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Andrew W. (Andrew White) Young.

The American statesman : a political history exhibiting the origin, nature and practical operation of constitutional government in the United States; the rise and progress of parties; and the views of distinguished statesmen on questions of foreign and domestic policy : with an appendix, containing online

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Online LibraryAndrew W. (Andrew White) YoungThe American statesman : a political history exhibiting the origin, nature and practical operation of constitutional government in the United States; the rise and progress of parties; and the views of distinguished statesmen on questions of foreign and domestic policy : with an appendix, containing → online text (page 1 of 118)
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THE AMERICAN STATESMAN: A POLITIC AL HISTORY,
ft y Andrew f. Young.

The best of evidence that Abraham Lincoln
owned and read a copy of this work is found
in the fact that the original prospectus or
agent's subscription sales book, in which
Lincoln signed up for a copy, has been pre-
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ommendation of the book, followed by the sig-
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Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

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AMERICAN STATESMAN:

A POLITICAL HISTORY,

EXHIBITING THE

ORIGIN, NATURE AND PRACTICAL OPERATION OF CONSTITUTIONAL
GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES ;

THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF PARTIES ;



VIEWS OP DISTINGUISHED STATESMEN ON QUESTIONS OF FOREIGN
AND DOMESTIC POLICY;

WITH AN APPENDIX,

CONTAINING

{%lanatoti $jta, $0liiM fetgs, SMsiM Information,

AND OTHER USEFUL MATTER.



BY ANDREW W. YOUNG,

Author of " Science of Government," " First Lessons in Civil Government," " Citizen's
Manual of Government and Law '



N E W-Y E K :
DERBY & JACKSON, 119 NASSAU-STREET.

INDIANA -—STEARNS & SPICER, INDIANAPOLIS.

1856.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, by

ANDREW W. YOUNG,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Northern

District of New York.



JOHN J. REED,

Stereotyper and Printbb

16 Spruce Street, N. Y.



rrui

u



5't



PREFACE



The general diffusion of political knowledge is essential to
public prosperity, and to the security of our liberties. A gov-
ernment, whatever its form, is not really free, when its theory
and practical operation are not understood by the great body
of those from whom its powers are derived. Universal suffrage
is valuable only as its exercise is directed by an enlightened
public sentiment.

While these propositions are universally acknowledged as
self-evident truths, it must be confessed, that the knowledge
of our government is too limited to secure the uninterrupted
enjoyment of'the benefits of good administration. A large por-
tion of our citizens assume the duties and responsibilities of
freemen, without the information requisite to a faithful dis-
charge of these vast responsibilities devolved upon them by the
constitution and laws. Many of them, ambitious of civil honors,
accept important public trusts, with attainments in political
science too circumscribed to enable them to render efficient ser-
vice to the state, or to gain to themselves an honorable dis-
tinction. In the character and acts of many of our legislative
bodies, does the truth of this remark find abundant confirma-
tion.

The design of this work is to bring within the reach of our
citizens generally, in a single volume, the greatest possible
amount of that kind of information which all ought to possess ;
but which is to be obtained elsewhere only in works so volumi-
nous and expensive as to render it inaccessible to the greater
portion of the community.

A prominent and essential feature of the work is, that on all
controverted questions, whether involving constitutional prin-



IV PREFACE.

ciples, or mere considerations of expediency, the substance of
the arguments on both sides has been faithfully and impar-
tially given. On subjects of party controversy, the author has
withheld the expression of his own opinions, deeming it best to
leave the unconfirmed politician to the exercise of his own
unbiased judgment in forming his conclusions. By thus pre-
senting the different views of our ablest statesmen, the work
will be rendered valuable to the political student as a consti-
tutional expositor, and as a guide to the formation of enlight-
ened opinions on questions of public policy ; while to the
more advanced politician, the great variety of its matter will
make it convenient and useful as a book of reference.

