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History and antiquities of the county of Norfolk (Volume 9) online

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totally prevented the ufe of turnips and clover.
This great inconvenience induced Mr. Styleman to
give his confent to and promote an acl: for inclofing
the commons, and preventing fo great an incumbrance
on the hufbandry of the open fields.

44 But in executing this idea, he planned the out-
Jine of it in fo candid and charitable a manner, that
he kept as ftrid an eye to the interefl of the poor
people, as to his own. In lieu of rights of com-
monage, the proprietors of a parifh inclofed, gene-
rally divide it amongfl themfelves, and give the poor
no indemnity : but Mr. Styleman determined at firft
that they fhould have fomething valuable in exchange



for their right. He allotted each of the forty-one
old common-right houfes three acres contiguous to
their dwellings, or their other property : 600 acres
of old grafs common were left fo ior thefe poor to
turn their cattle on in a Hinted manner. It main-
tains 205 cows, 120 mares and foals till 10 months
old; 80 yearling calves, and So fillies. In their
little inclofures they grow turnips, bailey, wheat, and
a little hemp.

" The poor of the whole parifli in general ufed to
cut whins for firing over the whole extent of open
fields : inflead of this practice, W 7 hich was the de-
(Iraclion of much land, he afligned them loo acres
of common in one inclofure for cutting turf: each
houfc under 405. a year rent has a right to cut 3000
flag (turf) a quantity fumcient for the winter's firing.

" This fyftem has been perfectly well adapted to
the delign propofed of attending minutely to the in-
tereft of the poor. Their little inclofures are of great
ufe in maintaining their cows on a pinch in winter,
on turnips or clover-hay ; and their tillage is executed
by their brood mares. And it is obfervable, that no
inftance has been known of any inhabitant of thefc
forty-one cottages ever being chargeable to the parifli.
The poor rates are from qd. to i s. in the pound ;
before the inclofure they were is. 6d. This fall has
been owing to the increafe of employment arifing
from the inclofure and its confequences ; and to the
poor having been fo much favoured in the act.

" At the fame time that fuch uncommon attention
has been given to the poor, it has not deftroyed,
through a falfe idea, the rife of the landlord's in-
come, generally expected on fuch occafions. The
rents of the parilh are in general rdifed a third by


S M I T H D O N. in

the inclofure : one farm belonging to the corporation
of Lynn is railed from i.6ol. to 360!. a year.

"While thefc general good effects have taken place,
an increafe of inhabitants has been fenfibly obferved
for the great increaie of employment, with the fu-
perior benefits attending a reiidence here to what arc
elfewhere found, has tempted various people to fettle
in the parifli. The number of fouls before the in-
clofure was 500 ; it is conjectured that they are now

" The comfbrt of living in this parifh induces
many to come and refide in it: if 20 new cottages
were built, they would be immediately filled: and
Mr. Stylcman is not clear, that was fuch an addition
made, whether the rents would rife.

" He farther informed me, that there is never any
want of hands in this country to execute any the
greatest works ; had he miles of banking to do, the
procuring hands for the execution would never be the
leafl difficult.

" There is a traft of country (it is fcarcely to be
called land) in this place belonging to Mr. Styleman,
which is not of any value at prefent, not producing
ad. an acre : it is the fliore from which the fca has
withdrawn, and conlifts of nothing but fhingle, that
is, Hones of various fizes, but none larger than a
man's lift, of a great depth, and with a linall mix-
ture of fand among therm Here and there it yields
a poor (tinted appearance of fomething like grafs
but bears a fprinkling of the eringo plant in tolerable
luxuriance: it would be impofTible regularly to cul-
tivate fuch a foil ; but I apprehend it would yield
fultenance fufficient for feveral trees of the pine fort
fuch as firs, 8cc. Sec. The experiment richly de-



ferves the trial ; for any plantation would turn out
wonderfully profitable on {uch an abfolute wafte as
this. Mr. Styleman has 1500 acres of it.

