Andrew White.

A relation of the successefull beginnings of the Lord Baltemore's plantation in Mary-land; being an extract of certaine letters written from thence, by some of the aduenturers to their friends in Engl online

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Online LibraryAndrew WhiteA relation of the successefull beginnings of the Lord Baltemore's plantation in Mary-land; being an extract of certaine letters written from thence, by some of the aduenturers to their friends in Engl → online text (page 1 of 1)
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No. I.

The " Relation of the Successful Beginnings of the
Lord Baltemore's Plantation in Maryland," which we
now publijh, is printed from a tranjcript of the excejjlvely rare
work, printed in 1634, and found in the Britijh Mujeum. It
was unquejlionably the firjl publication, ijjued in London, de-
Jcribing the new Province of Maryland; — the y?r/? province
pojjejjed by the Britijh Empire. The pamphlet now given was
perhaps prepared by Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore, from the
letters of his brothers Leonard and George Calvert, who went out
with the expedition. Indeed, it is probable that it is in the exa^
language of the adventurers themjelves, and Jo, contains their frejh
imprejjions of the land and people during the firjl two months of
their rejidence in America. They came into the Chejapeake on
the 3d of March, and the document is dated " from Saint Afairie's
in Mary- land, 27 May, 1634."

This pamphlet Jerved as the bajls of the more extended colo-
nizing programme and dejcription of the Province, called " A
Relation of Maryland," jub/cquently publi/hed in London
in 1635, and 'lately reprinted here by Mr. Sabin.

We were Jo charmed by the racy frcjhnejs of the pages now
ijfued from the rare original of 1 634, — a printed copy of which
we have never J*cen in this country, — that we thought our readers
might Jhare the delight with which we perufcd the narrative, and
be glad to pojfcfs a copy of the virgin draft of the familiar letters
which afterwards grew into a more pretentious, colonizing

B. M.
Baltimore, 16 Aug., 1865.


The fucceffefull beginnings of the Lord

Baltemore's Plantation in

Being an extradl of certalne Letters written from

thence, by fome of the Aduenturers to their

friends in England,


Anno Domini 1634., (ff u. s.a.

!V WASH^H&^jy'

Edition 150 copies 4T0.


3 J-?


Relation of the fuccefsful beginnings of the


Plantation in Mary-land.

N Friday the 22 of November
1633, a fmall gale of winde
comming gently from the
Northweft, weighed from the
CoweSy in the He of Wight,
about ten in the morning ; &
(hauing flayed by the way twenty dayes at the
Barbada'sy and fourteene dayes at S^ Chriftophers,
vpon fome neceflary occalions,) wee arrived at
Point-Comfort in Virginia, on the 24. of February
following, the Lord be praifedfor it. At this time
one Captaine Clayboiirne was come from parts
where wee intended to plant, to Virginia, and from
him wee vnderftood, that all the natiues of thefe
parts were in preparation of defence, by reafon of
a rumour fome-body had raifed amongft them, of


( 6 )

fixe fhips that were come with a power of Span-
yards, whofe meaning was to driue all the inhabit-
ants out of the Countrey.

Wee had good letters from his Maiefly to the
GoLiernour and Councill of Virginia^ which made
him fauor vs and (hew vs as noble vfage as the
place afforded, with promife, that for their Cattel
and Hoggs, Corne and Poultry, our plantation
fhould not want the open way to furniih ourfelues
from thence : He told vs likewife. That when his
Lordfliip Ihould be refolued on a conuenient place
to make himfelf a feat, he (hould be able to prouide
him with as much Bricke and Tile as he fhould
haue occafion to imploy, vntill his Lordfhip had
made of his own : Alfo, that he had to furnifh his
LordQiip with two or three hundred ftocks ready
grafted with Peares, Apples, Plummes, Apricotes,
Figgs, and Peaches, and fome Cherries : That he
had alfo fome Orange and Limon trees in the
grounds which yet thriued; Alfo Filberds, Hazel-
nuts and Almonds ; and in one place of the Colony,
Quince-trees, wherewith he could furnifli his
Lorddiip; and, in fine, that his Lordfliip fhould
not want any thing that Colony had.

On the 3. of March we^ came into Chefapeake


( 7 )

Bay, and made fayle to the North of Patoemeck
riuer, the Bay running betweene two fweete lands
in the channell of 7. 8. and 9 fathome deepe, 10
leagues broad, and full of fifli at the time of the
yeere ; It is one of the delightfulleft waters I euer
faw, except Potoemeck, which wee named S^
Gregories. And now being in our own Countrey,
wee began to giue names to places, and called the
Southerne Pointe, Cape Saint Gregory; and the
Northerly Point, Saint Michaels.