Neither the capacity nor the design of this work, has per-
mitted the introduction of local politics. The selection of
matter has been almost exclusively confined to subjects of a
national character. Notwithstanding the volume has been
swelled far beyond its intended size — embracing most of the
principal subjects of our political history — much useful and
interesting matter has been necessarily passed over, which may
hereafter appear in a supplementary volume.

It has been an object of much care to make the work a reli-
able one. Its statements are founded principally upon the
official records of the government. In the condensation of
speeches, reports, and other documents, pains have been taken
to present their strongest points, as well as their true meaning.
Where recourse to other sources of information has been neces-
sary, reference has been had to approved and standard works,
among which are those of Marshall, Pitkin, Bancroft, HUdreth,
and others.

That the work, nevertheless, contains some slight inaccura-
cies, is not improbable. It is believed, however, that it will be
found free from material errors ; and that it will be acknow-
ledged to possess claims to the public favor, and conduce in
some good degree, to a higher and a more general appreciation
of our political institutions.



CONTENTS,

o ■ o » ♦

CHAPTER I.

THE SETTLEMENT OF THE COLONIES, AND THEIR FORMS OF GOVERNMENT.

O.'igin of our republican institutions, 21. Charter governments; landing of the
puritans, 22. Government of the New England colonies, 23-26. Royal or
provincial governments, 26-30. Proprietary governments, 30

CHAPTER II.

TAXATION OF THE COLONIES, AND OTHER CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION. INDE-
PENDENCE SECURED.

The right of colonial taxation by England denied, 33. British navigation acts,
35. Manufactures in colonies suppressed, 36. Stamp act, 37-39. Congress
of deputies' petition for relief, 38. Franklin deputed to England, 39. Parlia-
ment asserts the right to tax in all cases, 39. Glass, paper, &c, taxed, 40.
Enforcement of the laws resisted, 41. Non-importing associations, 41, 42.
General court adjourned to Cambridge, 42. Boston riots, 43. Tea destroyed,
43-44. Boston port bill, 44, 45. Congresses of 1774 and 1775 ; hostilities
commenced, 46. Independence declared, 47.

CHAPTER III.

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CONFEDERATION. — TREATY WITH FRANCE. NEGO-
TIATION WITH GREAT BRITAIN. — PEACE. — CALL FOR A CONVENTION.

Nature of the confederation, 48. State governments formed. 49. Alliance with
France; attempts at conciliation, 50, 51. Congress of Vienna, 51. Treaty of
peace, 52. Defects of the confederation, 52. Difficulties with Great Britain
and Spain, 55, 58. Shay's insurrection, 56. Movements for a convention, 57.
Cession of the western lands, 58. Anti-slavery ordinance, 58, 59.

CHAPTER IV.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONVENTION IN FORMING THE CONSTITUTION.

Constitutional convention organized, 60. Plans of government proposed, 61-62.
Slavery and the rule of apportionment, 64-71. Compromises, 70, 71. Execu-
tive department, plan of, 71, 72. Federalists and anti-federalists 73. Constitu-
tion ratified, 73, 74.

CHAPTER V.

MEETING OF THE FIRST CONGRESS. A SYSTEM OF FINANCE ADOPTED. — THE

FUNDING OF THE PUBLIC DEBT. THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT.

Meeting of Congress in New York ; election of Washington and Adams ; acts for
the encouragement of manufactures and navigation, 75, 76. Power of removal,
76. Washington's cabinet ; constitutional amendments, 77. Plans of finance ;
funding of the public debt, 78-85. North Carolina cedes her western lands,
8i. Seat of government, 85, 86.



VI CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VI.

EXCISE ON DISTILLED LIQUORS. — INCORPORATION OF A NATIONAL BANK. — AP«
PORTIONMENT BILL. — WAR WITH THE WESTERN INDIANS.