" On other foils this gentleman has formed large
plantations ; he has above 100 acres of thriving ones.
He finds from particular obfervation on their growth,
that Scotch firs planted at two years old are worth
is. 6d. on an average in 14 years.

Rent of an acre of land 14 years, at los. . 7 o o
Town charges, &c. i o o

Raifing, fencing, planting, 8cc, 3 o o

Expence per acre

" Suppofing the thinnings to pay the incidental
expences ; 5000 planted per acre at firfl, and thinned
to 2000.

2000 trees, at is. 6d. cut down at the

end of 14 years . 1^0 o o

Expences n o o

Clear profit - 139


Upon 10 acres, this is lc >9 o

Upon 50 ditto 6950 o o

Upon 100 ditto - 13900 o o

" What amafing profit is this to reap in 14 years !
I have fuppofed them all cut down at the end of the
14 years, to fhew the certain profit of a fpecies of
farming never yet thought of, which is that of hiring
land on a leafe of 14 years, under the covenant of
liberty not only to plant, but alfo to cut down again :
What hufbandry will equal this ? Suppofe the nurn^


S M I T H D O N. 113

ber of trees but a fourth of the above, ftill no com-
mon crops under great expences will equal this with
none at all*."

STANHOE, or the Stony Hill. This lordfhip
was likewife granted by William the Conqueror to
Ins half brother, Odo bifhop of Beyeux in Norman-
dy, and forfeited by his rebellion againft William
II. and granted by that monarch to William de A.I-
bini, the pincerna regis, or king's butler, and from
him it delcended to the earl of Arundel and SufTex.
At the grand furvev, 1083, Odo was lord.

Sir Robert Walpole prefented to this church in
1731, and had a confiderable eftate in this parifii.
There is no account given by Parkin of the proprie-
tors of this lonjftiip from the time of Henry VI. fill
the year 1681, at the latter end of Charles II. when
he fays, it feems to be held by one lord, John Bar-
nard, efq. of the Exchequer, who then prefented to
the church, and in 1700.

This is a hiatus, according to Dr. Bentley's ex-
preffion in his Criticifms, non valde deflendus : how-
ever thefe frequent paufes, if we may call them fo, in
the fucceffion of lords of manors makes it to be of
little confcquence or ufe now to recite what remains,
fince it evidently appears by them, that there is no
poffibility of tracing the poffeffion regularly from one
family to another, and therefore the recital is omitted
in this hiftory of Norfolk .in many places, as tirefomc
to the reader.

MARSHES, or the KING'S Manor. This manor

probably derived its name from Henry de Marifco,

P or

* Farmer's Tour through the Eaft of England, by Arthur Young, Efq.
published i n the year 1771.


or Marfli, who was lord by purcliafe of the crown in
the reign of Richard I.

This manor was held of the crown by grand fer-
jeantry, as it is called, and the lord was obliged to
find or keep a greyhound for the king's ufe (at this
time of day no great encumbrance) and fo it was
continued to the 34th of Henry III. and the poffef-
fion is fuppofed to be in the family of fir William
Marfhe and his heirs to the reign of Edward VI. from
which time it became uncertain.

John Wilfon, efq. now living at Lynn, formerly
a captain in the army, and who was high fherifF of
this county in 1732, and afterwards mayor of Lynn,
was lord of this manor in right of his lady, daughter

and heirefs of Archdale, efq. of this pariih.

His only fon, a young gentleman much efteemed,
was unfortunately loft in the year 1758, to the great
regret of all his friends, with many other gentlemen
paifengers to Italy, in the Prince George, a go gun
fhip, which took fire at fea, and on board of which
admiral Broderick had his flag flying, and who was
faved with great difficulty by throwing himfelf into
the ocean, and fwimming for his life. Mr. Wilibn
remained in the fliip, not being able to fwim, and
faced death with great refolution, whilft others loft
their fenfes in that dreadful fituation, and went in-
ftantaneoufly mad at the horror of their impending
momentary and inevitable fate. His eldeft fifter was
married to Dr. Jofeph Taylor, an eminent phyfician
at Lynn, who died in 1771, leaving one fon, called
after his grandfather Wilfon Taylor, and feveral
daughters. * Dr. Taylor was amongft the moft fkil-
ful of his profeffion, greatly efteemed by the faculty,
was afliduous in his attention to his patients, both to
the poor and rich, the former of whom loft a moft
valuable friend, for he had great benevolence of heart.


