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Appendix A
The Questionnaire
The items on the questionnaire concerned the following:

1. (a) demographic Items such as age.

(b) previous job

(c) allocation of time

(d) reasons for doing the MBA and characterization of the MBA and
"yourself" (open-ended) .

(e) types, degree and circumstance of tiredness.

2. (a) twenty questions covering various reactions to the MBA e.g. "you

have learnt new skills"; "your skills have been underutilized";
"have you been satisfied with the feedback on your performance",
etc. These were rated on a 5 point scale from "Not at all" to
"Very",
(b) An open-ended question on the benefits of the MBA

3. The main section of the questionnaire consisted of 76 items covering
frequencies in which certain sensations or behaviours were experienced
on the MBA. These were all rated on a five point scale fron Never to
Always. These items covered physiological symptoms such as headaches,
lingering colds, and a wide range of affective, cognitive and
behavioural symptoms. Affective items included, for example, "marked
mood swings", "depression", "anxiety", etc. Cognitive items included
such items as "have new and original ideas" ; "find your brain giving out
on you"; "make silly mistakes over details". Performance-related items
included "pleased with performance" , "working harder but accomplishing
less". Interpersonal items included "get put upon by others because you
can't say no", "complimenting others", "interrupting others". Items



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concerning being able to deal with reality included "forgetting
meetings, appointments", "have minor accidents around the house or in
the car", "bump into things". Other uncategorisable items were also
included.

Note that this section rated only frequency of experience not
intensity . Maslach includes both types of scale on the MBI. I
originally had both in my own but in response to complaints about
repetition in preliminary testing of the questionnaire, I decided to
retain only the frequency dimension as this was felt to encompass both
dimensions. (This preliminary testing was of two past MBA's and one
previous lecturer at Cranfield School of Management.)

4. A smaller set of 30 questions asking about the change in various
items over the course of the MBA was included. These items were rated
on a five point scale from greatly reduced to greatly increased. They
covered similar themes to those in the previous section but the wording
was generally altered.

5, 5 items concerning degree of mental rigidity or flexibility.

6. The Holmes and Rahe measure of life-change units.

7, 10 items testing dominant Jungian function.

139 questionnaires were given out and 96 were returned. Of these 95 were
usable and the 96th one was usable for any analysis not involving Jungian type
since MBTI data for that person were not available.



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Appendix B
The MBTI and Junglan Theory
The MBTI is an operationalization of the eight types made explicit by
Jung, vd.th the addition of a fourth axis implicit in the theory. This fourth
axis, measuring a "judging" or "perceiving" attitude was not used in this
study. The eight types are derived from two attitudes extraversion and
introversion; and four functions - thinking, feeling, intuition and
sensation. One of the attitudes is considered dominant, one may be
extraverted £r introverted according to the MBTI. (Jung's approach, which I
follow, is that one can also be neither) . As far as the four functions are
concerned, there are two pairs of functions. One is an "input" dimension and
the other is a "doing-with" dimension. Each person has both these
dimensions. In terms of the MBTI, the "input" dimension is either sensing or
intuition; it cannot be both. (Again, I follow Jung in assuming it can,
however, be neither). Similarly, the doing-with dimension is either thinking
or feeling. Thus, ignoring the "neither" categories for a moment, each
individual can be typed in accordance with their preferred attitude
(extraversion or introversion) their preferred input-dimension (sensing or
intuition) and their preferred (doing-with) dimension (thinking or feeling).
Thus one has eight types. These preferred attitudes and functions colour the
personality, and distinguish one type from another. How one develops one
attitude or one function over another is a complex process; what is necessary
for the present is to note that what is referred to in the current study as a
"feeling" type as opposed to a "thinking" type Is someone who has developed
their feeling function to a greater degree of differentiation and refinement
than their thinking function. (I am not concerned with whether or not that
feeling function is the dominant or auxiliary function) .