Proposed increase of duties, 86. Opposition to the administration, 87. National
bank, 88-91. Kentucky admitted into the union, 92. Apportionment of
representatives, 93, Indian hostilities, 93,94. Tariff increased, 94.

CHAPTER VII.

opposition to Washington's administration. — differences between
secretaries jefferson and hamilton. whisky insurrection. fugi-
tive law. — constitution amended.

position to the administration ; Cabinet controversy ; Jefferson and Hamilton,
95-101. Their letters to Washington, 102-104. Whisky insurrection, 105,

106. Re-election of Washington and Adam?, 106. Charges against Hamilton,

107. Fugitive slave law, 107, 108. Amendment of the constitution, 108.

CHAPTER VIII.

OPPOSITION TO THE ADMINISTRATION. — RELATIONS WITH FRANCE. PROCLA-
MATION OF NEUTRALITY. GENET, THE FRENCH MINISTER. POLICY OF

GREAT BRITAIN.

French revolution, 109. Our relations with France, 110. Proclamation of
neutrality, 111, 112. Difficulties with Genet, the French minister, 112-118.
Democratic societies, 116. Affair of Little Democrat, 117. Genet recalled,
119. Morris recalled from France ; Monroe appointed ; Letters of Hamilton
and Madison on the proclamation, 119. British policy, 119, 120.

CHAPTER IX.

THE THIRD CONGRESS. — PRESIDENT'S RECOMMENDATIONS. — JEFFERSON'S COM-
MERCIAL REPORT J HIS RESIGNATION. MADISON'S RESOLUTIONS. PROSPECT

OF WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN. JAY'S MISSION TO ENGLAND.

The third congress meets; president's recommendations, 121,122. Jefferson's
commercial report, 122. Resignation, 124. Madison's resolutions, 124-129.
Naval force against Algiers, 129,130. Difficulties with Great Britain, 130-134.
Jay's mission to England, 132-134. Charges against Hamilton renewed; Neu-
trality law, 133. Western Indians defeated by Wayne, 133.

CHAPTER X.

DECLINE OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES. — FUNDING SYSTEM CONSUMMATED. RESIG-
NATION OF HAMILTON AND KNOX. THE JAY TREATY. — TREATIES WITH SPAIN

AND ALGIERS. MONROE RECALLED.

Washington against democratic societies, 135. Hamilton's report on the public
debt, 136. Hamilton and Knox resign, 136. The Jay treaty, 137. Public
sentiment respecting it, 139, 140. Randolph resigns ; Bradford dies ; Cabinet
appointments, 140. Indian treaty, 140. Treaties with Spain and Algiers, 140.
Presentation of French colors, 141. Debate on the Jay treaty, 142-146. France,
Spain, and Holland dissatisfied with the treaty, 146, 147. Alliance of Franco
and Spain, 147. Monroe succeeded by Pinckney, 148.



CONTENTS. Vii

CHAPTER XI.

WASHINGTON DECLINES ANOTHER REELECTIOTs. — HIS LAST ANNUAL MESSAGE. —
MR. PINCKNEY EXPELLED FROM FRANCE. — ELECTION OF ADAMS AND JEFFER-
SON.

Washington declines another re-election, 148. His suspicions of Jefferson, 149, 150.
The Mazzei letter, 150. Forged letters, 151. French minister and the election,
152. Tri-colored cockade, 153. Washington's last message, 153, 154. French
government refuse to receive Pinckney, 155. Election of Adams and Jefferson,
156. Washington retires ; is denounced hy the Aurora, 156.

CHAPTER XII.

INAUGURATION OF MR. ADAMS. RELATIONS WITH FRANCE. SPECIAL SESSION.

MEASURES OF DEFENSE. ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS.