S M I T H D O N. 115

On the deceafe of the above Archclale Wilfon, efq.
the lordfhip was fettled by John Wilfon, efq. on Ed-
mund Allen, efq. of Lynn, who mairied his fecond
daughter. On his deceafe, who was alfo greatly la-
mented by all who knew him, being a man of the
moft amiable difpofition, it devolved to his Ion John
Allen, at prefent a minor.

CALTHORP'S Mnnor. This manor was in poflef-
fion of fir Philip Gal thorp in 15 50, afterwards came
to the Townfhend family, and is now in the minor
Mr. Allen before-mentioned.

In this parifli was a chapel frequented by pilgrims
in their way to Walfmgham, and dedicated to St.
Peter. The church is dedicated to All Saints.

Sir Robert Walpole in 1751 prefcntcd the Rev.

Mr. George Jacomb, brother to Jacomb, efq.

member for Thetford, to whom it is faid fir Robert
was indebted for the chief knowledge he had acqui-
red in the great art of financiering, which fince the
a?ra of the Revolution in 1688, and the eftablifh-
ment of the funds, has been efleemed one of the firft
qualifications in a prime minifler of thefe kingdoms.

In 1760, the Rev. Briggs Gary, fon of John Gary,
efq. alderman of Lynn, was collated to this reclory
by the archbifliop of Canterbury, at the recommen-
dation of the prefent carl of Orford, lord lieutenant
of the county, the patron, who had permitted it to
lapfe to his grace, the bifhop of Norwich taking no
advantage of the lapfe to him.

THORNHAM. This lordfhip at the furvey was
held of the bifhop in right of his fee, and is fome-
fiincs wrote Bifhop 1 s Thornham,



BISHOP'S Manor. On the exchange of lands be-
longing to the fee, by ad of parliament in the 35th
of Henry VIII. this lordfhip, coming to the crown,
was granted by that king the 3oth of March, an. 29,
to his phyfician, William Butts, M.D. and Margaret
his wife, for their lives, with meffuages, lands in
Ring/lead, Stanhoe, &c. without impeachment of
wafte ; remainder to Edmund Butts their fon, and
his heirs ; remainder to Thomas Butts their fon,
who was lord in the 34th of Elizabeth.

' Dr. Butts was highly eminent in his profedion,
one of the founders of the college of phyficians in
London, and knighted by King Henry VIII.

Soon after it reverted to the crown, and fir Ed-
ward Coke, the lord chief juftice, having purchafed
it of queen Elizabeth, fettled it in the i^th of James
I. on fir John Villiers, afterwards vifcount Purbeck,
on his marriage with Frances, a daughter of fir Ed~

After this Archdale, efq. was lord, and his

daughter and heir brought it to John Wilfon, efq.
by marriage.

Antiently we find it a cuftpm that if the tenants of
the manor found on the fhore any wreck, or royal
fifh, the lord was to have one moiety, and they the

NORWICH PRIORY Manor. On the diffolution of
the priory this was granted to the dean and chapter
of Norwich, and fo continues at this time.

Thomham church is a large regular pile, and has
a nave, north and fouth ifle, with a chancel covered


* Parkin.