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To examine the "neither" categories," this is contrary to the MBTI
approach which types everyone. Jungian theory, contrary to the MBTI, does not
attempt to type everyone (nor, indeed, does it assume that two "functions"
will be conscious. One or three may also be). It is only when the use of a
function or attitude is habitual that one is justified in "typing" someone.
If, or example, one does not have a habitual attitude, one is an "ambivert" or
untyped. Jung seemed to indicate he thought around 30-40% of people were
neither extravert nor introvert. The way in which I have operationalized this
notion is to treat as untyped those individuals whose preference scores are
particulary low (a lack of a clear preference should indicate one cannot
assume there is a habitual use of that mode). Scores between 96 and 104 on
the continuous scales for the three dimensions, were ignored, i.e., treated as
untyped .

The two functions which form the basis for the present study are
"thinking" and "feeling"; the two judging or "doing with" functions.
These are described by McCaulley as follows: (1982, p. 300)
"Thinking is the function that links ideas together by means of
concepts, making logical connections. Feeling is the function that
arranges the contents of consciousness according to their value.
Persons who are oriented to life primarily through thinking typically
develop strong powers of analysis, objectivity in weighting events with
regard to logical outcomes, a time perspective concerned with
connections from past through present to future, and a tough-minded
skepticism. Persons who are oriented to life primarily though feeling
typically develop sensitivity to questions of what matters most to
people, a need for affiliation, a capacity for warmth, a desire for



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harmony, and a time orientation emphasizing the preservation of the

values of the past.

People with scores outside the "neutral" range (of 96 to 104 on the
continuous score) are either thinking or feeling; and they may have a more or
less strong preference for one over the other depending on the numerical value
of that score. One can also measure the degree to which any type is more or
less "thinking" or more or less feeling from the raw scores (from which the
preference score for one relative to the other is computed). Thus even
someone whose relative preference is for feeling over thinking, will still
have a raw score for thinking (by definition this must be lower than the raw
score for feeling). Thus the relative development of each function,
irrespective of net preference, can also be gauged. This reflects the fact
that the use of "type" categories does not, as is commonly assumed, place one
into a homogeneous box from which one cannot at any time move. The functions
interact in an extremely complex way and depending on the degree of refinement
one wants to introduce into the analysis, one has access to a vast resource of
permutations and combinations. For example, one's preference for one type
does not mean that one never uses the non-preferred attitude or function. One
uses all the functions and all the attitudes at one time or another, but
because one's use of the "preferred" one is more developed, that preferred
attitude and/or function is used in a more reliable way and more often. Thus
an intuitive will use her or his intuitive function much more easily than the
sensing function (and, hence, will continue to rely on it). What this means
for the present study is that the "thinking" function for a thinking type will
be used in a far more refined and sophisticated way than the thinking function
of a feeling type and although the underlying psychic process is the same, it
will be manifested at the behavioural level in a different way.



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The MBTI has been shovm to be a reliable measure. There is general
agreement in the literature on psychological testing that it is reliable and
well-designed ( Lake et al. 1973). Carlyn (1977) in an analysis of the MBTI
literature came to the conclusion that "the MBTI is an adequately reliable
self-report inventory. The Extraversion- Introversion, Sensing- Intuitive, and
Thinking-Feeling scales appear to be relatively independent of each other,
measuring dimensions of personality which seem to be quite similar to those
postulated by Jung". In terms of continuous scores, the indicator seems to
have about the same reliability as better known inventories such as the CPI
(Gough 1957), or the 16PF (Cattel, Sanders and Stice, 1957).

The MBTI also performs adequately on validity tests. It has strong
predictive validity (Keen 1981, p. 6). For example, a number of studies
(McCaulley, 1977) have indicated that career choices and choices to remain
within a career are significantly in the directions predicted by theory. No
criticisms of the MBTI's convergent or discriminant validity have been made
(Keen 1981, p. 6). However, Strieker and Ross (1964) have questioned aspects
of its construct validity. A later study (Richek, 1968) provided support for
its construct validity, however, and Carlson (1980) has recently reported on a
series of studies which also supported its construct validity. McCaulley
(1982, p. 331) in a major review of validity studies stated there is
"considerable evidence for the construct validity of MBTI". The weakest
dimension of the Indicator in the above studies, the Judging- Perceiving axis,
was not used in the present study.



