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desirable to have some fixed method of determining or regulating the
administration of doses of medicine. Now let it be supposed that the
dose for a full-grown person is one drachm, then the following
proportions will be suitable for the various ages given; keeping in
view other circumstances, such as sex, temperament, habits, climate,
state of _general health_, and idiosyncrasy.

Age. Proportion. Proportionate Dose.

7 weeks one-fifteenth or grains 4
7 months one-twelfth or grains 5
Under 2 years one-eighth or grains 7-1/2
" 3 " one-sixth or grains 10
" 4 " one-fourth or grains 15
" 7 " one-third or scruple 1
" 14 " one-half or drachm 1/2
" 20 " two-fifths or scruples 2
Above21 " the full dose or drachm 1
" 65 " The inverse gradation

689. Drugs, with their Properties and Doses.

The various drugs have been arranged according to their properties,
and the doses of each have been given. Many, however, have been
necessarily omitted from each class, because they cannot be employed
except by a medical man. The _doses_ are meant for adults.

690. Classes of Drugs.

Medicines have been divided into four grand classes

1. General stimulants;
2. Local stimulants;
3. Chemical remedies;
4. Mechanical remedies.

691. General Stimulants.

General stimulants are subdivided into two classes, diffusible and
permanent stimulants: the first comprising narcotics and
antispasmodics, and the second tonics and astringents.

692. Narcotics.

Narcotics are medicines which stupefy and diminish the activity of the
nervous system. Given in small doses, they generally act as
stimulants, but an increased dose produces a sedative effect. Under
this head are included alcohol, camphor, ether, the hop, and opium.

693. Alcohol.

Alcohol, or rectified spirit, is a very powerful stimulant, and is
never used as a remedy without being diluted to the degree called
proof spirit; and even then it is seldom used internally. It is _used
externally_ in restraining bleeding, when there is not any vessel of
importance wounded. It is also used as a lotion to burns, and is
applied by dipping a piece of lint into the spirit, and laying it over
the part. Freely diluted (one part to eighteen) with water, it forms a
useful eye-wash in the last stage of ophthalmia.

_Used internally_, it acts as a very useful stimulant when diluted and
taken moderately, increasing the general excitement, and giving energy
to the muscular fibres; hence it becomes very useful in certain cases
of debility, especially in habits disposed to create acidity; and in
the low stage of typhus fevers.

_Dose_. - It is impossible to fix anything like a dose for this remedy,
as much will depend upon the individual; but diluted with water and
sweetened with sugar, from half an ounce to two ounces may be given
three or four times a day. In cases of extreme debility, however, much
will depend upon the disease.

_Caution_. - Remember that alcohol is an irritant _poison_, and that
daily indulgence in its use originates dyspepsia, or indigestion, and
many other serious complaints. Of all kinds of spirits the best as a
tonic and stomachic is _brandy_.


694. Camphor.

Camphor is not a very steady stimulant, as its effect is transitory;
but in large doses it acts as a narcotic, abating pain and inducing
sleep. In moderate doses it operates as a diaphoretic, diuretic,
antispasmodic, increasing the heat of the body, allaying irritation
and spasm.

It is _used externally_ as a liniment when dissolved in oil, alcohol,
or acetic acid, being employed to allay rheumatic pains; and it is
also useful as an embrocation in sprains, bruises, chilblains, and,
when combined with opium, it has been advantageously employed in
flatulent colic, and severe diarrhoea, being rubbed over the bowels.

_When reduced to a fine powder_, by the addition of a little spirit of
wine and friction, it is very useful as a local stimulant to indolent
ulcers, especially when they discharge a foul kind of matter; a pinch
is taken between the finger and thumb, and sprinkled into the ulcer,
which is then dressed as usual.

_When dissolved in oil of turpentine_, a few drops placed in a hollow
tooth and covered with jeweller's wool, or scraped lint, give almost
instant relief to toothache. _Used internally_, it is apt to excite
nausea, and even vomiting, especially when given in the solid form.

_As a stimulant_ it is of great service in all low fevers, malignant
measles, malignant sore throat, and confluent small-pox; and when
combined with opium and bark, it is extremely useful in checking the
progress of malignant ulcers, and gangrene.

_As a narcotic_ it is very useful, because it allays pain and
irritation, without increasing the pulse very much.