S M I, T H D O N. 117

with lead, and at the weft end a large fquare tow^r,
but the upper part is fallen ,down, and now lies
open, in which there were four* bells.*

The church was formerly a rectory, and in the
patronage of the bifliop of Norwich : it is now an
impropriate reclory in the bifliop, and when Dr.
Reynolds filled the fee, in every new leafe of the
great tyihes of Thornham he referved an annual
rent of 20!. a year to be paid the vicar, faying, that
" though it be lawful to appropriate tythes, yet the
" vicar ought to have a liberal maintenance out of
" them/' Upon this principle the late fir Thomas
and fir Henry L'Eftrange, barts. paid to the vicar of
Heacham, the very learned and reverend Thomas
Weaiherhead, the prefent vicar, the annual fum of
30!. a year, out of the great tythes of that parifh,
of which they had the rectorial impropriation, and
it is prefumed, the fame is and will be continued by
the prefent impropriators, fir Edward Aflley, bait,
and Nicolas Stylfcman, efq. If all impropriators
would do the like, it would be much for the honor
of religion and of themfelves too ; and their fami-
lies would never thrive the worfe for it.

Walter Walterfon, merchant, died March 15,
1721, he bequeathed 100! to buy lauds, now pur-
chafed at Ringfl ead, and ordered the rents and iilucs
to be diftr-ibuted by the minifters and church-wardens
of Thornham and Titchwell, on the firft Sunday in
December yearly, ainongft fuch poor perfons of the
faid parifhes as do not receive collection, two thirds
to Thornham, and one third to Titchwell poor"'.

In the 25th of Henry III. a jury was fummoncd
to find whether 230 acres of land, half an acre of
meadow, and a meffuage in this town were parcel of




the poffeffions of the re&or of the church, or a lay
fee belonging to the prior of Norwich ; the prior fet
forth, that on the foundation of the prioiy bifhop
Herbert gave it to them, and that the bifhops Eve-
rard, William, John of Oxford, and John de Grey,
confirmed the grant ; that the prior granted the ad-
vowfon of the church to the bifhop who took away
the land from the prior; afterwards the fame bifhop
feparatcd the rent of the land from the rent of the
church, and granted it out to R. M. who gave it to
one Simon, who retained only 5!. thereof as parfon,
but Mr. John de Eye, pleaded that the faid land be-
longed to Thomham church before the foundation
of the priory, in the time of the Englifhmen, and
before the Conqueft. The prior produced the char-
ter of bifhop Herbert, viz.

" Herbert, bifhop to the monks of the Holy Tri-
" nity, whereas ye objeel: to me, that I bought
" Thorp (by Norwich) for you only : I bought it
" for myfelf, and you, giving you the greateft part ;
" I kept the leaft for myfelf, which divifion I al-
" ways' thought neceffary for the church, for if the
" bifhop fhould have no land at Norwich, his fre-
" quent coming thither would be very troublefome
" to you, and therefore I give you in exchange for
" that part of Thorp, which I keep in my own
" hands, my manor of Gnatington, with the fold-
" courfes, &c. and the church of Thomham, the
" land of Thurflan, the deacon, a carucate of land
" at Gaywood, which was Hugh Calves, which
" paid one mark farm to the bifhop, the land lying
" in Mintlyng."

The prior likewife produced the charter of bifhop
Eborard, teflifying that he furrcndered the tenement
aforefaid, the land of Thurflan, the deacon, and of
- Marefchall of Gnatyngdon.


S M I T H D O N. ug

The jury find that Thurflan, the deacon, parlon
of Thomham, held the church and land, and paid
the bifhop 2s. 6d. per ann. that the prior never had
the church, and that Thurftan had a fon, called El-
vcrick, parfon of Thornham, and his fon William
was parfon likewife, who all held the church and
land, but after that the prior and monks remained in
poffeffion of the church and lands.*

The Rev. Edward Caftleton is the prefent vicar.
He was prefented in i 743 by the bifhop of Norwich.

TIT CH WELL, with the Manor. This lordfhip
was granted with Southmcre, in the reign of Hen. I.
to William Lovell ; afterwards, in the reign of Henry
VI. it came to John, lord Lovell. In the iSth of
Edward IV. it was conveyed by William Wainfleet,
bifhop of Winchefler, &c. to Magdalen college,' Ox-
ford, having licenfe of mortmaiii for fo doing, in
which college it ftill continues.

EAST-HALL is a fmall manor, or tenure, in this
parifli. .