Adams' inauguration and address, 157-160. His cabinet, 160. Ministers abroad,
160. Unlawful decree of France, 160. Defense measures ; Stamp act. 161.
Envoys to France, 162. Novel diplomacy, 162-165. Acts of non-intercourse
and defense against France, 165. Navy department established, 166. Wash-
ington again commander-in-chief, 166. Other army appointments, 166. Opposi-
tion to the administration, 167. Jefferson's letters to Madison, 167, 168.
" Black cockade federalist," 168. Mississippi territory, 169. Alien and sedi-
tion laws ; Virginia and Kentucky resolutions ; Nullification, 172-176. Case
of Matthew Lyon, 176,177.

CHAPTER XIII.

DIFFICULTIES WITH FRANCE. TREATY NEGOTIATED. — DIVISION OF THE FEDER-
ALISTS. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION.

A new mission to France ; Dissensions in the administration, 178-180. Another
revolution in France, 181. Treaty negotiated, 182, 183. Ratified, 184.
Newspaper press, 184-186. Resistance to tax law in Pennsylvania, 186-187.
Sixth congress, first session, 187. Indiana territory, 188. Rupture in the
cabinet, 188-189. Presidential election, 189-192. Jefferson and Burr, 191, 192.
New judicial act, 190. Implication and vindication of Bayard and others,
192-195.

CHAPTER XIV.

MR. Jefferson's inauguration. — appointments. — naturalization. — pur-
chase OF LOUISIANA BOUNDARY TREATY WITH ENGLAND.

Inauguration of Mr. Jefferson, and address, 196-198. His cabinet, 198.
Appointments and removals, 198-202. Acts passed, 1801-1802 ; Use of the
port of New Orleans interrupted, 204. Purchase of Louisiana, 203-209.
Monroe succeeds Rufus King at London, 208. Spain dissatisfied with the
purchase of Louisiana, 209. Division of the territory, 209. Attempt to
introduce slavery into Indiana, 209, 210. Amendment of the constitution, 210,
Spain refuses to ratify a treaty for indemnity, 210. Louisiana boundary, 210-
211. Spain consents to the transfer, 211. Treaty of boundary with Great
Britain, 211-212.



7111 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XV.

mr. Jefferson's re-election. — relations with France and England.- ~°

treaty "with the latter rejected. affair of the chesapeake.—

slave trade abolished.

Re-election of Jefferson, 212 Gunboat system, 212,213. Indiana and Orleans
territories, 213. Jefferson's inauguration, 214-216. Relations with Spain,
England, and France, 216-218. Madison's statement ; SeameD impressed,
218, 219. Two million bill, 219, 220. Randolph's defection, 219, 220. Non-
intercourse with St. Domingo, 220. Retaliatory duties ; Act for defense, 220.
Cumberland Road, 220. Negotiations with Spain, 221. Treaty with England
rejected, 221,222. Affair of the Chesapeake, 223-225. Slave trade prohibited,

225, 226.

CHAPTER XVI.

THE COMMERCIAL WARFARE BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND THE

UNITED STATES. BRITISH ORDERS IN COUNCIL. FRENCH, BERLIN, AND

MILAN DECREES. — THE EMBARGO, AC DIPLOMATIC DISCUSSIONS.

British orders in council; Berlin and Milan decrees of France, 226-228. Embargo,
&c, 228. Suppressed documents, 229-231. Effects of embargo, 232. Non-
intercourse law, 232-233. British negotiation, (Erskine and Jackson,) 233-
234. Rambouillet decree, 234. Conditional non-intercourse, 234. Conditional
revocation of French decrees, 235. Non-intercourse with France revoked, 235.
Diplomatic discussion between the United States and Great Britain, (Monroe
and Foster,) 235-240. French restrictions still continue, 241, 242. Supposed
objects of Great Britain and France, 243. Secretary Smith's resignation and

expose, 243-247.

CHAPTER XVII.

TWELFTH CONGRESS. BRITISH PLOT. — THE WAR QUESTION IN CONGRESS.

DECLARATION OF WAR.