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Appendix C
Construction of the Depletion Index .

The Depletion Index was constructed using factor analysis as an
exploratory tool to pinpoint Items which conceptually cohered around the Items
of depletion or exhaustion.

A factor analysis using a wide range of Items concerning reactions
experienced on the MBA was performed. Oblique rotation, using the scree test
as the cut-off criterion, was used. (Orthogonal rotation did not alter the
selection of Items for the Index. However, oblique rotation was considered
more appropriate for there were no reasons to artificially limit the resultant
factors to being Independent of, or orthogonal to, each other.)

The analysis was performed In two stages.

(1) The first step Involved modification and re-scallng of Items in the
questionnaire. Most Items used in the factor analysis were from the same
section, in which respondents had been asked to rate their answers on a scale
from 1 to 5 (Never to Always) . Items which were subsequently used in the
Depletion Index from this section were interspersed amongst these 76 other
Items. The remaining items Included in the factor analysis were in a
separate, preceding section. These items all related to degree and type of
exhaustion, and the relief of that exhaustion. Responses within this section
were not independent of each other for only those who had answered positively
an immediately preceding question of felt tiredness were asked to fill out the
remaining section of questions. Those who did not fill out these remaining
questions, by their negative response to the preceding question on tiredness,
could all be assumed to have answered negatively on the remaining questions in
the section, each of which presumed this tiredness. Statistically, then, the
responses to this section were not Independent of each other although



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logically It could be expected that this should have made little difference to
the responses. This lack of independence was dealt with in the following way.
There were three items in this section which, for conceptual reasons, I
wished to include in the factor analysis. Two of these related to exhaustion
and the third to the relief of the "tiredness" by rest or vacation. The first
two items, one of which merely asked about whether the respondent had been too
tired to perform a number of activities, were collapsed together and re-scaled
from 1 to 5. Scores on these were compared with a separate question in the
main section of the questionnaire referred to earlier, which asked the
respondent to state on the 5-point scale the degree of exhaustion
experienced. There was a significant positive association (.85) between
responses to the latter question and the single score for the questions
collapsed together as discussed above. Those two separate measures of
exhaustion were, in turn, collapsed together and rescaled back to a 1-5
scale. It was expected that this procedure would reduce or eliminate the lack
of independence mentioned earlier. This new variable was then included as the
item relating to exhaustion in the factor analysis.

The third item from the section of questions relating solely to
tiredness, asked the respondent about the relief of tiredness through rest or
vacation. This was retained as a separate item in the factor analysis because
of the additional information it contained, and because that information
related to the notion of nonrenewal of energy. As indicated in the following
table showing item-to-index correlations, it does not appear that this third
item, called Rest-Vacation was an overweighted component for the correlations
shown are very similar. Note that this holds for the Exhaustion item as
well. Intercorrelations of these two items are not very different from those
with the other two items eventually included in the Index. (Correlations



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between Exhaustion and the remaining items, for example, were .58 with Waking,
.69 with Rest-Vacation, and .62 with Fluctuation). Thus the original lack of
independence in some of the items originally fed into the factor analysis and
also chosen for the Depletion Index, has either been collapsed out or, at
least, does not appear to have seriously affected the resultant Index.

The second step in the procedure to construct an Index, the results of
which are implicit in the above, was to perform a factor analysis on a number
of items including any that might have any bearing on the index of energy
depletion as discussed in the literature. A clear Depletion of energy factor
emerged with five clean high-loading items. Each of these items had a loading
above .6 on that factor and no loading on any other factor above .2. The five
items were:

(a) degree of exhaustion experienced (Exhaustion)

(b) degree to which rest or vacation relieved any tiredness
(Rest-Vacation)

(c) severe energy fluctuations (Fluctuation)

(d) degree of exhaustion upon waking (Waking)

(e) degree of neck and shoulder tension.

Only the first four of the above were chosen for the Depletion Index.
Neck and shoulder tension was highly and cleanly loaded (in spite of a
separate physical illness factor) , but because there were no strong conceptual
reasons for including it as a measure of depletion, it was not used. This
was, of necessity, an arbitrary decision and given that the Depletion Index


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