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History and antiquities of the county of Norfolk (Volume 9) online

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them both, falls into the creeks near the fea, at the
diuance of two miles. The gardens at the houfe,
which is fituated in the middle of Snettifham, are
alfo much admired, being laid out in great tafte, and
preferred in great perfection by Mr. and Mrs. Style-
man, to whom this town is greatly indebted for many
ornaments and valuable improvements. In the gar-
dens, the fpire of the church, and the Gothic porch,
are let in at fide views and different avenues, which
produce a pleafing effecl:. Here is a collection of
plants and flowers, not to be equalled in this, nor
perhaps in any other part of England ; they have
been colledled from every region of the known world,
and every climate : India has poured its fweets thro 1
all the fragrant walks of this modern paradife, and
North America has enamelled its borders. The
manrion-houfe, a fpacious building, opens into the
garden, a*nd there indeed we are at a lois which to
admire moft, the hofpitality of the matter, or the
politenefs and engaging affability of the miflrefs.
Snettifliam may be juflly reckoned amongil the nrft
beauties of the county of Norfolk.

There are feveral manors belonging to this lord-
fhip, and are diftinguifhed by the following titles :

DOWN'S Manor.
BACON'S Manor.
VERLI'S Manor.


S M I T H "D O N.' 93


All thefe manors, excepting that of Ingoldifthorpe,
are united to the capital manor, and are held by the
prefem Nicolas Stvleman, efq. and are part of the
dutchy of Lancafter.

INGOLDISTHORPE Manor is at prefent in Robert
Fofter, efq. mayor of Newark, who married the
daughter of Edward Cobb, efq. late collector of the
cuftoms at Wifbech in the ifle of Ely, whofe an-
ceflor, Martin Cobb, efq. purchafed this manor of
Roger, fon of fir Roger Tovvnfend, knt. in die reign
of queen Elizabeth.

LNGOLDISTHORPE ManOr. This manor having
fmce the time of Queen Elizabeth been held by the
family of the Cobbs, the manfion houfe which
ftands in a mod inviting ikuation, commanding the
Tea and the Lincolnshire coaft, is diflinguiflied by
the name of Cobbe-hall. This manor and eflate
abutting upon the lands of Ingoldiflhorpe has lately
been purchafed by Dixon Hofte, efq. of Ingoldif-
thorpe, from Robert Fofter, efq. Some of the lands
belonging to this manor actually lie in the parifJi of
Ingoldiflhorpe and are affelTed to it, and other parts
of it join up to Mr. Hofte's eftatc, and are only fe-
perated by the river. The manfion, called Cobbe-
hall, is now a farm houfe, the fame as Shernbouru-
hall in its neighbourhood.

Near a very beautiful plantation, with which Mr.
Stvleman has adorned the hills near Snettifham to-
ward the fea (called from the very fine prolpecl: upon
'it, which commands Boilon tower and the Lincoln-
Ihire coaft, Ken Hill) were discovered and dug up



lately by order of that gentlemen, who is very curi-
ous in his refearches after the antiquities in our
ifland, feveral brafs inftruments, of one of which
this plate is the exacl form.

Thefe inftruments are called celts, or old EritiOi
and Provincial Roman celts ; but the learned differ
much as to the ufe made of them by Britons or Ro-
mans, or who were the firft that ufcd them. Mr,
feorlafe in his hiflorv -of Cornwall, vol. 1. page 263,
defcribes them as a miffile weapon put at the head
of a dart, or javelin, and the loop, in which was
put a firing to recover it, when darted againft the
enemy, he fays, could be of no other ufe. They
are not uncommonly met with in every part of this
ifland, fometimes in large quantities, and always of
brats, from which latter circumflance I fhould rather
conclude them originally Roman, as the Romans
were of opinion that there was an extraordinary vir-
tue in brafs : hence they ufed brafs inftruments when
the moon was in eclipfe, thinking that by the beat-
ing of them fhe would the more eafily be recovered
from her labor. Mr. Thorefby, in his letter from
Leeds dated No^. 19, 1709, fuppofes them to have
been the heads of fpears or walking ftaves of the
civilized Britons, though he acknowledges that others
have taken them to be arrows heads or axes of the
ancient Britons, or of the Roman Catapultse. Bu,t