Early meeting of congress, 247. British plot, (John Henry,) 248-249. Measures
of defence, 249. Embargo, 250. Presidential nominations, 250. War message,
251. War report, 252. French doctrine of neutral rights, 252,' 253. War de-
clared, 254. Address of minority of congress, 254-258. Bonaparte's decree
of repeal, 258, 259. Orders in council revoked, 259. Departure of British
minister, (Foster); At Halifax; Armistice proposed and declined, 260,261.
Number of impressments, 261. War measures, 202. Admission of Louisiana;
Missouri territory, 262.

CHAPTER XVIII.

RE-ELECTION OF MR. MADISON. CONTROVERSY WITH MASSACHUSETTS AND

CONNECTICUT. RUSSIA OFFERS TO MEDIATE. — DUTIES AND TAXES. EMBAR-
GO. ITS SUDDEN REPEAL. OFFER TO NEGOTIATE. ACCEPTED. CAPITOL

BURNED. — HARTFORD CONVENTION. BANK PROJECTS.

Re-election of Madison, 262. Massachusetts and Connecticut disregard war orders,

263. Loan authorized, 263. Act to relieve importers, 263. Retaliation act,

264. Russian mediation, 264-267. Negotiation for peace; Commissioners,
264-267. Duties and taxes, 264,265. Embargo, 265. New loan, 266. Em-
bargo and non-intercourse repealed, 266. Restoration of the Bourbons, 2G7.
Capitol at Washington burned, 268. Further war measures, 2G9. Hartford
convention 2"9-272. State of the finances, 272. National bank proposed, 272



CONTENTS. ij

CHAPTER XIX.

PEACE WITH GREAT BRITAIN. GENERAL JACKSON AND MARTIAL LAW AT NEW

ORLEANS. — PROTECTIVE TARIFF. BANK. COMPENSATION, NAVIGATION, NEU-
TRALITY, AND OTHER ACTS.

Peace concluded, 274-276. Gen. Jackson and martial law at New Orleans. 277-
279. Tariff of 1816, 279-281. Bank incorporated, 281. Indiana admitted,
282,283. Specie payments resumed, 282. Compensation of members of con-
gress, 282. Congressional caucus, 282. Navigation act, 283.

CHAPTER XX.

ELECTION AND INAUGURATION OF MR. MONROE. CORRESPONDENCE WITH GEN.

JACKSON. CABINET APPOINTMENTS. — PRESIDENT'S TOUR.

Election and inauguration of Mbnroe, 284. Monroe and Jackson correspondence,
285-288. Cabinet appointments, 288. President's tour, 289.

CHAPTER XXI.

THE SEMINOLE WAR. OFFICIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE OCCUPATION OF FLORIDA

BY GEN. JACKSON. RATIFICATION OF A TREATY WITH SPAIN. TREATY WITH

GREAT BRITAIN. — CESSION OF FLORIDA AND THE WESTERN TERRITORY.

Seminole war, 289, &c Ambrister and Arbutbnot, 290; Trial and execution
of, 292,293. St. Marks and Pensacola taken by Jackson, 290-292. Jack-
son's conduct investigated by congress, 293-295. Jackson's memorial, 296-
298. Treaties with Spain and Great Britain, 299-302. Florida, &c, ceded to
tho United States, 301, &c. Ratification delayed by Spain, 302, 303.

CHAPTER XXII.

INVESTIGATION OF THE AFFAIRS OF THE UNITED STATES BANK. — OPINION OF

THE SUPREME COURT ON ITS CONSTITUTIONALITY. DECISION OF THE CIRCUIT

COURT. — JUDICIAL DECISION ON BANKRUPT LAWS. — QUESTION OF INTERNAL
IMPROVEMENTS.

United States bank investigated, 304. Supreme court decides it constitutional,
305, &c Decision on bankrupt and insolvent laws, 308, 309. Internal im-
provements bill vetoed by Madison, 309. Congressional report, 309-311.
Cumberland road bill vetoed, (Monroe,) 311, 312.