This riuer, of all I know, is the greateft and
fweeteft, much broader than the Thames ; fo plea-
fant, as I for my part, was neuer fatisfied in be-
holding it. Few marfhes or fwamps, but the
greateft part follid good earth, with great Curiofity
of woods which are not Choaked vp with vnder-
(hrubbes, but fet commonly one from the other in
fuch diftance, as a Coach and foure horfes may
eafily trauell through them.

At the firfl: loaming of the (hip vpon the river,
wee found (as was foretold vs) all the Countrey in
Armes. The King of the Pafchattowayes had
drawen together 1500 bowe-men, which wee our-
felues faw, the woods were fired in manner of
beacons the night after ; and for that our veflell


( 8 )
was the greatell: that euer thofe Indians faw, the
fcowtes reported wee came in a Canoa, as bigge
as an Ifland, and had as many men as there bee
trees in the woods.

Wee fayled vp the river till wee came to Heron
Hands, fo called from the infinite fwarmes of that
fowle there. The firft of thofe Hands we called
Saint Clement's: The fecond Saint Katharine's ; And
the third, Saint Cicilie's. We took land firft in
Saint Clement's, which is compafTed about with a
{hallow water, and admitts no accefle without
wading ; here by the ouerturning of the Shallop,
the maids which had been wafhing at the land
were almoft drowned, befide the loffe of much
linnen, and amongft the reft, I loft the befl of
mine which is a very maine lolTe in thefe parts. The
ground is couered thicke with pokickeries (which is
a wild Wall-nut very hard and thick of fliell ;
but the meate (though little) is pafTing fweete,)
with black Wall-nuts, and acorns bigger than
Ours. It abounds with Vines and Salletts, hearbs
and flowers, full of Cedar and SafTafras. It is but
400 acres bigg, & therefore too little for vs to
fettle vpon.

Heere we went to a place, where a large tree


( 9 )

was made into a CrofTe; and taking it on our
fhoulders, wee carried it to the place appointed for
it. The Gouernour and Commiffioners putting
their hands iirft vnto it, then the reft of the
chiefeft aduenturers. At the place prepared wee all
kneeled downe, & faid certain Prayers; taking
pofTeffion of the Countrey for our Saviour, and
for our foueraigne Lord the King of England.

Here our Gouernour had good aduice giuen
him, not to land for good and all, before hee had
beene with the Emperour of Pafchattowayy and
had declared vnto him the Caufe of our coming :
Which was firft to learne them a diuine Dodrine,
which would lead their Soules to a place of hap-
pinelTe after this life were ended ; And alfo, to en-
rich them with fuch Ornaments of a ciuill life
wherewith our Countrey doth abound : and this
Emperour being fatisfied, none of the inferiour
Kings would ftirre. In conformity to this aduice,
hee took two Pinnaces, his owne, and another
hired in Virginia; and leauing the Ship before
Saint Clements at Anchor, went vp the river and
landing on the South Side, and finding the Indians
fled for feare, came to Potoemack Towne, when
the King being a child, Archihau his vncle go-
B uerned

( lo )

uerned both him and his Countrey for him. Hee
gaue all the Company good Well-come : & one of
the Company hauing entered into a little difcourfe
with him touching the errours of their religion,
hee feemed well pleafed therewith ; & at his going
away defired him to return vnto him againe,
telling him hee fhould Hue at his Table, his men
{houldhunt for him, and hee would diuide all with

From hence they went to Pafchattoway. All
were heere armed : 500 Bow-men came to the
Water-fide. The Emperour himl'elf more fear-
lefTe than the reft, came priuately aboard, where he
was courteoufly entertained ; and vnderftanding wee
came in a peaceable manner, bade vs welcome,
and gaue vs leaue to fit downe in what place of his
Kingdome wee pleafed. While this King was
aboard. All the Indians came to the Water-fide,
fearing treafon, wherevpon two of the King's men,
that attended him in our fhippe were appointed to
row on flioare to quit them of this feare : but they
refufing to goe for feare of the popular fury ; the
interpretours ftanding on the Deck fhewed the
King to them that hee was in fafety, where-with
they were fatisfied. In this iourney the Gouer-


( " )

nour entertained Captaine Henry Fleete & his
three barkes ; who accepted a proportion in bea-
uer trade to ferue vs, being fkillfull in the tongue,
& well beloued of the natiues.