_When powdered and sprinkled_ upon the surface of a blister, it
prevents the cantharides acting in a peculiar and painful manner upon
the bladder.

_Combined with senna_, it increases its purgative properties; and it
is also used to correct the nausea produced by squills, and the
irritating effects of drastic purgatives and mezereon.

_Dose_, from four grains to half a scruple, repeated at short
intervals when used in small doses, and long intervals when employed
in large doses.

_Doses of the various preparations_. - Camphor mixture, from half an
ounce to three ounces; compound tincture of camphor (_paregoric
elixir_), from fifteen minims to two drachms.

_Caution_. - When given in an overdose it acts as a poison, producing
vomiting, giddiness, delirium, convulsions, and sometimes death. Opium
is the best antidote for camphor, whether in excess or taken as a
poison. _Mode of exhibition_. - It may be rubbed up with almond
emulsion, or mucilage, or the yolk of eggs, and by this means
suspended in water, or combined with chloroform as a mixture, in which
form it is a valuable stimulant in cholera and other diseases. (_See_
Mixtures, 556-564).

695. Ether.

Ether is a diffusible stimulant, narcotic and antispasmodic.

696. Sulphuric Ether

Sulphuric Ether is used _externally_ both as a stimulant and a
refrigerant. In the former case its evaporation is prevented by
covering a rag moistened with it with oiled silk, in order to relieve
headache; and in the latter case it is allowed to evaporate, and thus
produce coldness: hence it is applied over scalded surfaces by means
of rags dipped in it.

_As a local application_, it has been found to afford almost instant
relief in earache, when combined with almond oil, and dropped into the

It is used _internally_ as a stimulant and narcotic in low fevers and
cases of great exhaustion.

_Dose_, from fifteen minims to half a drachm, repeated at short
intervals, as its effects soon pass off. Give in a little camphor
julep, or water.

697. Nitric Ether

Nitric Ether is a refrigerant, diuretic, and antispasmodic, well known
as "_sweet spirit of nitre_."

_Used externally_, its evaporation relieves headache, and it is
sometimes applied to burns. It is used _internally_ to relieve nausea,
flatulence, and thirst in fevers; also as a diuretic.

_Dose_, from ten minims to one drachm. The smaller dose taken in a
little warm water or gruel is useful as a sudorific in cases of cold
and chill, to induce and promote the proper action of the skin which
has been checked. If a larger dose be taken, it acts as a diuretic and
not as a sudorific, and so fails to produce the desired effect.


698. Compound Spirit of Sulphuric

Compound Spirit of Sulphuric Ether is a very useful stimulant,
narcotic, and antispasmodic.

_Used internally_ in cases of great exhaustion, attended with

_Dose_, from half a drachm to two drachms, in camphor julep. When
combined with laudanum, it prevents the nauseating effects of the
opium, and acts more beneficially as a narcotic.

699. The Hop

The Hop is a narcotic, tonic, and diuretic; it reduces the frequency
of the pulse, and does not affect the head, like most anodynes.

_Used externally_, it acts as an anodyne and discutient, and is useful
as a fomentation for painful tumours, rheumatic pains in the joints,
and severe contusions. A pillow stuffed with hops acts as a narcotic.
When the powder is mixed with lard, it acts as an anodyne dressing in
painful ulcers.

_Dose_, of the _extract_, from five grains to one scruple; of the
_tincture_, from half a drachm to two drachms; of the _powder_, from
three! grains to one scruple; of the _infusion_, half an ounce to one
and a half ounce.

700. Opium

Opium is a stimulant, narcotic, and anodyne.

_Used externally_ it acts almost as well as when taken into the
stomach, and without affecting the head or causing nausea. Applied to
irritable ulcers in the form of tincture, it promotes their cure, and
allays pain. Cloths dipped in a strong solution, and applied over
painful bruises, tumours, or inflamed joints, allay pain. A small
piece of solid opium stuffed into a hollow tooth relieves toothache. A
weak solution of opium forms a valuable collyrium in ophthalmia. Two
drops of the wine of opium dropped into the eye acts as an excellent
stimulant in bloodshot eye; or after long-continued inflammation, it
is useful in strengthening the eye. Applied as a liniment, in
combination with ammonia and oil, or with camphorated spirit, it
relieves muscular pain. When combined with oil of turpentine, it is
useful as a liniment in spasmodic colic.

