadful anathematism&

This second of Nice, or pseudo-synod of the Greeks, as it is called
by the council of Frankfort^ whereunto we are sent by the Tridentine
fieithers to be instructed in the due worship of images, was assembled
by the authority of Irene the empress, a proud imperious woman,
and her son Constantino, whose eyes she afterward put out, and
thrust him into a monastery, in the year 490. Tharasius was then
patriarch of Constantinople, and Hadrian the first bishop or pope of
Boma This man, most zealously or superstitiously addicted unto
the worship of images, and that contrary to the jud^ent of most of
the western churchesi, as soon afterward appeared in the council

Online LibraryAndrew Thomson John OwenThe works of John Owen, Volume 14 → online text (page 52 of 67)