S M I T H D O N. 95

Mr. Thomas Hearne, the great antiquary, in a dif-
courfe at the end of Leland's Itinerary, vol. I. with
more reafon judges them to be Roman chiMels, that
were ufed to cut and polifh the Hones and other ma-
terials that were found ferviceable in building their
camps. The ears or loops might be made to fbf
handles to them, or they might be defigned for the
cafe of the foldiers, or fabri murarii, to faften them
to their girdles upon march : and this is the more
probable becaufe wherever they have been found,
there have been always found a great many of them
together. Thefe cliiffels were of admirable femce
in making their aggaras, which confifted of earth,
ftones and timber. The Mr. Hearne abovemen-
tioned was the famous antiquary on whom the fol-
lowing ludicrous epigram was made:

*' Tempus Loquitur.

" 'Tis flrange, quoth Time to Thomas Hearne,
' Whatever I forget, you learn."

The church in this town is much admired. It.
may be owned to the honor of the old Rom ilk
monks and friars, that if they did fleece the laity a
little in former ages, they did not diffipate their ac~
quifitions in riot and debauchery : they were noble
fellows, and have left moft ftately monuments be-
hind them. Witncfs Lincoln, York and Canterbu-
ry cathedrals, Salifbury, Norwich, and many other
magnificent buildings, which fliewcd diey did not
live for themfelves alone, and if they graipcd at
riches, it was for poflcrity to enjoy the fruits ol
them. Lincolnfhire abounds with beautiful churches,
perhaps more fo than any other county in England,
and what is very particular, they are nioftly built
of ftone, with frec-flone towers and fpircs, though



there is fcarcely a ftone throughout the county:
Boflon church is the fineft tower in all England.

The church is dedicated to St. Mary, and ftands
on a hill, at a little diftance eaftward from the body
of the town ; it is a ftately large building of flint,
and free-ftone, built after a conventual manner, with
a tower in the middle, between the nave and the
chancel, which is now dilapidated ; and on this
tower is a curious olangular fpire of free-ftone, feen
at a great diflance, and a fea mark, in which tower
hang fix bells, and ornamented with four ftone pi-

There is a lodge upon the hill next the fea,
which is alfo feen at a great diftance, and when the
feamen in their paffage up the channel to Lynn, can
bring this lodge and Snettifham fpire to bear toge-
ther in a line, or in their terms, to cover each ano-
ther, it is then a fignal for fafe anchorage, that the
fhip is free of the farids and in the channel.

The chancel of this beautiful church is fuppofed
to have been taken down by fir VVymond Gary,
a near relation to queen Elizabeth, and who lies
buried in this church. The impropriation of the
great tythes being in fir Wymond. fubjeded the
eftate to the repair of the chancel, which probably
might be the reafon for taking it down. It is a
great pity, for had the chancel been up, it would
have been by far the moft beautiful church in the
county of Norfolk, and even now, from its delight-
ful fituation, it makes a fine landfcape or coup d'ocil,
though it differs from all other churches in the fin-
gular peculiarity of having the iteeple at the eaft


S M I T H D O N. 97

Here was alfo a north and fouth tranfcept, but
the firu 1 of thefc is in ruins. It has alfo a north
and fouth ifle, with a large nave or body, all cover-
ed with lead ; at the weft end is the grand entrance,
where is a veftibulum, with a bench of (lone that
runs the breadth of the nave, but narrow, and co-
vered with a neat arch, or canopy of free-ftone.