_Used internally_, it acts as a very powerful stimulant: then as a
sedative, and finally as an anodyne and narcotic, allaying pain in the
most extraordinary manner, by acting directly upon the nervous system.
In acute rheumatism it is a most excellent medicine when combined with
calomel and tartrate of antimony; but its exhibition requires the
judicious care of a medical man.

_Doses of the various preparations._ - . _Confection of opium_, from
five grains to half a drachm; _extract of opium_, from one to five
grains (this is a valuable form, as it does not produce so much after
derangement of the nervous system as solid opium); _pills of soap and
opium_, from five to ten grains; _compound ipecacuanha powder_
("Dover's Powder"), from ten to fifteen grains; _compound kino
powder_, from five to fifteen grains; _wine of opium_, from ten minims
to one drachm. _Caution._ - Opium is a powerful _poison_ when taken in
too large a quantity (_See_ POISONS, _pars._ 1340-1367), and thus
should be used with extreme caution. It is on this account that we
have omitted some of its preparations. The best antidote for opium is

701. Antispasmodics.

Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming the
spasms of the muscles, or allaying any severe pain which is not
attended by inflammation. The class includes a great many, but the
most safe and serviceable are ammonia, assafoetida, galbanum,
valerian, bark, ether, camphor, opium, and chloroform; with the
minerals, oxide of zinc and calomel.

702. Ammonia.

Ammonia, or Sal Volatile, is an antispasmodic antacid, stimulant and

_Used externally_, combined with oil, it forms a cheap and useful
liniment, but it should be dissolved in _proof_ spirit before the oil
is added. One part of this salt, and three parts of extract of
belladonna, mixed and spread upon leather, makes an excellent plaster
for relieving rheumatic pains. As a local stimulant it is well known,
as regards its effects in hysterics, faintness, and lassitude, when
applied to the nose, as common smelling salts.

It is used _internally_ as an adjunct to infusion of gentian in
dyspepsia or indigestion, and in moderate doses in gout.

_Dose_, from five to fifteen grains. _Caution_. - Overdoses act as a
narcotic and irritant poison.


703. Bicarbonate of Ammonia

Bicarbonate of Ammonia is used internally the same as _sal volatile_.

_Dose_, from six to twelve grains. It is frequently combined with
Epsom salts.

704. Solution of Sesoquicarbonate of Ammonia,

Solution of Sesoquicarbonate of Ammonia, used the same as _sal

_Dose_, from half a drachm to one drachm, combined with some milky
fluid, like almond emulsion.

705. Asafoetida

Asafoetida is an antispasmodic, expectorant, excitant, and

_Used internally_, it is extremely useful in dyspepsia, flatulent
colic, hysteria, and nervous diseases; and where there are no
inflammatory symptoms, it is an excellent remedy in hooping cough and

_Used locally_ as an enema, it is useful in flatulent colic, and
convulsions that come on through teething.

_Doses of various preparations_. - _Solid gum_, from five to ten grains
as pills; _mixture_, from half an ounce to one ounce; _tincture_, from
fifteen minims to one drachm; _ammoniated tincture_, from twenty
minims to one drachm.

_Caution_. - Never give this drug when inflammation exists.

706. Galbanum

Galbanum is stimulant, antispasmodic, expectorant, and deobstruent.

_Used externally_, it assists in dispelling tumours when spread upon
indolent leather as a plaster, and is useful in weakness of the legs
from rickets, being applied as a plaster to the loins.

_Employed internally_, it is useful in chronic or old-standing
rheumatism and hysteria.

_Doses of preparations_. - Of the _gum_, from ten to fifteen grains as
pills; _tincture_, from fifteen minims to one drachm. It may be made
into an emulsion with mucilage and water.

707. Valerian

Valerian is a powerful antispasmodic, tonic, and excitant, acting
chiefly on the nervous centres.

_Used internally_, it is employed in hysteria, nervous languors, and
spasmodic complaints generally. It is useful in low fevers.

_Doses of various preparations_. - _Powder_, from ten grains to half a
drachm, three or four times a day; _tincture_, from two to four
drachms; _ammoniated tincture_, from one to two drachms; _infusion_,
from two to three ounces, or more.

708. Peruvian Bark

Bark, or, as it is commonly called, Peruvian bark, is an
antispasmodic, tonic, astringent, and stomachic.