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE. ADMISSION OF MAINE AND MISSOURI INTO THE

UNION.

Admission of Missouri as a state defeated, 213. Maine and Missouri admitted ;
Slavery compromise, 313-319.

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE FINANCES. — THE TARIFF OF 1824 — SPEECHES OF CLAY AND WEBSTER.

Meeting of the 18tb congress, 320. Tariff of 1824, 321, &c. Vote on tariff bill
in 1820, 321; On tariff of 1824, 322,323. Speech of Mr. Clay, 323-331.
Speech of Mr. AVebster, 331-340.



S CCNTEr-TTS.

CHAPTER XXV.

ELECTION OF MR. ADAMS.— THE ALLEGED COALITION BETWEEN ADAMS AN1
CLAY. PROPOSITIONS FOR RETRENCHMENT AND REFORM.

Congressional caucus, unpopular, 341. Mr. Crawford nominated, 342. History
of caucuses, 342, 343. Mr. Adams elected, 343 ; Inaugurated, 344. His cabi-
net, 344. Alleged coalition of Adams and Clay, 345, &c. Investigation in
congress, 346. Propositions for retrenchment and reform, 348, &c.

CHAPTER XXVI.

THE PANAMA MISSION.

The Panama mission proposed, 352. Commissioners nominated, 353; Confirmed.
355. Mission reported against, 354 ; Debate on, in the house, 355-360. The
congress meets at Panama, 360. Adjourned to Tacubaya, 361.

CHAPTER XXVII.

CONTROVERSY WITH GEORGIA, IN RELATION TO THE REMOVAL OF THE INDIANS.

Removal of the Indians, 361. Treaty with the Creeks in Georgia, 362. Contro-
versy between Georgia and the general government, 363, &c. Gov. Troup
and Gen. Gaines, 368, 369. New treaty, 370. Georgia prepares for resistance,
371. Bill for the preservation and civilization of the Indians, 372-374.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

RUSSIAN AND BRITISH CLAIMS ON THE PACIFIC COAST. — OCCUPATION OF COLUM-
BIA RIVER. PUBLISHING THE LAWS.

Russian claims on the Pacific, 374. Treaty with Russia, 376. Claims of Great
Britain, 377. Occupation of Oregon, 377-382. Publishing the laws, 381, 382.

CHAPTER XXIX.

WEST INDIA TRADE. NAVIGATION OF THE ST. LAWRENCE.

Trade with British colonies, 382, &c Mr. Gallatin sent to England ; Negotiation
cut off, 384. New treaties with Great Britain, 386. North-eastern boundary,
386. Navigation of the St. Lawrence, 386-390.

CHAPTER XXX.

NOMINATION OF GEN. JACKSON. — MORE OF THE " COALITION." — JACKSON'S LET-
TERS ON THE TARIFF AND INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

Gen. Jackson nominated by the legislature of Tennessee ; Letter of resignation
as senator, 391-393. Recommends amendments of constitution, 392. The
" coalition" charge renewed, 393, &c. Carter Beverley's letter and Jackson's,
394. Buchanan's, Eaton's and Markley's letters, 396-399. Clay's address,
399. Adams' declaration, 400. Jackson's letter to the Indiana legislature on
the tariff and internal improvements, 401-403.

CHAPTER XXXI.

THE " WOOLENS BILL." — HARRISBURG CONVENTION. — TARIFF OF 1828.

Additional duties on wool and woolen goods proposed, 403-405. Debate on the
bill, 405 411. Tariff meeting in Philadelphia, 412. Harrisburg convention,
412-414 Tariff of 1828, 414, &c. Debate en, 415-418. Feeling at the south
respecting, 419 420.



CONTENTS. XI

CHAPTER XXXII.

INTRODUCTION AND DISCUSSION OF RESOLUTIONS ON RETRENCHMENT AND

REFORM.