At the eaft end of the north ifle Is a ftately mo-
nument for fir Wymond Gary, with his effigies of
alabafter, and in armour, lying on an altar tomb of
marble, his head refting on a pillow, hands joined,
and erecl ; over him is raifed a beautiful arch of
marble, &c. fupported by porphyry pillars of the
Corinthian order, and on the fummit the arms of

Argent, on a bend, fable, three rofes of the firft
quartering, about 20 coats, the creft a fwan, but fo
defaced by time, and fo high, as not to be well ac-
counted for :

" Here lyeth in hope and expectation of that joy-
" ful day of the refurreclion, when the Saviour of
" the whole world fhall appear in power and judg-
" ment, to awake all thole who have flept in him,
" to be partakers of the everlafling bleflednefs of his
" eternal kingdom, Sir Wymond Carye of Snette-
" fliam in the county of Norfolk, Kt. fometime of
" Thremhale Priory in Effex, firft branch of that
" family of the Carves which is defcended from Ed-
" mund Beaufort, duke of Somerfet, and fo from
" John of Gaunt duke of Lancafter, erecled by his
" his only brother, Sir Edward Carye of Aldenharn
" in Hertfordfhire, mafter and trealurer of his rna-
" jefties jewels and plate, and of Sir Henry Caryc

*' of C in Bucks, fon and heir of the laid Sir

" Edward Carye, joint executor of the laft will of
N Sir


" Sir Wyra. Caryc, who lived about 75 years, 8c in

" peace and happinefs and in the comfortable tefti-

" mony of a good confcience and iledfaft faith in

" Chrift, died April 3, 161 2. "

This knight prefcnted to the vicarage in 1609,
and had a grant of the re&ory and patronage from
the crown, or held it by leafe.

On the pavement of the middle ifle lie feveral
grave-ftones : on one of them is a Latin epitaph over
Thomas Giniin, efq. three times mayor of Lynn,
and reprefentative in parliament for that borough,
who died Auguft 3, 1644, four* years before the be-
heading of king Charles I.

The Latin epitaph is as follows :


Integer vitas fcelerifque purus

Spei plenus

Dormit in hoc tumulo





Ad majoratus culmen



Ejufdem muricepij



In fecundis humilis
In adverfis placidus

In agendo


S M I T H D O N. gg

In ferendo

Si mordes dura prasteris

Agendo vince


Ferendo fupera.

Die obijt Augufti tertio



By RICHARD GARDINER, Efq. of Mount Amelia,
near Snettifham.

Stranger! Beneath this tomb, in hope to rife,

A man of wifdom and of virtue lies.

Thrice Mayor of Lynn, and Member thrice he fat ;

Thrice England's Commons in full fenate met:

Firm and unfhaken in his country's caule ;

Bold to defend its Liberty arid Laws.

Such Gurlin was ! no contract, bribe, or place,
Ker drew upon his honeft vote difgrace.
Read, venal members, as you pafs along,
And envy virtue, which you cannot wrong.

And thou, brave ftranger! whofoe'er thou art,
Shouldft thou condemn him, acl: a nobler part.
Now that his virtues fleep in peaceful reft,
To rifing florms oppofe a firmer breail:
The fhocks of time with manlier fpirit bear,
Then from his honor 1 d brow the laurels tear,
And Lynn fhall boalt heir Member and her Mayor


N 2 .la


In the fouth tranfcept are feveral marble gravc-
flones, in memory of the Stylemans.

" Nicholas Styleman, Efq; jufticc of the peace
" and captain of the militia, here interred June 11,
" 1683, by the body of Margaret fole daughter and
" heirefs of Edward Ward of Norwich, alderman,
" who died Oclober 20, 1680, they left 3 fons and
" 3 daughters."

Robert their fon placed this monument ; the arms
of Styleman are on it ; fable, an unicorn paifant,
or, on a chief of the fecond, three pallets of the firft.

" Robert Styleman, Gent, died June 19, 1720,
" aetat. 72."

" Ann Jenny, eldefl daughter of Nicholas Style-
" man, Efq; relid of Rob. Jermy of Glanford in,
" Norfolk, Gent, died Decer. 8, aetat. 61."

" William Styleman died May 1 1, i 707, set. 42.

" Nicholas Styleman, of Guyton in Norfolk, Gent.
" died O&r. 13, 1706, aged 72, A.M. of Trin.
" Coll. Camb.'"

" Sarah, relia of Robt. White, of Boxford in Suf-
" folk, gent, died O6lr. 4, 1728, aet. 73."