_Used externally_, it is an excellent detergent for foul ulcers, and
those that heal slowly.

_Used internally_, it is particularly valuable in intermittent fever
or ague, malignant measles, dysentery, diarrhoea, intermittent
rheumatism, St. Vitus's dance, indigestion, nervous affections,
malignant sore throat, and erysipelas; its use being indicated in all
cases of debility.

_Doses of its preparations_. - _Powder_, from five grains to two
drachms, mixed in wine, water, milk, syrup, or solution of liquorice;
_infusion_, from one to three ounces; _decoction_, from one to three
ounces; _tincture_ and _compound tincture_, each from one to three

_Caution_. - If it causes oppression at the stomach, combine it with an
aromatic; if it causes vomiting, give it in wine or soda water; if it
purges, give opium; and if it constipates give rhubarb.

709. Sulphuric Ether

Sulphuric Ether is given internally as an antispasmodic in difficult
breathing and spasmodic asthma; also in hysteria, cramp of the
stomach, hiccough, locked jaw, and cholera. It is useful in checking

_Dose_, from twenty minims to one drachm.

_Caution_. - An overdose produces apoplectic symptoms.


710. Camphor (2)

Camphor is given internally as an antispasmodic in hysteria, cramp in
the stomach, flatulent colic, and St. Vitus's dance.

_Dose_, from two to twenty grains.

711. Opium (2)

Opium is employed internally in spasmodic affections, such as cholera,
spasmodic asthma, hooping cough, flatulent colic, and St. Vitus's

_Dose_, from one-sixth of a grain to two grains of the solid opium,
according to the disease.

712. Oxide of Zinc

Oxide of Zinc is an antispasmodic, astringent, and tonic.

_Used externally_, as an ointment, it forms an excellent astringent in
affections of the eyelids, arising from relaxation; or as a powder, it
is an excellent detergent for unhealthy ulcers.

_Used internally_, it has proved efficacious in St. Vitus's dance, and
some other spasmodic affections.

_Dose_, from one to six grains twice a day.

713. Calomel

Calomel is an antispasmodic, alterative deobstruent, purgative, and

_Used internally_, combined with opium, it acts as an antispasmodic in
locked jaw, cholera, and many other spasmodic affections. As an
alterative and deobstruent, it has been found useful in leprosy and
itch, when combined with antimonials and guaiacum, and in enlargement
of the liver and glandular affections. It acts beneficially in
dropsies, by producing watery motions. In typhus it is of great
benefit when combined with antimonials; and it may be given as a
purgative in almost any disease, provided there is not any
inflammation of the bowels, irritability of the system, or great

_Dose_, as a deobstruent and alterative, from one to five grains,
daily; as a cathartic, from five to fifteen grains; to produce
ptyalism, or salivation, from one to two grains, in a pill, with a
quarter of a grain of opium, night and morning.

_Caution_. - When taking calomel, exposure to cold or dampness should
be guarded against, as such an imprudence would bring out an eruption
of the skin, attended with fever. When this does occur, leave off the
calomel, and give bark, wine, and purgatives; take a warm bath twice a
day, and powder the surface of the body with powdered starch.

714. Tonics.

Tonics are given to improve the tone of the system, and restore the
natural energies and general strength of the body. They consist of
bark, quassia, gentian, camomile, wormwood, and angostura bark.

715. Quassia

Quassia is a simple tonic, and can be used with safety by any one, as
it does not increase the animal heat, or quicken the circulation.

_Used internally_, in the form of infusion, it has been found of great
benefit in indigestion and nervous irritability, and is useful after
bilious fevers and diarrhoea.

_Dose_, of the _infusion_, from one and a half to two ounces, three
times a day.

716. Gentian

Gentian is an excellent tonic and stomachic; but when given in large
doses, it acts as an aperient.

It is _used internally_ in all cases of general debility, and when
combined with bark is used in intermittent fevers. It has also been
employed in indigestion, and it is sometimes used, combined with sal
volatile, in that disease; but, at other times alone, in the form of
infusion. After diarrhoea, it proves a useful tonic. Its infusion is
sometimes applied _externally_ to foul ulcers.

_Dose_, of the _infusion_, one and a half to two ounces; of the
_tincture_, one to four drachms; of the _extract_, from ten to thirty

717. Camomile.

The flowers of the camomile are tonic, slightly anodyne,
antispasmodic, and emetic.