Whileft the Gouernour was abroad the Indians
began to lay afide feare, & to come to our Court
of guard, which wee kept night and day vpon
Saint Clements' He : partly to defend our Barge,
which was brought in pieces out of England, &
there made vp, and partly to defend the Captaines
men, which were imployed in felling of trees, and
cleaning pales for the pallizado : and at laft they
ventured to come aboard our fhip. It was worth
the hearing for thofe who vnderftood them to
heare what admiration at our fliip ; Calling it a
Canow, and wondering where fo great a tree grew
that made it, conceiuing it to bee made of one
piece, as their Canows are. Our great Ordnance
was a great & fearefull thunder, they had neuer
heard any before; all the Countrey trembles at

The Gouernour being returned, wee Came fome
nine leagues lower to a riuer on the North Side of
that land, as bigg as the Thames : which wee
called Saint GregonVs river. It runs vp to the


( 12 )

North about 20 miles before it comes to the
frefh. This river makes two excellent Bayes, for
300 fayle of Shippes of 1000. tunne, to harbour in
with great fafety. The one Bay we named Saint
Saint George's ; the other (and more inward) Saint
Marie's. The King of Yaocomico, dwells on the
left-hand or fide thereof: 6c we tooke vp our
Seate on the right, one mile within the land. It
is as braue a piece of ground to fet down on as
moft is in the Countrey, 6c I fuppofe as good, (if
not much better) than the primeft parcell of Eng-
lifjj ground.

Our Town we call Saint Marie's ; and to auoid
all iuft occafion of offence, 6c collour of wrong,
wee bought of the King for Hatchetts, Axes,
Howes, and Cloathes, a quantitie of fome 30 miles
of Land, which wee call Augiijla Carolina ; And
that which made them the more willing to fell it,
was the warres they had with the Sa/queJa-/ianoug/js,
a mighty bordering nation, who came often into
their Countrey, to wafte 6c deftroy ; 6c forced many
of them to leaue their Countrey, and palTe ouer
Patoemeck to free themfelues from perill before
wee came. God no doubt difpofing all this for
them, who were to bring his law and light among


( 13 )

the Infidells. Yet, feeing wee came foe well pre-
pared with armes, their feare was much leffe, &
they could be content to dwell by vs : Yet doe they
daily relinquifh their houfes, lands, & Corne-fields,
& leaue them to vs. Is not this a piece of wonder
that a nation, which a few dayes before was in
armes with the reft againft vs, fhould yeeld them-
felues now vnto vs like lambes, & giue vs their
houfes, lands and liuings, for a trifle ? Digitus
Dei eji hie: and furely fome great good is entended
by God to his Nation. Some few families of In-
diansy are permitted to ftay by vs till next yeere,
& then the land is free.

Wee had not beene long time feated there, ere
Sir John Haruey, Gouernor of Virginia^ did our
Gouernour the honour (in moft friendly manner)
to vifit him : & during the time of his being there,
the King of Patuxunt alfo came to vifit vs ; and
being come aboard the Arke, and brought into
the great Cabbin, & feated betweene the two Go-
uernors (Captaine Fleete and Mafter Golding the
interpreters being prefent) he began his Speech as

When I heard that a great Werowance of the
Engliih was come to Yoacomoco, / had a great de-


( 14 )

Jire to fee him. But when I heard the Werowance

of Pafbie-haye was come thither alfo to iiifit him, I

prefently Jiart vpj and without further counfell, came

to fee them both.

In the time of his flay at Saint Mairie^s, wee
kept the Solemnitie of carrying our Colours on
fhore : and the King of Patuxunt accompanying
vs, was much taken with the Ceremony. But the
fame night (hee and Captaine Fleete being at the
Indian Houfe) the Arke's great gunnes, to honour
the Day, fpake aloude ; which the King of Pa-
tuxunt with great admiration hearing, counfelled
his friends the Toacomoco Indians to be carefull that
they breake not their peace with vs ; & faid : When
wee jldoote, our Bow-ftrings giue a twang that's
heard but a little way off: But doe you not lieare
what cracks their Bow-f rings giue ? Many fuch
pretty fayings hee vfed in the time of his being
with vs, & at his departure, hee thus expreft his
extraordinary affe


Online LibraryAndrew WhiteA relation of the successefull beginnings of the Lord Baltemore's plantation in Mary-land; being an extract of certaine letters written from thence, by some of the aduenturers to their friends in Engl → online text (page 1 of 1)