The church of Titchwell, or Tychwell, is dedi-
cated to St. Mary, and is a rectory. The patronage
is in Eton college, who prefented the Rev. Michael
Bridges in 1766. The Rev. Mr. Thomas Pulton,
one of the Conducts of Eton chapel, is the prefent
rector, and was prefented by the Provoft and Fellows
in 1775. He is alfo the prefent rector of Southmere,
or Summerfield, on the fame prefcntation.

Nicolas Styleman, efq. of Snettifham, is lord pa-
ramount of this manor, and has wreck at fea, with
Other rights and privileges. His humanity to fui-


* Parkin.


ferers on the Britifh ocean, has diftinguifhed him
equally widi his noble anceftor, firHamonL'Eftrange,
and other illuitrioiis branches of his family. His life
is therefore, on this account and innumerable others,
confidered as a bleffing to all around him ; and that
he may long furvive is the daily wifli and prayer of
the inhabitants of every town in his neighbour-






Stephen is faid to have granted
this hundred to William de Cheney, in
exchange for Moleham. What Mole-

^ am l ^' S V>as> ' S n0t mcn ^ one< ^ 5 but it
is certain it returned to die crown. Sir

William de St. Omer farmed it. with the hundreds
of Walfham and Bioficld, of Henry III. in his ^ad
year, and of Edward I. in the 3d year of his reign.
\Viicn they were in the king's hand they were worth
gl. per ann. but fir William let them at 24!. per
aim. Nicholas de Caflello farmed them of Edw. I.
in his i ith year, at ill. per ann.

A In


In the gth of Edward II. John de C layering iarrn-
cd this hundred of the crown.

James I. in his 2sd year, granted it to fir Charles
Cornwallis, during the lives of Charles, eldeft fon
of fir William Cornwallis, and of Thomas Corn-
wallis, fecond fon of fir Charles, with all its rights,
courts, Icets, felons goods, paying 23!. os. lod. per

Before this, in the 36th of Elizabeth, Buffingb.
Gawdy, efq. of Claxton, high fheriff, accounted for
it to the crown; and in 1689, the earl of Yarmouth
held it.

The court for the hundred was kept at Fretten-
ham Hill.

The hundred gave name to a deanry, which was
taxed at 6s. 8d. and the dean of it paid yearly to
the archdeacon of Norwich, for fynodals at Eafter,
sos. and the fame at Michaelmas, Peter-pence aos.
The fynodals due from every church at each time
being 6d. anciently, and the deanry was in the bi-
fhop's gift.

This hundred is in length, viz. from Attlebridge
weft, to Salhoufe eaft, about thirteen miles ; and
from the bounds of the city and county of Norwich
fouih, to Hainford north, about feven miles in width.
It contains the following towns, to which we add the
number of votes polled at the general eleclion in
j;68, by freeholders in each.


T A V E R H A M.
























Dray ton



























Horfham St. Faith









Newton St. Faith

































This hundred is bounded on the north by the
hundred of South Erpingham, by Ringflead on th^e
north-eaft, on the fouth-eaft by that of Blofield, on
the fouth by the city and county of Norwich, on
the fouth-weft by the hundred of Forehoe, and on
the north-weft by Eynsford, and lies in the form of
a fan. It confids of a great deal of heath land,
but in forne parts the foil is rich and good, and is
ornamented with many beautiful plantations.

It is bounded by the river Wenfum from Attle-
bridge to Hellefdon mill, and pays to the general
cpunty rate 12!. 35. to a fix-hundred pound levy.



Seats and principal Houjcs in the hundred of Tcivtrham.

Bcejlon, John Micklethwait, cfq.

Cation, Thomas Rogers, efq.

Ditto, Jeremiah Ives Harvey, efq.

Ditto, Robert Harvey, efq/

Ditto, Charles Buckle, efq.

Drayton, Lace Admiral Layton.

Ditto, Charles Wefton, ' efq.

Horjlead, Thomas John Batchelor, efq.

Ditto, Henry Palmer Watts, efq.

Rackheath, Edward Stracey, efq.