They are _used externally_ as fomentations, in colic, faceache, and
tumours, and to unhealthy ulcers.

They are _used internally_ in the form of infusion, with carbonate of
soda, ginger, and other stomachic remedies, in dyspepsia, flatulent
colic, debility following dysentery and gout. Warm infusion of the
flowers acts as an emetic; and the powdered flowers are sometimes
combined with opium or kino, and given in intermittent fevers.

_Dose_, of the _powdered_ flowers, from ten grains to one drachm,
twice or thrice a day; of the _infusion_, from one to two ounces, as a
tonic, three times a day: and from six ounces to one pint as an
emetic; of the _extract_, from five to twenty grains.


718. Wormwood

Wormwood is a tonic and anthelmintic.

It is _used externally_ as a discutient and antiseptic.

It is used _internally_ in long-standing cases of dyspepsia, in the
form of infusion, with or without aromatics. It has also been used in

_Dose_, of the _infusion_, from one to two ounces, three times a day;
of the _powder_, from one to two scruples.

719. Angostura Bark

Angostura Bark, or Cusparia, is a tonic and stimulant. It expels
flatulence, increases the appetite, and produces a grateful warmth in
the stomach.

It is _used internally_ in intermittent fevers, dyspepsia, hysteria,
and all cases of debility, where a stimulating tonic is desirable,
particularly after bilious diarrhoea.

_Dose_, of the _powder_, from ten to fifteen grains, combined with
cinnamon powder, magnesia, or rhubarb; of the _extract_, from three to
ten grains; of the _infusion_, from one to two ounces.

_Caution_. - This drug should never be given in inflammatory diseases
or hectic fever.

720. Astringents.

Astringents are medicines given for the purpose of diminishing
excessive discharges, and to act indirectly as tonics. This class
includes catechu, kino, oak bark, log wood, rose leaves, chalk, and
white vitriol.

721. Catechu

Catechu is a most valuable astringent.

It is _used externally_, when powdered, to promote the contraction of
flabby ulcers. As a local astringent it is useful in relaxed uvula, a
small piece being dissolved in the mouth; small, spotty ulcerations of
the mouth and throat, and bleeding gums, and for these two affections
it is used in the form of infusion to wash the parts.

It is _given internally_ in diarrhoea, dysentery, and hemorrhage from
the bowels.

_Dose_, of the _infusion_, from one to three ounces; of the
_tincture_, from one to four drachms; of the _powder_, from ten to
thirty grains.

_Caution_. - It must not be given with soda or any alkali; nor metallic
salts, albumen, or gelatine, as its property is destroyed by this

722. Kino

Kino is a powerful astringent.

It is _used externally_ to ulcers, to give tone to them when flabby,
and discharging foul and thin matter.

It is _used internally_ in the same diseases as catechu.

_Dose_, of the powder, from ten to fifteen grains; of the _tincture_,
from one to two drachms; of the _compound powder_, from ten to twenty
grains; of the _infusion_, from a half to one and a half ounce.

_Caution_. - Kino is used in combination with calomel, when salivation
is intended, to prevent, by its astringency, the action of the calomel
on the bowels, and thereby insure its affecting the constitution. -
(See CATECHU [para. 721]).

723. Oak Bark

Oak Bark is an astringent and tonic.

It is _used externally_ in the form of decoction, to restrain bleeding
from lacerated surfaces. As a local astringent, it is used in the
form of decoction, as a gargle in sore throat and relaxed uvula.

It is _used internally_ in the same diseases as catechu, and when
combined with aromatics and bitters, in intermittent fevers.

_Dose_ of the _powder_, from fifteen to thirty grains; of the
_decoction_, from two to eight drachms.

724. Logwood

Logwood is not a very satisfactory astringent.

It is _used internally_ in diarrhoea, the last stage of dysentery, and
a lax state of the intestines.

_Dose_, of the _extract_, from ten grains to one drachm; of the
_decoction_ from one to three ounces, three or four times a day.

725. Rose Leaves

Rose Leaves are stringent and tonic.

They are _used internally_ in spitting of blood, hemorrhage from the
stomach, intestines, &c., as a gargle for sore throat, and for the
night sweats of consumption. The infusion is frequently used as a
tonic with diluted sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), after low fevers,

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