One with the arms of Styleman impaling L'Eflrange
of HunManton, to the late Mr. Styleman, father to
the prefent lord of this manor, with the following
Latin epitaph:

" Nich. Styleman Armiger ecclefias Anglicanx
" amantiffimus, vicariam hujus ecclefias minus do-
" tatum, ducentis libris munifice dotavit, quibus do-

" natis,

S M I T H D O N. 101

>-' natis, ducentas alias, pia et fempiterna benignitate,

" Anna? Felicifimae memorise reginai reliclas paravit.

" Anno climaclerico jam perfunclo Domos Caelefles

" commigravit Jan. 6, Ao. Dmi. 1746.

Alfo Styleman impaling fable, an ox paCTant, ar-

" Dorothy only daughter of Robert Wood, clerk,
" relicl of Robert Stylcman of Snetefham, Gent.
" died March 14, 1731, aged 73."

Nicolas Styleman, efq. lord of this manor, ferved
the office of high fheriff of the county of Norfolk in
the year 1776.

In the beginning of that year came on a county
election for a reprefemative to ferve in parliament, in
the room of Wenman Coke, of Holkham, efq. elecl-
cd with fir Edward Aftley, ban. at the general elec-
tion in 1774, knights of the fhire without oppofition.
This election was fixed by the high (lieriif to take
place on Wednefday, May 8, when no other candi-
date appearing, he returned Thomas William Coke,
efq. knight of the fhire, in room of his deceafed fa-
ther, who died in London, attending his duty in par-
liament, the preceding April.

The high flieriff having appointed Wednefdav the
24th of April for a county meeting, to confider of a
proper reprefentative to fucceed Mr. Coke, opened
the bufinefs of the meeting with the following fpcech.


" The melancholy event that calls you together
" this day, is too well known to you all. You arc
" met to confider of a proper perfon to reprefent

*' this


" this great commercial county in parliament; an

" objecl at all times important in itfelf, but rendered

" more fo by the critical fituation of public affairs

" at this junflure: it is now we want the abilities,

" the integrity, the unbiaffed firmnefs of the late Mr.

" Coke, to protect the interefts of the people: it is

" now we begin to feel the value of the faithful

" guardian we have loft !

" Your choice this day, I make no doubt, will
" fall upon fome gentleman diftinguifhed by a large
" property in Norfolk, whofe fortunes render him
" independent, whofe inclination it is to be fo, and
" whofe ambition will lead him to imitate that con-
" duel in parliament which does fo much honor to
" the memory of his predeceffor, and who may fuc-
" ceed the late Mr. Coke in public virtue, as well
" as ftation."

Vicars of the church of Snettifham :

William Cremer held it by fequeftration, 1702,
as did Framingham Rice, L. L.\B. in 1706. 1728,
Archibald Kerr, by Nicolas Styleman, efq. he bought
the advowfon of Mr. Cremer, who purchafed it of
Mr. Cobb.

In 1761, Nicolas Styleman, efq. the prefent lord
of this manor, prefented his brother, the Rev. Mr.
Armine Styleman, now rector of the confolidated pa-
rifhes of Ringflead : on his refignation, he prefented
July 5, 1770, the Rev. Thomas Prieflly, the prefent



Mr. Styleman has made a very great improvement
in this parifh : he obtained an aft of parliament, at
a very confiderable expence, for enclofing it, and for
dividing the commons, which he formed into two,


S M I T H D O N. 105

the one for horfes, and the other for cows, with com-
mon rights annexed to the cottages, which are valued
at five and fix pounds a year. He likewife gene-,
roufly (for generofity appears in all his actions) gave
up his right of impropriation, or the great tvthes of
this parifh, receiving in return a proportion of acres
of land, far from being an adequate equivalent to the

" Much of the country improves in foil about
Snettifham. The better forts of lands there are ge-
nerally thrown into what is properly called the Nor-
folk hufbandry.

" Farms rife from 20!. to 370!. a year; but are
in general from 70!. to 90!. The foil" is either fand
or fandy loam, on a chalkv marie. The rent from
IDS. to 145. an acre: but the poor warren lands to-
wards Lynn from is. to as. 6d. an acre. The
tourie moll common is,

1. Turnips.

2. Barley.

3. Clover and ray-grafs, fometimes one year,

but by the bed farmers two years.