Salhouje, Richard Ward, efq.

Spixworth, Francis Longe, efq.

Sprowfion, Sir Lambert Blackwell, bart.

7 aver ham, Miles Branthwayte, jun. cfq.

Wroxham, Rev. Daniel Collyer.

Ditto, John Wace, efq.

ATTLEBRIDGE, wrote in Doomfday'Atebruge,
fo called from its fcite near the bridge over the ri-
ver, a bridge being there, as appears in Edward the
Confeffbr's time. Several perfons had an intereft
then in this village. Alan, the great earl of Rich-
mond, had land, cc. of which three free-men were
deprived, who held it in king Edward's reign under
Guerd, or Guert, brother to king Harold, and one
of earl Godwin s fons, valued at 45.

The family of de Furneaux were anciently lords
of this under the earls of Richmond.

William de Lions, and his tenants, held here and
in, Swannington half a. fee of the honour of Rich-
mond, in the reign of Henry III. under Robert de


T A V E R II A M. 5

tn die 20ih of Edward III. Nicholas Malovfcl
it ; and Thomas Gyney in the gd of Hen. IV.
Thomas, lord Scales, died fcifed of it in the 3 r )th
of Henry VI. John de Mehun, of Swannington,
iclcafcd to John de Brifingham their right in the
lands, &;c. which they bought of Robert MaloyfcL
in this town and Taverharn, in the i -}th of Rich. If.
Witneffes, Robert de Berney, John White, Thomas
Gyney, knights, &c.

William, bifhop of Thetford, held at the furvcv,
in his own right, as a lay-fee, lands, Sec. valued at^
Cs. 8d. and a church, with 60 acres, valued at "6d.
This went along with his manor of Taverham.

William de Scohies had land, Sec. here, valued
\vith Scohies lordfliip in Witchiagham.

Walter Giffard had alfo at the furvey, land valued
at IDS.

WiJliarfl de Scohies was a Norman chief, and fold
all hi.s lordfhips in England to Walter Girtard, earl
of Bucks, in the reign of Henry I. and they came
foon after, by the marriage of an heirefs of the carl

of Bucks, into the family of the earls of Clare.

In the reign of Henry III. William de Lions, and
Peter de Maloyfel, held lands here, in Wefton and
\Vitchingham, <5f the earl of Clare, arid Nicholas
Maloyfel and Adam de Lions in the aoth of Edwai4
the 3 d.

BROCFCDISH HALL. Walter GifTard's manor of

Taverham extended into this town, 'and was held by

fir John de Efton, or Hefton. It afterwards came

by Elizabeth, daughter and heir of John de Efton,

B jo

6 H U N D R E D O fr

to Thomas de Brockdifh; and by Joan, daughter
and heir of William de Brockdifli, to John Spring-

In the 1 6th of Edward IV. they conveyed it, by
fine, to Hugh Denne and Henry Heydon. Denne
and Heydon fold it to Mr. Curtis, and he to Willi-
am Elleys, efq. one of the barons of the Exchequer,
who is (aid to have enjoyed all the eilates in this

Francis Bacon, one of the judges of the King's
Bench, is faid to have purchafed the demeans of this
manor of the crown ; (in whom the manor flill con-
tinues) he married Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Wil-
liam Robinfon, of Norwich, and was father of Fran-
cis Bacon, recorder of Norwich, whofe daughter and
fole .heir, Ann, brought it by marriage to Robert
Davy, recorder of Norwich in 1701, and burgefs in
parliament for that city, who died without ilfue.

The fcite of this lordfhip of Brockdifh, and Digh-
ton's, fo called from an ancient family, (of which w : as
William Dighton, living in the 6th of Edward the
ad. and Walter Dighton, in the 4ad of Edward the
gd. and had confiderable poffcffions here) was com-
' patted about with a moat.

In the 1 4th of Charles I. Dighton hills in At-
tlebridge, and the heath, were conveyed (containing
300 acres of land) to Henry, lord Maltravers, being
granted to Francis Braddock and Chriftopher Kingf-

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