Mr. Chilton's resolutions for retrenchment and reform, 421. Abuses specified,
422. Administration defended, 424-427. Union of the friends of Jackson,
Crawford, and Calhoun, 427. Resolutions disposed of, 427, 428.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONEERING. JEFFERSON'S OPINIONS OF THE CANDIDATES.

ADAMS AND GILES CONTROVERSY.

Mr. Jefferson's opinions of Adams and Jackson, 423, &c. Gov. Coles and Gov.
Gilmer's statements, 429-430. Garret Minor's letter, 431. Mr. Jefferson's
letters to Giles, 431-435. Adams and Giles controversy, 436-441.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

POLITICS OF 1808. MR. ADAMS AN!) THE, BOSTON FEDERALISTS. — CHARGE OF AN

ATTEMPT TO DIVIDE THE UNION.

Mr. Adams' charge against the federalists ; A specification requested, 442. Mr.

Adams' reply, 443-449. Federalists' appeal, 449-455. Gov. Plumer's testimony,

455. Implication of Hamilton, 456. Judge Gould's reply to Mr. Adams,

456-458.

CHAPTER XXXV.

ANOTHER ALLEGED ATTEMPT TO DIVIDE THE UNION.

Another disunion project charged, 459. Denial of Hayne, 460. Reply of Mitchell,
460-462. Hayne's rejoinder, 462.

CHAPTER XXXVI.

RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE ANTI-MASONIC PARTY.

Anti-masonry ; Abduction of William Morgan, 463, 464. Participators in, convicted,
464. Organization and progress of the anti-masonic party, 465, 466

CHAPTER XXXVII.

BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS, AND THE SIX MILITIA MEN. FUGITIVE SLAVES AND

ABOLITION. — PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. ANTI-TARIFF PROTESTS. INTERNAL

IMPROVEMENT FUND. PUBLIC LANDS IN INDIANA.

Picture of the battle of New Orleans proposed, 467. The six Tennessee militiamen,

467. Attempt to procure the surrender of fugitive slaves from Great Britain,

468. Abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, 468,469. Election of
1828, 469, 470. Protests of South Carolina and Georgia against the tariff, 470-
471. Dickerson's plan to distribute the revenue, 472. Debate on, 473. Indi-
ana claims public lands, 474. Distribution of land sales proposed, 475. Re-
trenchment, 476.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

INAUGURATION OF PRESIDENT JACKSON. REMOVALS FROM OFFICE. — MEETING

OF CONGRESS. PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.

Inauguration of Gen. Jackson, 476, 477. His cabinet, 477. New rule of removal
and appointment, 478, 479. Extent of removals, 480. Meeting of congress •
President's message, 481-484. Power of removal discussed, 484-486,



XII CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXIX.

FOOT'S RESOLUTIONS ON THE PUBLIC LANDS. — GREAT DEBATE IN THE SENATE,

Foot's resolutions for a temporary limitation of land sales, 487. Speeches of
Hayne and Webster, 488-496. Debate continued by Benton, Rowan, Grundy,
Woodbury, Smith, and others, 496-500.

CHAPTER XL.

UNITED STATES BANK. — MAYSVILLE ROAD BILL, AND OTHERS. VETOES OF THE

PRESIDENT.

M'Duffie's report on the bank of the United States, 500-506. Smith's report,
506. Maysville and Washington road bills vetoed, 506-508. Hemphill's report
on vetoes, 508. River and harbor bill passed, 509. M'Duffie on revenue bill
509, 610.

CHAPTER XLI.

GEORGIA AND THE CHEROKEES. DEBATE ON THE " INDIAN BILL." OPINION OF



Online LibraryAndrew W. (Andrew White) YoungThe American statesman : a political history exhibiting the origin, nature and practical operation of constitutional government in the United States; the rise and progress of parties; and the views of distinguished statesmen on questions of foreign and domestic policy : with an appendix, containing → online text (page 1 of 118)