4. Wheat/

" For wheat they plough but once, fow three bufh-
els, and gain on an average three quarters. Rye
they fubftitute on fome lands inftead of wheat, fow
three bufliels, and get three quarters and a half. For
barley they plough three times, fow two and a half
or three bufliels, and get three quarters. For oats
they plough but once, low foivr bufhels an acre, and
get on a medium four quarters. For peafe they give
but one earth j and reckon the average crop at two

" Colefced


" Colefeed they cultivate both for feeding fhecp
and alfo for feed. They cat it off time enough to
fow wheat ; but the value of the food is not much.
They feed thofe crops they intend for feed, but do
mifchief by it ; the crops vary from three and a half
to ten quarters. They always fow wheat after it.

" They plough four times for turnips, and hand-
hoe twice. They draw fome for fatting beafts, but
in general eat it off with fheep. The average value
355. an acre.

" Clover they often mow twice for hay the firfl
year ; but always feed it the fecond.

" A few tares are fown to foil horfes with in the
ilable, green ; but it is not common.

" Some buck-wheat is fown, which they feed on
the land with various cattle, and fow wheat after it.
A little hemp is beginning to be cultivated on fpots
of flrong land ; but not much.

" They fold all their fheep, in winter as well as
fummer. Salt has been tried as a manure by a few
farmers, who have bought whole fliip loads. It
coils 3!. 55. a ton, and los more in expences, and
a ton does for three acres. It was tried on a good
loamy foil for wheat, this year, and the crop pro-
miles fo greatly, that the farmer has bought a confi-
derable quantity more.

" Oil-cake is likewife muchufed; they break it
to pieces not larger than walnuts by mills ; one ton,
at 3!. los. to 4!. los. does three aays. It is at-
tended with very great benefit, but it lafls only one

" Lime

S M I T H D O N. 105

" Lime they have tried, burnt from chalk ; it does
good, but is not comparable to marie. It does not

" Marie is their grand manure ; they lay 80 loads
an acre ; it is a fine fat fort, white, and lafls from
14 to 20 years. They do not chop their flubbles;
but their hay they flack at home.

" The bed grafs lets at 205. an acre: they ufe it
for fattening fheep ; an acre will carry five or fix fat

" A cow will, in the beft part of the feafon, give
7 or 81b. of butter a week; and the quantity of
milk three or four gallons a day. The annual pro-
duce about 5!. 55. a year. They underfland very
well the ufe of a dairy in keeping fwinc : they have
much larger flocks on account of their cows. A
dairy-maid can take care of 20. They keep them
in winter in the yard, and give them many turnips.
There are large tracts of frefh water marfhes : they
buy beafts for them in the fpring, and after the fum-
mer feeding give them turnips : they buy lean at
from 7!. to i 2!. and fell at nearlv double thofe prices.
An ox-hide is worth from 155. to 205. it is now of
double the value it was 25 years ago.

" Breeding flocks rife to 7 or Soo. The profit

Lamb - - ^.070

Wool - - -010

" The wether flocks they manage in the follow-
ing manner ; about Lammas they buy in wether
lambs fix or fevcn months old, and keep them lean
O on


on flubbles and offal turnips, giving them the leav-
ings of the old flock of fat wethers ; after which they
are well kept through the fummer on graffes, and
folded all the time. Soon aftei: Michaelmas they are
put to turnips, and are fold fat from Candlemas to
May-day, and fome even to Midfummer : they give
them ray-grais and clover in the (pring as foon as
turnips are done. This conduct of fheep is reckoned
much the moft profitable method of managing them.
They flock their graffes widi four to an acre, and
reckon that fpace of turnips will keep 10 from Mi-
chaelmas to Candlemas.

" In their tillage, they reckon 16 horfes neceflary
to 500 acres of arable land. They ufe two in a
plough, do two acres a day, and in feed times three,
but it is with four horfes, two in the morning and
two in the afternoon. One man looks after four or
five horfes, and every day ploughs two or three acres
with four of them. They plough about five inches
deep, and the price is ss. 6d. an acre. The annual
expence of a horfe they calculate at 5!. feed them
much with flraw cut into chaff. They begin to
break their flubbles for a fallow foon after winter
corn fowing. Wheel ploughs only are ufed ; they
find that they can do more a day with them than
with fwing ones, arid at the fame time much truer.

" The hire of a cart, four Jiorfes, and a driver,
per day, IDS.


" In the flocking farms, they reckon 3000!. ne-
ceffary for one of 500!. a year; with which fum fome
marling may be done.

" Tythes are generally compounded ; they reckon
4s. in the pound a fair composition. Poor rates is.

S M I T H D O N. 107

in the pound ; 20 years ago they were but 6d. and
30 years ago only 4d.


For the harveft of 5 weeks, 45 to 505. and board.

In hay-time, is. 6d. to as. and beer.

In winter, is. 2d.

Reaping, 58.

Mowing barley, is.

grafs, is. to 2S.

Hoeing turnips, 43. and 2S.

Hedging and ditching, is. a rood of 7 yards.

Filling and fpreading marie, 255. the 120 loads, of
about 30 bufhels. In general 5 or 6 horfes and
2 carts, with one driver, will carry 40 loads a day,
the expence 12s. the 40 loads, befides the 8s. 4d.
filling, &c.

Thrashing wheat, is. sd. to is. 4d. per quarter.

barley and oats, 8d. ditto.

peafe, 'is. ^d.

Head-man's wages, lol. to 12!.

Next ditto, gl.

Lad's, 4!. to 7!.

Dairy maid's, 5!.

Other ditto, 3!. to 4!.

Women per day, in harveft, is. and board.

, in hay-time, gd. and beer.

, in winter, 6d.

Value of a man's board, wafhing and lodging, lol,
a year.


A waggon, 24!.

A cart, lol.

A plough, 3!.

A pair of harrows, il.

A roller, il. 55.

O 2 Harnefs


Harnefs per horfe, al. 2s.
Laying a fhare and coulter, is.
Shoeing, is. 4(1.


Bread 1 i d. per Ib.

Cheefe 4

Butter 6

Beef - .Si

Mutton 3 1

Veal 3

Pork - 3

Milk i d. per pint.

Potatoes - 4 per peck.

Candles 7 per Ib.

Soap 6

Labourers houfe-rent, 405.

firing, los.


Bricks, 2os. a thoufand.

Tiles, 3 1.

Oak timber per foot, is. 6d.

Afti ditto, is. 2d.

Elm ditto, is. zd.

Soft ditto, 6d. to 8d.

A carpenter a day, is gd.

A mafon and thatcher, ditto.

The particulars of a farm are as follow :

300 Acres in all 14 Horfes

j. 150 Rent 10 Cows

60 Acres Wheat 10 Young cattle

60 Turnips 1 o Fatting beafts

60 Barley loo Sheep

60 Clover one year 3 Men

-old i Boy

60 Ditto 2 years old 4 Labourers.

" Nicolas

S M I T H D O N. 109

" Nicolas Styleman, efq. of this place, has effect-
ed a very important improvement by banking out
the fea : which undertaking was by many thought
very daring and hazardous. In 1750, he began to
form a bank a mile long, and it was completed in a
year. By means of fubftituting fingle horfe carts
with 9 inch wheels, inllead of barrows, he made an
immenfe faving in the labour of the work. A fquare
of feven yards, by 12 inches deep, was dug and
thrown into the carts for is. and only boys drove
them. By this means he was enabled to be fo un-
commonly expeditious. The marines were before
lett for only 45. an acre, but they were directly ad-
vanced to 2os. In this manner 300 acres were at
once improved, at the fmall expence of 1500!. the
advance of rent 240!. a year ; which from the above
capital is a profit of 16 per cent. An inftance of
{uccelsful fpirit, which does great honour to Mr.

" This gentleman has been very active in the in-
clofure of lome commons in the parifh of Snetuiham.
There were forty-one houfes that had a right of com-
monage over all the open fields after harveft, which,

Online LibraryAnna Riggs MillerHistory and antiquities of the county of Norfolk (Volume 9) → online text (page 7 of 31)